A raffle is a gambling competition in which people obtain numbered tickets, each ticket having the chance of winning a prize. At a set time, the winners are drawn at random from a container holding a copy of every number; the drawn tickets are checked against a collection of prizes with numbers attached to them, the holder of the ticket wins the prize. The raffle is a popular game in many countries, is held to raise funds for a specific charity or event. A raffle may involve several separate prizes donated, with a different ticket drawn for each prize, so a purchaser of a ticket may not be attracted to a specific prize, but for the possibility of winning any of those offered; the draw for prizes may be held at a special event, with many onlookers and overseen by a club official or well-known person. In the prize draw, one ticket is drawn for the initial prize. A second ticket is drawn for the next prize, that ticket is discarded, so on; this continues. A common practice for increasing revenue from ticket sales is to offer bulk sales of tickets, e.g. $10 per single ticket or $25 for three tickets, although this practice is illegal in some countries.
In many places raffles are only legal for registered nonprofits. Players tend to spend more money on bulk tickets believing they have a much better chance of winning. Since the tickets cost little to produce, the prize expense has been set, the number of tickets sold creates little or no additional cost for the raffle holders. Nonprofits who run raffles raise more money than more traditional ways of raising money because people are more willing to donate to an organization when they have a chance to win a prize. Tombola is a raffle which originates in Southern Italy and, played at Christmas time. Prizes are only of symbolic value. With the Italian massive emigration of the 19th and 20th centuries, the game was exported abroad and it took different forms and names such as Bingo; the process may be employed, where legal, to dispose of a high-value item such as a horse, car or real estate. One example was American-Australian photographer Townsend Duryea's raffling off his yacht "Coquette" in 1858.
Where the prize is a valuable work of art, the process may be termed an art union where the beneficiary is the originating artist. Australian artists who have disposed of their works in this way include Alfred Felton and James Ashton. In the United Kingdom, raffles are held to circumvent licensing laws. While only licensed premises are permitted to sell alcoholic beverages, there is no restriction on the offering of alcoholic beverages as prizes in raffles. At some events, attendees can enter a raffle. In the UK the term "tombola" is used when the raffle tickets are placed in a barrel and tumbled before the winning tickets are drawn from the barrel; the tombola booth is used as a fund raising event for local fetes. In New Zealand and Australia, meat raffles are commonplace in registered clubs. Trays of meat or seafood are raffled to raise money for a cause a local sporting club. Similar raffles are held in Rhode Island. A cash raffle is, they are sometimes referred to as "50/50" draws, although the prize may not be equal to 50 percent of the earnings.
It is illegal in some places. Bingo Chinese auction Fundraising Lottery Sweepstakes Lucky dip
The Women's Institute, a community-based organisation for women, was founded in Stoney Creek, Canada, by Adelaide Hoodless in 1897. It was based on the British concept of Women's Guilds, created by Rev Archibald Charteris in 1887 and confined to the Church of Scotland. From Canada the organisation spread back to the motherland, throughout the British Empire and Commonwealth, thence to other countries. Many WIs belong to the Associated Country Women of the World organization; the WI movement began at Stoney Creek, Ontario in Canada in 1897 when Adelaide Hoodless addressed a meeting for the wives of members of the Farmers' Institute. WIs spread throughout Ontario and Canada, with 130 branches launched by 1905 in Ontario alone, the groups flourish in their home province today; as of 2013, the Federated Women's Institutes of Ontario had more than 300 branches with more than 4,500 members. Madge Watt, a founder member of the first WI in British Columbia, organised the first WI meeting in Great Britain, which took place on 16 September 1915 at Llanfairpwll on Anglesey, Wales.
