New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
Jan Hellriegel is a singer/songwriter based in Auckland, New Zealand. Her first recorded appearances were in Dunedin band Working With Walt in the mid-1980s when Jan studied at the University of Otago in Dunedin, she formed all-woman band Cassandra's Ears, moving back to Auckland and going solo in the early 90s. Hellriegel has released three solo studio albums, "It's My Sin" in 1992, "Tremble" in 1995 and "All Grown Up" in 2009, she has toured with and supported many international acts including The Cure, Jeff Buckley, David Byrne and Ron Sexsmith. She has performed as a guest vocalist for many bands such as Straitjacket Fits, The Verlaines and The Mutton Birds, notably on the latter's hit single Nature. Jan Hellriegel was born and raised in West Auckland with her three brothers and attended Henderson High School, she famously worked in her father's panel beating shop, though only in the office. Nonetheless, the combination of her birthplace and early employment led to her being branded a "Westie" by the New Zealand media.
Jan took vocal training in singing at St. Mary's College, Auckland under Sister Mary Leo, she moved to Dunedin in the 1980s to attend the University of Otago, where she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts. While in Dunedin, she joined her brother Rob Hellriegel's band, Working With Walt, she performed backing vocals and guitar on their 1984 7" LP The Prophet and wrote and performed the song "Christina" on the band’s 1985 LP 4 Sides. In 1988, Jan performed backing vocals on the Leonard Cohen song "So Long Marianne", performed by Straitjacket Fits. In the late 1980s Jan formed the band Cassandra's Ears with Dunedin bandmates Flick Rhind, Zan Wright, Vanessa Anich and Leanne Ibell. Jan wrote music and lyrics and performed vocals and keyboards, their first release was the song "Replacements" for the National Student Radio 1986 compilation, Weird Culture Weird Custom. The band played local gigs, toured New Zealand, wrote more material, released two EPs, Private Wasteland in 1988 and Your Estimation in 1990.
Cassandra's Ears reformed in November 2010 for a one-off show in Auckland to support the release of "The Cassandra's Ears Story". By 1991, Jan had signed a deal with Warner Records New Zealand to record solo material, her first album, It’s My Sin, was recorded between December 1991 and January 1992 at Mountain Studios, Airforce Studios, Mandrill Studios, Helen Young Studios and Auckland Audio. The album was released in 1992, along with singles for the songs "The Way I Feel", "It’s My Sin" and "No Idea". There was a promotional EP for "All the Best Thoughts", the songs "Westy Gals" and "Wings of Steel" were released as radio-only singles. In 1992, Jan recorded backing vocals for the hit song "Nature" by The Mutton Birds. In 1995, Jan recorded a television advertisement for Coca-Cola before completing her second album, Tremble, at Sing Sing and Studios 301 in 1995; the album was released the same year along with singles for the songs "Manic ", "Geraldine" and "Pure Pleasure". In 1996 Jan was awarded Most Promising Female Vocalist at the New Zealand Music Awards, Top Female Vocalist and Single of the Year at the Music and Entertainer Awards of New Zealand.
In 1997, Jan recorded a television advertisement for Ford, a cover version of the Gordon Mills song "10 Guitars" for a Television New Zealand documentary of the same name, the song "Unravelled" for the short film "My Geraldine" by former Cassandra's Ears band mate Flick Rhind. She recorded a new single, "Sentimental Fool", at York Street A&B Studios for release that year. Jan subsequently parted ways with Warner Records, her last single, "Melusine", recorded at Beaver Studios was released by Universal Records in 1998; that year, Jan was nominated for the Fox of the Year award on the Mikey Havoc show. In 1999, Jan joined the Alan Duff Charitable Foundation Duffy Books in Homes programme as a celebrity spokesperson, she co-wrote the theme song "Read About It" with Dave Dobbyn and Toi Iti, still performed by 100,000 children annually. During that year she played a non-musical acting role on Shortland Street, playing Jackie, an abused wife. In 2000, Jan appeared in the New Zealand television Street Legal and in 2001 she became involved in a collaboration with Tom Blaxland called Project Runway.
In 2002, she recorded the song "Star Baby" for children's clothing label Pumpkin Patch. In early 2009 Jan went into Roundhead Studios in Auckland to record a third album with a line-up of musicians including producer Wayne Bell, Nick Gaffaney on drums, Brett Adams and Ben Fulton on guitars, Eddie Rayner and Michael Larsen on piano/keyboards, Mark Hughes on bass. Special guests included Callie Blood and Jackie Clarke on backing vocals; the album was engineered and mixed by Neil Baldock and was mastered by Greg Calbi at Stirling Sound in New York. Jan released the new album "All Grown Up" on her own record label, Blind Date Records, in October 2009 to critical acclaim from New Zealand music reviewers. In May 2010 Jan joined Native Tongue Music Publishing as their New Zealand General Manager. In June 2010 "Melusine" was re-released by Blind Date Records. In October 2010 Jan announced she had signed an agreement with Warner Music Australia that would allow her to re-release her earlier albums, "It's My Sin" and "Tremble" through Blind Date Records.
