The Divine Mercy of Jesus known as the Divine Mercy, is a Roman Catholic devotion to Jesus Christ associated with the apparitions of Jesus to Saint Faustina Kowalska. The Roman Catholic devotion and venerated image under this Christological title refers to what Faustina's diary describes as "God's loving mercy". Saint Faustina was granted the title "Secretary of Mercy" by the Holy See in the Jubilee Year of 2000. Sister Faustina Kowalska reported a number of apparitions during religious ecstasy which she wrote in her diary published as the book Diary: Divine Mercy in My Soul; the three main themes of the devotion are to ask for and obtain the mercy of God, to trust in Christ's abundant mercy, to show mercy to others and act as a conduit for God's mercy towards them. Pope John Paul II, a native of Poland, had great affinity towards this devotion and authorized it in the Liturgical Calendar of the church; the liturgical feast of the Divine Mercy is celebrated on the first Sunday after Easter. Some members of the Anglican Communion share its pious beliefs and devotions in an effort towards church renewal.
The primary focus of the Divine Mercy devotion is the merciful love of God and the desire to let that love and mercy flow through one's own heart towards those in need of it. As he dedicated the Shrine of Divine Mercy, John Paul II referred to this when he said: "Apart from the mercy of God there is no other source of hope for mankind". There are five main forms of this devotion: The Divine Mercy image with the specific inscription Jesus, I trust in you. — Words attributed to Jesus by Faustina in her diary. As in the prayers that form the Chaplet of Divine Mercy, there are three main themes to the Divine Mercy devotion: to ask for and obtain the mercy of God, to trust in Christ's abundant mercy, to show mercy to others and act as a conduit for God's mercy towards them; the first and second elements relate to the signature "Jesus I trust in You" on the Divine Mercy image and Faustina stated that on April 28, 1935, the day the first Divine Mercy Sunday was celebrated, Jesus told her: "Every soul believing and trusting in My Mercy will obtain it."The third component is reflected in the statement "Call upon My mercy on behalf of sinners" attributed to Jesus in Faustina's diary.
This statement is followed in the diary by a specific short prayer: "O Blood and Water, which gushed forth from the Heart of Jesus as a fount of Mercy for us, I trust in You." Which Faustina recommended for the Hour of Divine Mercy. In her diary Faustina wrote that Jesus told her: "I demand from you deeds of mercy, which are to arise out of love for Me." and that he explained that there are three ways of exercising mercy toward your neighbor: the first-by deed, the second-by word, the third-by prayer. The Divine Mercy devotion views mercy as the key element in the plan of God for salvation and emphasizes the belief that it was through mercy that God gave his only son for the redemption of mankind, after the fall of Adam; the opening prayer for Divine Mercy Sunday Mass refers to this and begins: "Heavenly Father and God of Mercy, We no longer look for Jesus among the dead, for He is alive and has become the Lord of Life". In 1959 the Vatican banned the devotion to it because of a number of factors.
Some Polish bishops questioned Kowalska's claims and were uncomfortable with the image's similarity to the red and white Polish flag. Polish priests were reported to be interpreting the rays as a symbol of the flag; the ban on devotion was lifted on April 15, 1978, due to pressure from future Polish pope Karol Wojtyła, who had great interest St. Faustina Kowalska. Paint an image according to the pattern you see with the signature: Jesus, I trust in You… I promise that the soul that will venerate this image will not perish; the chaplet is associated with the paintings of the image as in Faustina's diary. The most used is an image painted by Adolf Hyla. Hyla painted the image in thanksgiving for having survived World War II. In the image, Jesus stands with one hand outstretched in blessing, the other clutching the side wounded by the spear, from which proceed beams of falling light, coloured red and white. An explanation of these colors was given to Saint Faustina by Jesus himself saying, "The two rays represent blood and water".