The organisation had two aims: to revitalise rural communities and to encourage women to become more involved in producing food during the First World War. Since the organisation's aims have broadened and it is now the largest women's voluntary organisation in the UK; the organisation celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2015 and as of 2017 had 220,000 members in 6,300 WIs. Today it plays a unique role in enabling women to gain new skills, take part in wide-ranging activities, campaign on issues that matter to them and their communities; the WI is a diverse organisation open to all women, there are now WIs in towns and cities as well as villages. Women's Institutes were formed in Scotland and Northern Ireland independently of those in England and Wales; the first Women's Rural Institute started in Scotland on 26 June 1917, Madge Watt travelled up from London to speak to a meeting at Longniddry. After the end of the Great War, Watt returned to Canada where she continued as an activist for the interests of rural women.
In 1930 she founded the Associated Country Women of the World. After the end of the First World War, the Board of Agriculture withdrew its sponsorship, although the Development Commission financially supported the work of the forming of new WIs and gave core funding to the National Federation until it could become financially independent. By 1926 the Women's Institutes were independent and became an essential part of rural life. One of their features was an independence from political parties or institutions, or church or chapel, which encouraged activism by non-establishment women, which helps to explain why the WI has been reluctant to support anything that can be construed as war work, despite their wartime formation. During the Second World War, they limited their contribution to such activities as looking after evacuees, running the Government-sponsored Preservation Centres where volunteers canned or made jam of excess produce. Women's Institutes in England, Jersey and the Isle of Man are affiliated with the National Federation of Women's Institutes.
In Scotland and Northern Ireland there are similar organisations tied to the WI through the Associated Country Women of the World: the Scottish Women's Rural Institutes and the Women's Institutes of Northern Ireland. Each individual WI is a separate charitable organisation, run by and for its own members with a constitution agreed at national level but the possibility of local bye-laws. WIs are grouped into Federations corresponding to counties, which each have a local office and one or more paid staff; the National Federation of Women's Institutes is the overall body of the WI in England, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man, with headquarters in London. There is an office in Cardiff, NFWI-Wales, a residential college in Oxfordshire, Denman College. WI Enterprises is the trading arm of the organisation and exists to raise funds and provide benefits for members; as of January 2019 there were 220,000 members of 6,300 Women's Institutes in England and the islands, linked through the Associated Country Women of the World to other WIs worldwide.
The WI is a women-only organisation, has clarified in a 2017 statement Transgender WI membership that "Anyone, living as a woman is welcome to join the WI and to participate in any WI activities in the same way as any other woman". Colonel Richard Stapleton-Cotton and his dog Tinker are the only two males to be accepted as paid-up WI members: the Colonel, a "highly influential man locally", played a major part in setting up the first WI meeting in Anglesey in 1915; the WI campaigns on a wide range of issues affecting women, based on resolutions agreed at each year's national Annual Meeting. Its first resolution, passed in 1918, called for "sufficient supply of convenient and sanitary houses, being of vital importance to women in the country". In 1943 they called for "Equal Pay for Equal Work" and continued to argue for this until the Equal Pay Act 1970 was passed. 1954's resolution to "‘preserve the countryside against desecration by litter" lead to the formation of the Keep Britain Tidy group, which became a registered charity in 1960.
The WI discussed HIV/AIDS in 1986, agreeing to "to inform the general public of the true facts concerning the disease AIDS" and subsequently working with the Terence Higgins Trust to produce a leaflet on "Women and AIDS". The 2017 meeting passed a motion on microplastics pollution or "Plastic soup", in 2018 the WI agreed to "Make Time for Mental Health", "calling on members to take action to make it as acceptable to t
Popular music is music with wide appeal, distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and styles can be performed by people with little or no musical training, it stands in traditional or "folk" music. Art music was disseminated through the performances of written music, although since the beginning of the recording industry, it is disseminated through recordings. Traditional music forms such as early blues songs or hymns were passed along orally, or to smaller, local audiences; the original application of the term is to music of the 1880s Tin Pan Alley period in the United States. Although popular music sometimes is known as "pop music", the two terms are not interchangeable. Popular music is a generic term for a wide variety of genres of music that appeal to the tastes of a large segment of the population, whereas pop music refers to a specific musical genre within popular music. Popular music songs and pieces have singable melodies; the song structure of popular music involves repetition of sections, with the verse and chorus or refrain repeating throughout the song and the bridge providing a contrasting and transitional section within a piece.