The album "Lost Songs" was released in April 2013. A collection of unreleased material - demos, live sessions and studio work from 1990 - 2000 which Hellriegel had remastered from DAT and cassette recordings; the Cassandra's Ears Story Other than interview or performance appearances, Jan Hellr
Straitjacket Fits formed in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1986 and were a prominent band in the Flying Nun label's second wave of the Dunedin sound. Like many of their Flying Nun stable-mates, the band hailed from the southern city of Dunedin, they formed from the ashes of The DoubleHappys, a band comprising Shayne Carter, Wayne Elsey and John Collie. The tragic accidental death of Elsey saw Carter and Collie join forces with David Wood in 1986 to form Straitjacket Fits. Andrew Brough signed on the following year, adding a foil in the form of a pop sensibility to Carter's more raucous songwriting. From their inception, the sound of the band was marked by the incongruous but effective pairing of Carter's rough abrasive voice and strident guitar and Andrew Brough's saccharine-sweet vocals and pop hooks. 1987 marked the release of the band's first EP. Life in One Chord spent 10 weeks in the Top 50. Of the four songs, "She Speeds", was to become a hallmark song, it was judged one of New Zealand's ten best popular songs to date.
The edgy lead vocal was underpinned with a dynamic jagged guitar and stabs of strings which tumbled into a churning melodic chorus on which Brough's voice soared. The opposite approach was taken on "Sparkle That Shines", its gentle downbeat melody sung by Brough giving way to a chorus laced with Carter's knife-edge harmonies; the band left Dunedin moving to Christchurch, before making the shift to the country's main marketplace, Auckland in 1988. Their first album Hail was produced by Terry Moore and was released that year; the band's first overseas venture, to Australia, came followed soon by a tour of Europe. The band were in Berlin the week the wall fell. In 1990 the band started work on their follow-up album Melt, to produce moderate hits with the Brough composition "Down In Splendour" and Carter's "Bad Note For A Heart"; the following year the band was back on the road with an extensive tour. Straitjacket Fits supported My Bloody Valentine in The La's in the United States, but the strain was beginning to show, with reputed "musical differences" between Brough.
Brough left the band at the end of the tour, was replaced by guitarist Mark Petersen. 1992 saw the release of EP Done. It reached number 11 on the New Zealand Top 40 singles chart. Produced by Tony Cohen in Melbourne and without Brough's involvement, Done was an altogether louder and more guitar-driven record; the band moved to California to record their third album Blow, with producer Paul Fox. The album was released in 1993, but lacked the balanced dynamic that had always been evident in the interplay between Carter and Brough, it produced the singles, "Cat Inna Can" and "If I Were You". A US tour culminated with an appearance on Late Night with Conan O'Brien on 11 November 1993, but the writing was on the wall for the band and they decided to go into a semi-permanent hiatus, following their appearance at 1994's Big Day Out. In 1993, the band contributed the track "Brittle" to the AIDS-Benefit Album No Alternative produced by the Red Hot Organization. In 1998, a self-titled CD was released, its 16 tracks were all available on other releases.
Post-Straitjacket Fits, Shayne Carter found success with his band Dimmer, whose first album bore little similarity to that of Straitjacket Fits. Allowed more complete control of the music's sound, his band's music was sparser and included more electronics. Gone are the strident guitars, although they returned on some releases. Andrew Brough released one album with the band Bike, before moving back to Dunedin and retreating from the music scene. John Collie became a photographer of some note. In 2001, as part of the Australasian Performing Right Association's 75th anniversary, a poll was conducted on New Zealand's top 100 songs of all time. Straitjacket Fits' song "She Speeds" was voted at number nine. "Down In Splendour" was at number 32, "If I Were You" at number 88. In 2005, Straitjacket Fits reformed without Brough for a brief series of concerts around New Zealand. In 2008, the band received the New Zealand Herald Legacy Award at the Vodafone New Zealand Music Awards, were inducted into the New Zealand Music Hall of Fame.