These colors of the rays refer to the "blood and water'" of the Gospel of John which are mentioned in the optional prayer of the Chaplet. The words “Jesus I Trust in Thee” accompany the image; the original Divine Mercy image was painted by Eugene Kazimierowski in Vilnius, under St. Faustina's direction. However, according to her diary, she cried upon seeing that the finished picture was not as beautiful as the vision she had received, but Jesus comforted her saying, "Not in the beauty of the colour, nor of the brush is the greatness of this image, but in My grace"; the picture was used during the early years of the devotion, is still in circulation within the movement, but the Hyla image remains one of the most reproduced renderings. After the Feast of Divine Mercy Sunday was granted to the Universal Church by Pope John Paul II on 30 April 2000 new versions of the image have emerged from a new generation of Catholic artists. In her diary Faustina wrote that Jesus specified 3.00 pm each day as the hour at which mercy was best received, asked her to pray the Chaplet of Mercy and venerate the Divine Mercy
In Christianity, worship is the act of attributing reverent honor and homage to God. In the New Testament, various words are used to refer to the term worship. One is proskuneo which means to bow down to kings. Throughout most of Christianity's history, corporate Christian worship has been liturgical, characterized by prayers and hymns, with texts rooted in, or related to, the Scripture the Psalter. In Evangelicalism, worship is viewed like an act of adoration of God, with a more informal conception; the term liturgy is derived from the Greek leitourgia meaning "public service" and is formed by two words: "laos" and "ergon" "work of the people". Responsorial prayers are a series of petitions read or sung by a leader with responses made by the congregation. Set times for prayer during the day were established, a festal cycle throughout the Church year governed the celebration of feasts and holy days pertaining to the events in the life of Jesus, the lives of the saints, aspects of the Godhead.
A great deal of emphasis was placed on the forms of worship, as they were seen in terms of the Latin phrase lex orandi, lex credendi —that is, the specifics of one's worship express and govern the doctrinal beliefs of the community. According to this view, alterations in the patterns and content of worship would reflect a change in the faith itself; each time a heresy arose in the Church, it was accompanied by a shift in worship for the heretical group. Orthodoxy in faith meant orthodoxy in worship, vice versa. Thus, unity in Christian worship was understood to be a fulfillment of Jesus' words that the time was at hand when true worshipers would worship "in spirit and in truth"; the theme of worship is taken up by many of the Church Fathers including Justin Martyr and Hippolytus of Rome. The Holy Eucharist was the central act of worship in early Christianity; the liturgy of the synagogues and the ritual of the Jewish temple, both of which were participated in by early Christians, helped shape the form of the early Christian liturgy, a dual liturgy of the word and of the Eucharist.
The early Christian use of incense in worship seemed first to originate in Christian funeral rites, was used during regular worship services. Incense was used in the Bible to worship God and symbolize prayer, in both the Old Testament and New Testament; the first miracle of the Apostles, the healing of the crippled man on the temple steps, occurred because Peter and John went to the Temple to pray. Since the Apostles were Jews, see Jewish Christians, the concept of fixed hours for services, services therefore which differed from weekday to Sabbath to holy day, were familiar to them. Pliny the Younger, not a Christian himself, mentions not only fixed times of prayer by believers, but specific services—other than the Eucharist—assigned to those times: "They met on a stated day before it was light, addressed a form of prayer to Christ, as to a divinity... after which it was their custom to separate, reassemble, to eat in common a harmless meal."The real evolution of the Christian service in the first century is shrouded in mystery.
By the second and third centuries, such Church Fathers as Clement of Alexandria and Tertullian wrote of formalised, regular services: the practice of Morning and Evening Prayer, prayers at the third hour of the day, the sixth hour of the day, the ninth hour of the day. With reference to the Jewish practices, it is no coincidence that these major hours of prayer correspond to the first and last hour of the conventional day, that on Sundays, the services are more complex and longer; the liturgical year from Christmas via Easter to Pentecost covers five months, the other seven having no major services linked to the work of Christ. However, this is not to say that the Jewish services were copied or deliberately substituted, see Supersessionism. Worship as singing underwent great changes for some Christians within the Protestant Reformation. Martin Luther, a music lover, composed hymns that are still sung today, expected congregations to be active participants in the service, singing along. John Calvin, in Geneva, argued that while instrumental music had its time with the Levites of the Old Testament, it was no longer a proper expression for the church.