In the 2000s, with songs and pieces available as digital sound files, it has become easier for music to spread from one country or region to another. Some popular music forms have become global, while others have a wide appeal within the culture of their origin. Through the mixture of musical genres, new popular music forms are created to reflect the ideals of a global culture; the examples of Africa and the Middle East show how Western pop music styles can blend with local musical traditions to create new hybrid styles. Scholars have classified music as "popular" based on various factors, including whether a song or piece becomes known to listeners from hearing the music. Sales of'recordings' or sheet music are one measure. Middleton and Manuel note that this definition has problems because multiple listens or plays of the same song or piece are not counted. Evaluating appeal based on size of audience or whether audience is of a certain social class is another way to define popular music, but this, has problems in that social categories of people cannot be applied to musical styles.
Manuel states that one criticism of popular music is that it is produced by large media conglomerates and passively consumed by the public, who buy or reject what music is being produced. He claims that the listeners in the scenario would not have been able to make the choice of their favorite music, which negates the previous conception of popular music. Moreover, "understandings of popular music have changed with time". Middleton argues that if research were to be done on the field of popular music, there would be a level of stability within societies to characterize historical periods, distribution of music, the patterns of influence and continuity within the popular styles of music. Anahid Kassabian separated popular music into four categories. A society's popular music reflects the ideals that are prevalent at the time it is performed or published. David Riesman states that the youth audiences of popular music fit into either a majority group or a subculture; the majority group listens to the commercially produced styles while the subcultures find a minority style to transmit their own values.
This allows youth to choose what music they identify with, which gives them power as consumers to control the market of popular music. Music critic Robert Christgau coined the term "semipopular music" in 1970, to describe records that seemed accessible for popular consumption but proved unsuccessful commercially. "I recognized that something else was going on—the distribution system appeared to be faltering, FM and all", he wrote in Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies, citing that records like The Velvet Underground and The Gilded Palace of Sin possessed populist qualities yet failed to impact the record charts. "Just as semiclassical music is a systematic dilution of highbrow preferences, semipopular music is a cross-bred concentration of fashionable modes." In his mind, a liking "for the nasty and short intensifies a common semipopular tendency in which lyrical and conceptual sophistication are applauded while musical sophistication—jazz chops or classical design or avant-garde innovation—is left to the specialists."
Form in popular music is most sectional, the most common sections being verse, chorus or refrain, bridge. Other common forms include thirty-two-bar form, chorus form *, twelve-bar blues. Popular music songs are composed using different music for each stanza of the lyrics; the verse and chorus are considered the primary elements. Each verse has the same melody, but the lyrics change for most verses; the chorus has a melodic phrase and a key lyrical line, repeated. Pop songs may have an introduction and coda, but these elements are not essential to the identity of most songs
Miners' institutes, sometimes known as Workingmen's institute, Mine Workers' institute, or Miners' Welfare Hall are large institutional buildings that were built during the height of the industrial period as a meeting and educational venue. More found in Britain, miners' institutes were owned by miner groups who gave a proportion of their wage into a communal fund to pay for the construction and running of the building; the institutes would contain a library, reading room and meeting room. During the late 19th century, with the population growth seen in former rural communities, many industrialised areas saw workers contributing to funds to build institutes; this was typified in the southern coalfield of Wales, which by 1910 saw institutes built in most towns and villages. The institutes were of socialist and altruistic nature and would include small libraries and reading rooms, whose books would lean towards history and politics, in an attempt to allow the working class man to better himself.