In his acceptance speech, Carter said "To all the artists out there who are brave enough to think outside of the square - kia kaha." David Wood died on 17 November 2010. A service for David was held at the Pt Chevalier RSA on the following Monday, he left behind two children. The imminent closure of Auckland venue the King's Arms in 2018 led to of a one-off reunion of Dimmer and a group of "special guests" on February 9; those guests were John Collie and Mark Petersen who, along with Carter and Dimmer bassist Vaughan Williams, played a set of Straitjacket Fits songs. It was the first time Carter and Petersen had performed without the late David Wood. Shayne Carter - guitar, vocals John Collie - drums David Wood - bass Andrew Brough - guitar, vocals Mark Petersen - guitar The group has appeared on many compilations and soundtracks since their inception in both New Zealand; the following is a list of these albums. In Love With These Times Flying Nun Records - "She Speeds" Getting Older Flying Nun Records - "Dialing a Prayer" Pink Flying Saucers Over the Southern Alps Flying Nun Records - "Bad Note For A Heart" No Alternative
Dunedin is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, the principal city of the Otago region. Its name comes from the Scottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland; the urban area of Dunedin lies on the central-eastern coast of Otago, surrounding the head of Otago Harbour, the harbour and hills around Dunedin are the remnants of an extinct volcano. The city suburbs extend out into the surrounding valleys and hills, onto the isthmus of the Otago Peninsula, along the shores of the Otago Harbour and the Pacific Ocean. Dunedin was the largest New Zealand city by territorial land area until superseded by Auckland with the formation of the Auckland Council in November 2010. Archaeological evidence points to lengthy occupation of the area by Māori prior to the arrival of Europeans; the province and region of Otago takes its name from the Ngai Tahu village of Otakou at the mouth of the harbour, which became a whaling station in the 1830s. In 1848 a Scottish settlement was established by the Lay Association of the Free Church of Scotland.
Between 1855 and 1900 many thousands of Scots emigrated to the incorporated city. Dunedin became wealthy beginning in the 1860s. In the mid-1860s, between 1878 and 1881, it was New Zealand's largest urban area; the city population at 5 March 2013 was 120,246. While Tauranga, Napier-Hastings and Hamilton have eclipsed the city in size of population since the 1980s to make it only the seventh-largest urban area in New Zealand, Dunedin is still considered one of the four main cities of New Zealand for historic and geographic reasons. Dunedin has a diverse economy, which includes manufacturing and technology-based industries as well as education and tourism; the city's most important activity centres around tertiary education—Dunedin is home to the University of Otago, New Zealand's oldest university, the Otago Polytechnic. Students account for a large proportion of the population. In 2014 Dunedin was designated as a UNESCO City of Literature. Archaeological evidence shows the first human occupation of New Zealand occurred between 1250–1300 AD, with population concentrated along the southeast coast.
A camp site at Kaikai Beach, near Long Beach, has been dated from about that time. There are numerous archaic sites in what is now Dunedin, several of them large and permanently occupied in the 14th century; the population contracted but expanded again with the evolution of the Classic culture which saw the building of several pā, fortified settlements, notably Pukekura at, about 1650. There was a settlement in what is now central Dunedin occupied as late as about 1785 but abandoned by 1826. There were Maori settlements at Whareakeake, Purakaunui and Huriawa to the north, at Taieri Mouth and Otokia to the south, all inside the present boundaries of Dunedin. Māori tradition tells first of a people called Kahui Tipua living in the area Te Rapuwai, semi-legendary but considered to be historical; the next arrivals were Waitaha followed by Kāti Māmoe late in the 16th century and Kai Tahu who arrived in the mid-17th century. These migration waves have been represented as'invasions' in European accounts but modern scholarship has cast doubt on that.
They were migrations like those of the European which incidentally resulted in bloodshed. The sealer John Boultbee recorded in the 1820s that the'Kaika Otargo' were the oldest and largest in the south. Lieutenant James Cook stood off what is now the coast of Dunedin between 25 February 1770 and 5 March 1770, naming Cape Saunders and Saddle Hill, he reported penguins and seals in the vicinity, which led sealers to visit from the beginning of the 19th century. The early years of sealing saw a feud between sealers and local Māori from 1810 to 1823, the "Sealers' War" sparked by an incident on Otago Harbour, but William Tucker became the first European to settle in the area in 1815. Permanent European occupation dates from 1831, when the Weller brothers founded their whaling station at Otago, modern Otakou, on the Otago Harbour. Epidemics badly reduced the Māori population. By the late 1830s the Harbour had become an international whaling port. Wright & Richards started a whaling station at Karitane in 1837 and Johnny Jones established a farming settlement and a mission station, the South Island's first, at Waikouaiti in 1840.
The settlements at Karitane and Waikouaiti have endured making modern Dunedin one of the longest European settled territories in New Zealand. In 1844, the Deborah, captained by Thomas Wing and carrying his wife Lucy and a representative of the New Zealand Company, Frederick Tuckett, sailed south to determine the location of a planned Free Church settlement. After inspecting several areas around the eastern coast of the south island, Tuckett selected the site which would become known as Dunedin; the Lay Association of the Free Church of Scotland, through a company called the Otago Association, founded Dunedin at the head of Otago Harbour in 1848 as the principal town of its special settlement. The name Dunedin comes from Dùn Èideann, the Scottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. Charles Kettle the city's surveyor, instructed to emulate the ch