This was expanded upon by John Knox. Furthermore, in the Genevan and Scottish Reformed tradition, man-made hymns are not sung, being seen inferior to the God-inspired psalms of the Bible; the Calvinist Regulative Principle of Worship distinguishes traditional Presbyterian and Reformed churches from the Lutheran or other Protestant churches. Current Christian worship practices are diverse in modern Christianity, with a range of customs and theological views. Three broad groupings can be identified, whilst some elements are universal
Book of Tobit
The Book of Tobit is a book of scripture, part of the Catholic and Orthodox biblical canons. It was pronounced canonical by the Council of Hippo, the Councils of Carthage of 397 and 417, the Council of Florence, confirmed in the Counter-Reformation by the Council of Trent, it is not found in Jewish biblical canons. The Book of Tobit is listed as a canonical book by the Council of Rome, the Council of Hippo, the Council of Carthage and, the Council of Florence and the Council of Trent, is part of the canon of both the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Churches. Roman Catholics refer to it as deuterocanonical. Augustine and Pope Innocent. Athanasius mentioned that certain other books, including the book of Tobit, while not being part of the Canon, "were appointed by the Fathers to be read". According to the monk Rufinus of Aquileia the book of Tobit and other deuterocanonical books were not called Canonical but Ecclesiastical books. Article VI of the Thirty-Nine Articles of the Church of England lists it as a book of the "Apocrypha".
Protestants regard Tobit as apocryphal because it was not included in the Tanakh nor considered canonical by Judaism. Before the 1952 discovery of Aramaic and Hebrew fragments of Tobit among the Dead Sea Scrolls in a cave at Qumran, scholars believed Tobit was not included in the Jewish canon because of late authorship, estimated to 100 AD. Qumran fragments of the text, which were copied between 100 BC to 25 AD, evidence a much earlier origin than thought; these fragments evidence authorship no than the 2nd century BC and contemporary with the date ascribed, by modern scholars, to the final compilation of the Book of Daniel, which did attain canonical status. Other scholars have postulated that Tobit was excluded from the Jewish Scriptures for a halakhic reason because Raguel, the bride's father, wrote the marriage document discussed in 7:16, instead of the bridegroom, as required by Jewish rabbinical law. However, it could be hypothesized that some ancient Jewish rabbinic scholars considered Tobit to be historical.
Midrash Bereishit Rabbah, an aggadic commentary on the Book of Genesis compiled circa 400–600 AD, includes a truncated Aramaic version of Tobit. Tobit was considered part of the Septuagint. In more contemporary times, a number of Jews in Israel have sought to reclaim Tobit as part of the canon; this book tells the story of Tobit, a righteous Israelite of the tribe of Naphtali, living in Nineveh after Sargon II had deported the northern tribes of Israel to Assyria in 721 BC. In the two Greek versions, the first two and a half chapters are written in the first person. Tobit, raised by his paternal grandmother, remains loyal to the worship of God at the temple in Jerusalem, refusing the cult of the golden calves that Jeroboam, king of Northern Israel, set up at Dan, he is noted for his diligence in attempting to provide proper burials for fallen Israelites whom Sargon's successor, has slain. For this behavior the king exiles him. After Sennacherib's death, Tobit is allowed to return to Nineveh, where he buries a man, murdered on the street.
That night, he is blinded by bird droppings which fall into his eyes. The blindness caused by this injury strains his marriage and he prays for death. Meanwhile, in faraway Media, a young woman named; the demon of lust, Asmodeus and kills every man Sarah marries on their wedding night before the marriage can be consummated. God sends the angel Raphael, disguised as a human; the main narrative is dedicated to Tobit's son, Tobiah or Tobiyah, sent by his father to collect money that the elder has deposited in distant Media. Raphael presents himself as Tobit's kinsman and offers to aid and protect Tobias. Under Raphael's guidance, Tobias journeys to Media with his dog. Along the way, while washing his feet in the river Tigris, a fish tries to swallow his foot. By the angel's order, he captures it and removes its heart and gall bladder. Upon arriving in Media, Raphael tells Tobias of the beautiful Sarah, whom Tobias has the right to marry because he is her cousin and closest relative; the angel instructs the young man to burn the fish's liver and heart to drive away the demon when he attacks on the wedding night.