Aneurin Bevan attributed his intellectual training to the Tredegar miners' library. While the library and reading room took care of the intellectual needs of the population the larger institutes catered for the social side by providing a billiards hall, a refreshment room, a large hall which could be used for meetings or entertainment. The'Stute, as it was popularly known, soon became the heart of the community; the institutes were run by committee chosen by the workers, a nominal fee was required from members to pay for the running costs, though some philanthropic coalowners would financially support the local institute. Following the Royal Commission for Coal in 1919, a Miners' Welfare Fund was established to provide amenities for the miners, such as communal baths and welfare halls; this in turn led to the construction of welfare halls in the areas which to this date had no miners' institutes. By the eve of the Second World War there were more than a hundred miners' institutes, those of note include'Y Stiwt' in Rhosllannerchrugog, the Oakdale Miners' Institute, the Parc and Dare in the Rhondda and the Abercynon Miners' Institute.
Most of the institutes survived into the 1970s but with the decline of coal many of the buildings were left to ruin. Returning prosperity to former mining communities has witnessed a revival of some of the institutes, such as those at Blackwood and Newbridge, which have rebranded themselves as entertainment or arts centres; the South Wales Miners' Library in Swansea keeps many of the collections from the institutes intact, the Oakdale Institute has been reconstructed at St Fagans National History Museum. Thurcroft Welfare Hall – Thurcroft, Yorkshire Hamstead Miners' Institute – Hamstead, West Midlands Garforth Miners' Welfare Hall, West Yorkshire Ifton Miners Welfare Institute, St. Martins, Shropshire Bannockburn Miners' Welfare – Bannockburn, Stirling Lochgelly Miners' Institute – Lochgelly, Fife Loganlea Miners' Welfare – Addiewell, West Lothian Fauldhouse Miners' Welfare Society - West Lothian* Historic Miners' Institute – Collinsville, Illinois BBC Coalhouse – Miners Institutes An excerpt from the BBC series'The Long Street' first broadcast December 15 1965.
Presented by William Whitehead. Blackwood Miners' Institute The Celynen Collieries and Workingman's Institute and Memorial Hall, Newbridge Llanilleth Institute
Eight-ball is a pool game popular in much of the world, the subject of international professional and amateur competition. Played on a pool table with six pockets, the game is so universally known in some countries that beginners are unaware of other pool games and believe the word "pool" itself refers to eight-ball; the game has numerous variations regional. Standard eight-ball is the second most competitive professional pool game, after nine-ball, for the last several decades ahead of straight pool. Eight-ball is played with cue sticks and sixteen balls: a cue ball, fifteen object balls consisting of seven striped balls, seven solid-colored balls and the black 8 ball. After the balls are scattered with a break shot, the players are assigned either the group of solid balls or the stripes once a ball from a particular group is pocketed; the ultimate object of the game is to pocket the eight ball in a called pocket, which can only be done after all of the balls from a player's assigned group have been cleared from the table.
The game of eight-ball is derived from an earlier game invented around 1900 in the United States and popularized under the name "B. B. C. Co. Pool" by the Brunswick-Balke-Collender Company; this forerunner game was played with seven yellow and seven red balls, a black ball, the cue ball. Today, numbered stripes and solids are preferred in most of the world, though the British-style offshoot, uses the traditional colors; the game had simple rules compared to today and was not added to an official rule book until 1940. American-style eight-ball rules are played around the world by professionals, in many amateur leagues; the rules for eight-ball may be the most contested of any billiard game. There are several competing sets of "official" rules; the non-profit World Pool-Billiard Association – with national affiliates around the world, some of which long pre-date the WPA, such as the Billiard Congress of America – promulgates standardized rules as Pool Billiards – The Rules of Play for amateur and professional play.
Meanwhile, many amateur leagues – such as the American Poolplayers Association / Canadian Poolplayers Association, the Valley National Eight-ball Association and the BCA Pool League – use their own rulesets. Millions of individuals play informally, using informal house rules which vary not only from area to area but from venue to venue; the regulation size of the table's playing surface is 9 by 4.5 ft, though exact dimensions may vary by manufacturer. Some leagues and tournaments using the World Standardized Rules may allow smaller sizes, down to 7 by 3.5 ft. Early 20th-century 10 by 5 ft models are also still used. WPA professional competition employs regulation tables, while the amateur league championships of various leagues, including ACS, BCAPL, VNEA, APA, use the seven-foot tables in order to fit more of them into the hosting venue. There are seven solid-colored balls numbered 1 through 7, seven striped balls numbered 9 through 15, an 8 ball, a cue ball; the balls are colored as follows: 1 and 9: yellow 2 and 10: blue 3 and 11: red 4 and 12: dark blue 1 5 and 13: orange 6 and 14: green 7 and 15: maroon 1 8: black Cue: white1Special sets designed to be more discernible on television substitute a rather light tan shade for the darker brown of the 7 and 15 balls, pink for the dark purple of the 4 and 12.
To start the game, the object balls are placed in a triangular rack. The base of the rack is parallel to the end rail and positioned so the apex ball of the rack is located on the foot spot; the balls in the rack are ideally placed. The order of the balls should be random, with the exceptions of the 8 ball, which must be placed in the center of the rack, the two back corner balls, one of which must be a stripe and the other a solid; the cue ball is placed anywhere the breaker desires behind the head string. One person is chosen by some predetermined method to shoot first, using the cue ball to break the object-ball rack apart. In most leagues it is the breaker's opponent who racks the balls, but in some, players break their own racks. If the breaker fails to make a successful break—usually defined as at least four balls hitting cushions or an object ball being pocketed—then the opponent can opt either to play from the current position or to call for a re-rack and either re-break or have the original breaker repeat the break.
If the 8 ball is pocketed on the break the breaker can choose either to re-spot the 8 ball and play from the current position or to re-rack and re-break. (For regional amateur
The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph referred to as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally. It was founded by Arthur B. Sleigh in 1855 as Daily Telegraph & Courier; the Telegraph is regarded as a national "newspaper of record" and it maintains an international reputation for quality, having been described by the BBC as "one of the world's great titles". The paper's motto, "Was, is, will be", appears in the editorial pages and has featured in every edition of the newspaper since 19 April 1858; the paper had a circulation of 363,183 in December 2018, having declined following industry trends from 1.4 million in 1980. Its sister paper, The Sunday Telegraph, which started in 1961, had a circulation of 281,025 as of December 2018; the Daily Telegraph has the largest circulation for a broadsheet newspaper in the UK and the sixth largest circulation of any UK newspaper as of 2016. The two sister newspapers are run separately, with different editorial staff, but there is cross-usage of stories.
Articles published in either may be published on the Telegraph Media Group's www.telegraph.co.uk website, under the title of The Telegraph. Editorially, the paper is considered conservative; the Telegraph has been the first newspaper to report on a number of notable news scoops, including the 2009 MP expenses scandal, which led to a number of high-profile political resignations and for which it was named 2009 British Newspaper of the Year, its 2016 undercover investigation on the England football manager Sam Allardyce. However, including the paper's former chief political commentator Peter Oborne, accuse it of being unduly influenced by advertisers HSBC; the Daily Telegraph and Courier was founded by Colonel Arthur B. Sleigh in June 1855 to air a personal grievance against the future commander-in-chief of the British Army, Prince George, Duke of Cambridge. Joseph Moses Levy, the owner of The Sunday Times, agreed to print the newspaper, the first edition was published on 29 June 1855; the paper was four pages long.