The two marry, the fumes of the burning organs drive the demon to Upper Egypt, where Raphael follows and binds him. Sarah's father had been digging a grave to secretly bury Tobias under the assumption that he would be killed. Surprised to find his son-in-law alive and well, he orders a double-length wedding feast and has the grave secretly filled. Since the feast prevents him from leaving, Tobias sends Raphael to recover his father's money. After the feast and Sarah return to Nineveh. There, Raphael tells the youth to use the fish's gall to cure his father's blindness. Raphael reveals his identity and returns to heaven, Tobit sings a hymn of praise. Tobit tells his son to leave Nineveh. After the prayer, Tobit dies at an advanced age. After burying his father and mother, Tobias returns to Media with his family. Readings from the book are used in the Latin Rite; because of the book's praise for the purity of marriage, it is read during weddings in many rites. Doctrinally, the bo
Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II was the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005. He was elected pope by the second Papal conclave of 1978, called after Pope John Paul I, elected in August to succeed Pope Paul VI, died after 33 days. Cardinal Wojtyła was elected on the third day of the conclave and adopted his predecessor's name in tribute to him. John Paul II is recognised as helping to end Communist rule in his native Poland and all of Europe. John Paul II improved the Catholic Church's relations with Judaism, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Anglican Communion, he upheld the Church's teachings on such matters as artificial contraception, the ordination of women, a celibate clergy, although he supported the reforms of the Second Vatican Council, he was seen as conservative in their interpretation. He was one of the most travelled world leaders in history, visiting 129 countries during his pontificate; as part of his special emphasis on the universal call to holiness, he beatified 1,340 and canonised 483 people, more than the combined tally of his predecessors during the preceding five centuries.
By the time of his death, he had named most of the College of Cardinals, consecrated or co-consecrated a large number of the world's bishops, ordained many priests. A key goal of John Paul's papacy was to reposition the Catholic Church, his wish was "to place his Church at the heart of a new religious alliance that would bring together Jews and Christians in a great religious armada". John Paul II was the second longest-serving pope in modern history after Pope Pius IX, who served for nearly 32 years from 1846 to 1878. Born in Poland, John Paul II was the first non-Italian pope since the Dutch Pope Adrian VI, who served from 1522 to 1523. John Paul II's cause for canonisation commenced in 2005 one month after his death with the traditional five-year waiting period waived. On 19 December 2009, John Paul II was proclaimed Venerable by his successor Pope Benedict XVI and was beatified on 1 May 2011 after the Congregation for the Causes of Saints attributed one miracle to his intercession, the healing of a French nun from Parkinson's disease.
A second miracle attributed to John Paul II's intercession was approved on 2 July 2013, confirmed by Pope Francis two days later. John Paul II was canonised on 27 April 2014, together with Pope John XXIII. On 11 September 2014, Pope Francis added these two optional memorials to the worldwide General Roman Calendar of saints, in response to worldwide requests, it is traditional to celebrate saints' feast days on the anniversary of their deaths, but that of John Paul II is celebrated on the anniversary of his papal inauguration. Posthumously, he has been referred to by some Catholics as "St. John Paul the Great", although the title has no official recognition. Karol Józef Wojtyła was born in the Polish town of Wadowice, he was the youngest of three children born to Karol Wojtyła, an ethnic Pole, Emilia Kaczorowska, whose mother's maiden surname was Scholz. Emilia, a schoolteacher, died from a heart attack and kidney failure in 1929 when Wojtyła was eight years old, his elder sister Olga had died before his birth, but he was close to his brother Edmund, nicknamed Mundek, 13 years his senior.
Edmund's work as a physician led to his death from scarlet fever, a loss that affected Wojtyła deeply. As a boy, Wojtyła was athletic playing football as goalkeeper. During his childhood, Wojtyła had contact with Wadowice's large Jewish community. School football games were organised between teams of Jews and Catholics, Wojtyła played on the Jewish side. "I remember. At elementary school there were fewer. With some I was on friendly terms, and what struck me about some of them was their Polish patriotism." It was around this time. He became close to a girl called Ginka Beer, described as "a Jewish beauty, with stupendous eyes and jet black hair, slender, a superb actress."In mid-1938, Wojtyła and his father left Wadowice and moved to Kraków, where he enrolled at the Jagiellonian University. While studying such topics as philology and various languages, he worked as a volunteer librarian and was required to participate in compulsory military training in the Academic Legion, but he refused to fire a weapon.
He worked as a playwright. During this time, his talent for language blossomed, he learned as many as 12 languages — Polish, Italian, Portuguese, English, Ukrainian, Serbo-Croatian and Esperanto, nine of which he used extensively as pope. In 1939, Nazi German occupation forces closed the university after invading Poland. Able-bodied males were required to work, so from 1940 to 1944 Wojtyła variously worked as a messenger for a restaurant, a manual labourer in a limestone quarry and for the Solvay chemical factory, to avoid deportation to Germany. In 1940 he was struck by a tram; the same year he was hit by a lorry in a quarry, which left him with one shoulder higher than the other and a permanent stoop. His father, a former Austro-Hungarian non-commissioned officer and officer in the Polish Army, died of a heart attack in 1941, leaving Wojtyła as the immediate family's only surviving member
Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio was an Italian painter active in Rome, Naples and Sicily from the early 1590s to 1610. His paintings combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting, which had a formative influence on Baroque painting. Caravaggio employed close physical observation with a dramatic use of chiaroscuro that came to be known as tenebrism, he made the technique a dominant stylistic element, darkening shadows and transfixing subjects in bright shafts of light. Caravaggio vividly expressed crucial moments and scenes featuring violent struggles and death, he worked with live models, preferring to forgo drawings and work directly onto the canvas. His influence on the new Baroque style that emerged from Mannerism was profound, it can be seen directly or indirectly in the work of Peter Paul Rubens, Jusepe de Ribera, Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Rembrandt, artists in the following generation under his influence were called the "Caravaggisti" or "Caravagesques", as well as tenebrists or tenebrosi.
Caravaggio trained as a painter in Milan before moving in his twenties to Rome. He developed a considerable name as an artist, as a violent and provocative man. A brawl forced him to flee to Naples. There he again established himself as one of the most prominent Italian painters of his generation, he traveled in 1607 to Malta and on to Sicily, pursued a papal pardon for his sentence. In 1609 he returned to Naples. Questions about his mental state arose from his bizarre behavior, he died in 1610 under uncertain circumstances while on his way from Naples to Rome. Reports stated that he died of a fever, but suggestions have been made that he was murdered or that he died of lead poisoning. Caravaggio's innovations inspired Baroque painting, but the Baroque incorporated the drama of his chiaroscuro without the psychological realism; the style evolved and fashions changed, Caravaggio fell out of favor. In the 20th century interest in his work revived, his importance to the development of Western art was reevaluated.
The 20th-century art historian André Berne-Joffroy stated, "What begins in the work of Caravaggio is, quite modern painting." Caravaggio was born in Milan, where his father, was a household administrator and architect-decorator to the Marchese of Caravaggio, a town not far from the city of Bergamo. In 1576 the family moved to Caravaggio to escape a plague that ravaged Milan, Caravaggio's father and grandfather both died there on the same day in 1577, it is assumed that the artist grew up in Caravaggio, but his family kept up connections with the Sforzas and with the powerful Colonna family, who were allied by marriage with the Sforzas and destined to play a major role in Caravaggio's life. Caravaggio's mother died in 1584, the same year he began his four-year apprenticeship to the Milanese painter Simone Peterzano, described in the contract of apprenticeship as a pupil of Titian. Caravaggio appears to have stayed in the Milan-Caravaggio area after his apprenticeship ended, but it is possible that he visited Venice and saw the works of Giorgione, whom Federico Zuccari accused him of imitating, Titian.
He would have become familiar with the art treasures of Milan, including Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper, with the regional Lombard art, a style that valued simplicity and attention to naturalistic detail and was closer to the naturalism of Germany than to the stylised formality and grandeur of Roman Mannerism. Following his initial training under Simone Peterzano, in 1592 Caravaggio left Milan for Rome, in flight after "certain quarrels" and the wounding of a police officer; the young artist arrived in Rome "naked and needy... without fixed address and without provision... short of money." During this period he stayed with the miserly Pandolfo Pucci, known as "monnsignor Insalata". A few months he was performing hack-work for the successful Giuseppe Cesari, Pope Clement VIII's favourite artist, "painting flowers and fruit" in his factory-like workshop. In Rome there was demand for paintings to fill the many huge new churches and palazzos being built at the time, it was a period when the Church was searching for a stylistic alternative to Mannerism in religious art, tasked to counter the threat of Protestantism.