The first edition stressed the quality and independence of its articles and journalists: We shall be guided by a high tone of independent action. However, the paper was not a success, Sleigh was unable to pay Levy the printing bill. Levy took over the newspaper, his aim being to produce a cheaper newspaper than his main competitors in London, the Daily News and The Morning Post, to expand the size of the overall market. Levy appointed his son, Edward Levy-Lawson, Lord Burnham, Thornton Leigh Hunt to edit the newspaper. Lord Burnham relaunched the paper as The Daily Telegraph, with the slogan "the largest and cheapest newspaper in the world". Hunt laid out the newspaper's principles in a memorandum sent to Levy: "We should report all striking events in science, so told that the intelligent public can understand what has happened and can see its bearing on our daily life and our future; the same principle should apply to all other events—to fashion, to new inventions, to new methods of conducting business".
In 1876, Jules Verne published his novel Michael Strogoff, whose plot takes place during a fictional uprising and war in Siberia. Verne included among the book's characters a war correspondent of The Daily Telegraph, named Harry Blount—who is depicted as an exceptionally dedicated and brave journalist, taking great personal risks to follow the ongoing war and bring accurate news of it to The Telegraph's readership, ahead of competing papers. In 1908, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany gave a controversial interview to The Daily Telegraph that damaged Anglo-German relations and added to international tensions in the build-up to World War I. In 1928 the son of Baron Burnham, Harry Lawson Webster Levy-Lawson, 2nd Baron Burnham, sold the paper to William Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, in partnership with his brother Gomer Berry, 1st Viscount Kemsley and Edward Iliffe, 1st Baron Iliffe. In 1937, the newspaper absorbed The Morning Post, which traditionally espoused a conservative position and sold predominantly amongst the retired officer class.
William Ewart Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, bought The Morning Post with the intention of publishing it alongside The Daily Telegraph, but poor sales of the former led him to merge the two. For some years the paper was retitled The Daily Telegraph and Morning Post before it reverted to just The Daily Telegraph. In the late 1930s Victor Gordon Lennox, The Telegraph's diplomatic editor, published an anti-appeasement private newspaper The Whitehall Letter that received much of its information from leaks from Sir Robert Vansittart, the Permanent Under-Secretary of the Foreign Office, Rex Leeper, the Foreign Office's Press Secretary; as a result, Gordon Lennox was monitored by MI5. In 1939, The Telegraph published Clare Hollingworth's scoop. In November 1940, with Fleet Street subjected to daily bombing raids by the Luftwaffe, The Telegraph started printing in Manchester at Kemsley House, run by Camrose's brother Kemsley. Manchester quite printed the entire run of The Telegraph when its Fleet Street offices were under threat.
The name Kemsley House was changed to Thomson House in 1959. In 1986 printing of Northern editions of the Daily and Sunday Telegraph moved to Trafford Park and in 2008 to Newsprinters at Knowsley, Liverpool. During the Second World War, The Daily Telegraph covertly helped in the recruitment of code-breakers for Bletchley Park; the ability to solve The Telegraph's crossword in under 12 minutes was considered to be a recruitment test. The newspaper was asked to organise a crossword competition, after wh
Scottish & Newcastle
Scottish & Newcastle plc was a brewing company headquartered in Edinburgh, which expanded from its home base to become an international business with beer volumes growing tenfold. The company was listed on the London Stock Exchange until it was acquired by Heineken and Carlsberg in 2008 and its assets split between them; the name Scottish & Newcastle UK continued to be used until 2009 for the UK trading operation of Heineken International until it was renamed Heineken UK. The former S&N Pub Enterprises leased pub division has been renamed Star Bars; the Company was founded by Grizel Syme who ran her deceased second husband's brewery: this brewery and those of her sons developed into the firm of William Younger & Co. It merged with McEwan's in 1931 becoming Scottish Brewers. In 1960 it merged again this time with Newcastle Breweries to form Newcastle. By 1985, the company had become a regional brewer focused on Scotland and the North of England, ranked number five in the UK and selling around 6 Mhl per annum.