Caravaggio's innovation was a radical naturalism that combined close physical observation with a dramatic theatrical, use of chiaroscuro that came to be known as tenebrism. Known works from this period include a small Boy Peeling a Fruit, a Boy with a Basket of Fruit, the Young Sick Bacchus a self-portrait done during convalescence from a serious illness that ended his employment with Cesari. All three demonstrate the physical particularity for which Caravaggio was to become renowned: the fruit-basket-boy's produce has been analysed by a professor of horticulture, able to identify individual cultivars right down to "... a large fig leaf with a prominent fungal scorch lesion resembling anthracnose."Caravaggio left Cesari, determined to make his own way after a heated argument. At this point he forged some important friendships, with the painter Prospero Orsi, the architect Onorio Longhi, the sixteen-year-old Sicilian artist Mario Minniti. Orsi
Penance is repentance of sins as well as an alternate name for the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox sacrament of Reconciliation or Confession. It plays a part in confession among Anglicans and Methodists, in which it is a rite, as well as among other Protestants; the word penance derives from Old French and Latin paenitentia, both of which derive from the same root meaning repentance, the desire to be forgiven. Penance and repentance, similar in their derivation and original sense, have come to symbolize conflicting views of the essence of repentance, arising from the controversy as to the respective merits of "faith" and "good works". Word derivations occur in many languages. Protestant Reformers, upholding the doctrine of justification by faith, held that repentance consisted in a change of the whole moral attitude of the mind and soul, that the divine forgiveness preceded true repentance and confession to God without any reparation of "works". Rather, "God's kindness is meant to lead you to repentance".
In his Of Justification By Faith, Calvin says: "without forgiveness no man is pleasing to God." Nonetheless, in traditions formed by a Calvinist or Zwinglian sensibility there has traditionally been a stress on reconciliation as a precondition to fellowship. The attitude of penance or repentance can be externalized in acts that a believer imposes on himself or herself, acts that are themselves called penances. Penitential activity is common during the season of Lent and Holy Week. In some cultural traditions, this week, which commemorates the Passion of Christ, may be marked by penances that include flagellantism or voluntary pseudo-crucifixion. Advent is another season during which, to a lesser extent, penances are performed. Acts of self-discipline are used as tokens of repentance. Easier acts of self-discipline include devoting time to prayer or reading of the Bible or other spiritual books. Examples of harder acts of self-discipline are fasting, abstaining from alcohol or tobacco, or other privations.
Self-flagellation and the wearing of a cilice are more used. Such acts have sometimes been called mortification of the flesh, a phrase inspired by Romans 8:13: "If you live according to the flesh you will die, but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live." Such acts are associated with the sacrament. In early Christianity, public penance was imposed on penitents, the severity of which varied according to the seriousness of the offences forgiven. Today the act of penance or satisfaction imposed in connection with the sacrament for the same therapeutic purpose can be set prayers or a certain number of prostrations or an act or omission intended to reinforce what is positive in the penitent's behaviour or to inhibit what is negative; the act imposed is itself called a epitemia. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, penance is called Sacred Mystery of Confession. In Orthodoxy, the intention of the sacramental mystery of Holy Confession is to provide reconciliation with God through means of healing.
Similar to the Eastern Catholic Churches, in the Eastern Orthodox Church there are no confessionals. Traditionally the penitent stands or kneels before either the Icon of Christ the Teacher or in front of an Icon of Christ, "Not Made by Hands"; this is because in Orthodox sacramental theology, confession is not made to the priest, but to Christ. On an analogion in front of the penitent has been placed a Gospel Book and a Crucifix; the penitent kneels. This is to show humility before Christ. Once they are ready to start, the priest says, “Blessed is our God, always and and unto the ages of ages,” reads the Trisagion Prayers and the Psalm 50; the priest advises the penitent that Christ is invisibly present and that the penitent should not be embarrassed or be afraid, but should open up their heart and reveal their sins so that Christ may forgive them. The penitent accuses himself of sins; the priest and patiently listens asking questions to encourage the penitent not to withhold any sins out of fear or shame.
After the confessant reveals all their sins, the priest offers counsel. The priest may modify the prayer rule of the penitent, or prescribe another rule, if needed to combat the sins the penitent struggles most with. Penances, known as epitemia, are given with a therapeutic intent, so they are opposite to the sin committed. Epitemia are neither a punishment nor a pious action, but are aimed at healing the spiritual ailment, confessed. For example, if the penitent broke the Eighth Commandment by stealing something, the priest could prescribe they return what they stole and give alms to the poor on a more regular basis. Opposites are treated with opposites. If the penitent suffers from gluttony, the confessant’s fasting rule is reviewed and increased; the intention of Confession is never to heal and purify. Confession is seen as a “second baptism”, is sometimes referred to as the "baptism of tears". In Orthodoxy, Confession is seen as a means to procure better spiritual purity. Confession does not involve stating the sinful things the person does.
The approach is holistic, examining the full life of the confessant. The good works do not earn salvation, but are part of a psychotherapeutic treatment to preserve salvation and purity. Sin is treated as a spiritual illness, or woun
In Christian theology, Charity is considered as one of the seven virtues and is understood by Thomas Aquinas as "the friendship of man for God", which "unites us to God". He holds it as "the most excellent of the virtues". Further, Aquinas holds that "the habit of charity extends not only to the love of God, but to the love of our neighbor"; the Catechism of the Catholic Church defines "charity" as "the theological virtue by which we love God above all things for His own sake, our neighbor as ourselves for the love of God". The phrase Deus caritas est from 1 John 4:8—or Θεὸς ἀγάπη ἐστίν in the original Greek is translated in the King James Version as: "God is love", in the Douay-Rheims bible as: "God is charity". Thomas Aquinas does not equate charity with "love", which he holds as a passion, not a virtue; the King James Version uses both the words charity and love to translate the idea of caritas/ἀγάπη: sometimes it uses one sometimes the other, for the same concept. Most other English translations, both before and since, do not.
Love can have other meanings in English, but as used in the New Testament it always refers to the virtue of caritas. Many times when charity is mentioned in English-language bibles, it refers to "love of God", a spiritual love, extended from God to man and reflected by man, made in the image of God, back to God. God gives man the power to act as God acts, man reflects God's power in his own human actions towards others. One example of this movement is "charity shall cover the multitude of sins". "The practice of charity brings us to act toward ourselves and others out of love alone because each person has the dignity of a beloved child of God." Charity is held to be the ultimate perfection of the human spirit, because it is said to both glorify and reflect the nature of God. Confusion can arise from the multiple meanings of the English word "love"; as other theological virtues, Charity is divinely infused into the soul. According to Aquinas, charity is an absolute requirement for happiness, which he holds as man's last goal.
Charity has two parts: love of God and love of man, which includes both love of one's neighbor and one's self. In 1 Corinthians 13, Paul places the greater emphasis on Charity. "So faith, love remain, these three. He describes it as: Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, have not charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal, and though I have the gift of prophecy, understand all mysteries, all knowledge. And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, though I give my body to be burned, have not charity, it profiteth me nothing. Charity never faileth: but whether there be prophecies, they shall fail. For we know in part, we prophesy in part, but when that, perfect is come that, in part shall be done away.... And now abideth faith, charity, these three; the fruits of charity are joy and mercy. In December 2005, Pope Benedict XVI issued the encyclical Deus caritas est, in which he discussed "... the love which God lavishes upon us and which we in turn must share with others."
Charity Great Commandment The six other Heavenly Virtues Chastity Diligence Humility Kindness Patience Temperance Love for enemies Loving-kindness and similar or related concepts: Agape – a Greek word with meanings of "loving-kindness" or "love" Chesed – a similar Hebrew term, given the association of kindness and love Mettā – a Pāli word glossed as "loving-kindness" and "friendliness" Seven Deadly Sins Virtue Altruism John Bossy, Christianity in the West 1400–1700, 168. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Love". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Summa Theologica "Second Part of the Second Part" See Questions 23-46