By 1995, with the purchase of rival brewing business Courage, S&N had become the UK’s leading brewer, producing around 15 Mhl per annum. Its UK brewing division became known as Scottish Courage but this reverted to S&N UK in February 2006, its Managed Pub division was known as S&N Retail with around 2,500 outlets in the estate. In early 2000, S&N expanded outside the UK via a number of acquisitions in Western Europe, growing sales to over 50 Mhl per annum. By acquiring Hartwall in 2002, Finland’s leading beverage company business, S&N became 50% owners of Baltic Beverages Holding encompassing brewing interests in Russia, Ukraine and the Baltic Countries of Latvia and Estonia; the remaining 50% of BBH was owned by Carlsberg, which gained full control after the takeover of S&N in 2008. In July 2003, S&N acquired the Bulmers cider business, adding the Strongbow, Scrumpy Jack and Woodpecker brands to its portfolio, together with the UK's biggest cider mill and orchards in Hereford. In November 2003, S&N sold its remaining pub estate to the Spirit Group - retaining a successful tenanted pub management business with contracts to look after some 2,000 pubs on behalf of banks and other pub companies.
In 2004 some radical cost-cutting measures were introduced within the UK where it was noted by analysts that the cost base was too high. During the year, the Fountain Brewery in Edinburgh was closed, followed some months by the Tyne Brewery in Newcastle; this was followed in 2005 by the closure of distribution depots at Bow and Maidstone with the task being integrated into Dagenham Regional Distribution Centre and depots at Hackbridge and Croydon with the remainder of the London Accounts being served by Greenford. The company began to use Transit Points in Chelmsford and Faversham as cheap logistical alternatives to full working depots. Reciprocal acquisitions saw the Caledonian Brewery in Edinburgh and the Northern Clubs' Federation Brewery in Gateshead added to the business. In February 2005, Scottish & Newcastle and Carlsberg UK finalised a joint venture to carry out Technical Services work in the UK. Service Dispense Equipment Limited was formed from the dispense assets of both businesses.
In 2006, S&N entered into a joint venture with the Swiss based freight company and Nagel to set up a UK drinks distribution company. Some 3,000 S&N employees transferred to the new business. On 17 October 2007, Heineken International and Carlsberg jointly announced that they were considering forming a consortium to bid for, acquire the total capitalisation of Scottish & Newcastle. No formal offer had been put to S&N at the time. On 25 October, however and Carlsberg announced that they had submitted a written proposal to S&N, they invited S&N to discuss a possible offer, the terms as to which they were prepared to proceed included a bid of 720 pence per share. The offer was rejected by the Board of S&N, who believed that it undervalued the worth of the S&N group. On 31 October, S&N announced that it had requested the Danish Courts to begin arbitration proceedings between itself and Carlsberg A/S in relation to the latter's alleged contractual infringements, relating to the joint ownership of Baltic Beverages Holdings.
Carlsberg countered that it believed S&N's claims were "spurious and without merit". A new offer was made public on 15 November 2007 by Carlsberg and Heineken, raising the offer to 750 pence per share; the partners claimed this was "substantially in excess of the standalone independent value of S&N". On 17 January 2008, S&N announced that it was now in formal discussions with the consortium, following a revised proposal to purchase the business for £8.00 per share. On 25 January 2008, following limited due diligence and discussions with S&N, the consortium announced a formal cash offer for the entire S&N business at £8.00 per share. This offer was recommended to shareholders. On 31 March 2008, shareholders approved the £ 7.8 billion takeover by Carlsberg. The acquisition was completed on 29 April 2008 as S&N's shares were delisted from the London Stock Exchange. On 23 November 2009, the company changed its name to Heineken UK Ltd. to reflect the parent company's name. Scottish & Newcastle employed 40,000 people in the United Kingdom and Europe, brewing beer at: The Fountain Brewery, Edinburgh - closed 2004 The Tyne Brewery, Newcastle-upon-Tyne - closed 2005 The Federation Brewery, Gateshead - bought 2004, closed 2010 T & R Theakston's Brewery, Masham John Smith's Brewery, Tadcaster The Berkshire Brewery, Reading (closed April 2010