George Tuska, who early in his career used a variety of pen names including Carl Larson, was an American comic book and newspaper comic strip artist best known for his 1940s work on various Captain Marvel titles and the crime fiction series Crime Does Not Pay and his 1960s work illustrating Iron Man and other Marvel Comics characters. As well, he drew the DC Comics newspaper comic strip The World's Greatest Superheroes from 1978–1982. George Tuska was born in Hartford, the youngest of three children of Russian immigrants Harry and Anna Onisko Tuska, who had met in New York City. George's siblings Peter, the eldest, Mary, the middle child, were born in New York City. Years Mary died while giving birth to her second child, stillborn. Harry, a foreman at a Hartford auto-tire company, died when George was 14. Anna opened a restaurant in Paterson, New Jersey, where she had relatives, remarried. At 17, Tuska moved to New York City, rooming with his cousin Annie, a year began attending the National Academy of Design.
His artistic influences included illustrators Harold von Schmidt, Dean Cornwell, Thomas Lovell, comic strip artists Lou Fine, Hal Foster, Alex Raymond. At some early point, he took his first job in art. Tuska began working for comic book packager Eisner & Iger, one of a handful of companies at the time that supplied comics on demand for publishers entering the new medium, his first known published comic-book work appeared in Fox Comics' Mystery Men Comics #1 and Wonderworld Comics #4, both cover-dated August 1939. Tuska in the mid-2000s recalled: I went to art school at the same I was doing costume jewelry design. I put in an application with a professional agency in New York City. I told them I could do drawing. A week I got a call from Eisner-Iger, asking me to submit some samples.... Said,'That's pretty good, but we don't do that stuff', he showed me a comic book and said,'This is what we want'.... I made a page -- a whole story in one page; when I brought it back, he bought it for $5. He said,'We'd like to have you work for us'.
That's how I got started.... I gave up school.... I made $10 per week. At Eisner & Iger, Tuska said in 2001, "I worked alongside Bob Powell, Lou Fine, Mike Sekowsky", his studio colleagues grew to include artists Charles Sultan, John Celardo, Nick Cardy, writer Toni Blum. Writer-artist and company co-founder Will Eisner recalled of the period, "It was a friendly shop, I guess I was the same age as the youngest guys there. We all got along; the only ones who got into a hassle were George Tuska and Bob Powell. Powell made remarks about other people in the shop. One day, George had enough of it, got up, punched out Bob Powell"; the otherwise mild-mannered Tuska, thinking comic books "would last two or three years — a fad" left to seek non-comics work. After two weeks, however, he came across colleagues Sultan and Dave Glaser, on their way to meet with comics packager Harry "A" Chesler. Tuska, invited along, joined Chesler's studio, working there in 1939 and 1940, earning $22 a week, increased to $42 a week within six months.
Alongside colleagues that included Sultan, Ruben Moreira, Mac Raboy, Ralph Astarita, to Tuska helped to supply content for such Fawcett Comics publications as Captain Marvel Adventures. When Eisner-Iger client Fiction House formed its own bullpen to produce work on staff, Tuska left Chesler to join Cardy, Jim Mooney, Graham Ingels and other artists there. Tuska produced a prodigious amount of work that included, for Fiction House, the South Sea adventure feature "Shark Brodie" and the investigative feature "Hooks Devlin", both for Fight Comics. Before and during his six years at Fiction House, Tuska freelanced such features as the North Atlantic seafaring adventure "Spike Marlin" in Harvey Comics' Speed Comics. At some point, Tuska again worked for Will Eisner, now split from Jerry Iger, with a group of artists that included Alex Kotzky and Tex Blaisdell. "While with Eisner, I penciled some Spirit and Uncle Sam stories". Independently, he was assigned by Fawcett art director Al Allard to draw "a few more Captain Marvel stories.
Allard had asked me to draw as close as possible to the way Captain Marvel had first appeared in Whiz Comics.... After those freelance jobs, I never worked for Fawcett again". Tuska's earliest Captain Marvel work appeared in Captain Marvel Adventures #2-4. Drafted into the U. S. Army circa 1942, Tuska was stationed at the 100th Division at Fort Jackson in Columbia, South Carolina, where he drew military plans and was honorably discharged after a year for reasons the artist did not specify. Returning home, he took up again with Fiction House, drawing a host of stories featuring Reef Ryan, Rip Carson, Lady Satan, the Western hero Golden Arrow, Camilla, Queen of the Jungle. Following the huge popularity of superheroes during the World War II years, those characters' appeal began to dwindle in the post-war era. Comic-book publishers, casting about for new subjects and genres, found a hit in crime fiction, the most prominent comic of, Lev Gleason Publications' Crime Does Not Pay. Tuska would soon make a nam
Themyscira (DC Comics)
Themyscira is a fictional unitary sovereign city-state and archipelagic island nation appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Known Paradise Island and the Amazon Isles, it first appeared in All Star Comics #8. Themyscira was created by William Moulton Marston to allegorize the safety and security of the home where women thrived apart from the hostile, male-dominated work place. Regarded as a utopia, it is governed by Aphrodite's Law, which declared that the Amazons would be immortal as long as no man set foot on their island. Themyscira is the theocracy and capital city that serves as the Amazonians' government and place of origin for Wonder Woman; the name for the entire archipelago became "The Paradise Islands", when the city was renamed "Themyscira" with the character's February 1987 relaunch in Wonder Woman #1. Both the island and city are named after the mythological city of Themiscyra, the capital of the Amazons in Greek mythology; when Wonder Woman's homeland is first introduced in 1941, it is referred to as Paradise Island, a secret and hidden island on Earth inhabited by the Amazons of myth.
The Amazons were given a break from the hostilities and temptations of Man's World, so were decreed to start a new life improving themselves by sequestering themselves to this island away from ancient Greece, after being enslaved by Hercules. With the island blessed by the Olympian Gods, no man was allowed to physically set foot on it; when United States Army intelligence officer Steve Trevor's plane crashes there during World War II, he is nursed back to health just outside of the capital city by Princess Diana, daughter of the island's Queen Hippolyta. Diana competes against other Amazons to become Wonder Woman, the emissary from Paradise Island who will accompany Steve back to "Man's World" and aid in the fight against the Axis powers, it was established that all Amazons are adept at a discipline called "bullets and bracelets" in which they are able to deflect bullets fired at them using the chain bands on their wrists. It was implied, but not yet confirmed, that Paradise Island was located somewhere in the Pacific Ocean.
In the 1970s television incarnation, Paradise Island's location was set in the Bermuda Triangle. And the 2009 animated movie version had set it in the Aegean Sea. There were three generations of Amazons living on the island, with Princess Diana being from the second; this basic back-story remains intact throughout the Golden Age and Silver Age of Comic Books, until the 1985–1986 Crisis on Infinite Earths storyline. Upon the conclusion of this limited series, most characters in the DC Comics universe underwent some revamp or retcon in their storyline history, Wonder Woman was one of several characters whose entire continuity was rebooted; the 1987 relaunch of Wonder Woman establishes that the Amazons are the reincarnated souls of women slain throughout pre-history by men. Shaped from clay over 3,000 years previous and given new lives by five Olympian goddesses — Artemis, Demeter and Aphrodite — the Amazons are granted immortality, great physical strength acute senses, beauty and love for one another.
They are tasked to teach the merits of virtue and equality to the men of "Patriarch’s World". They have founded the city-state of Themyscira in ancient Greece – Modern day Turkey, ruled by sisters Hippolyta and Antiope. Ares, the God of War and a chief opponent of the Amazons, manipulates his half brother Heracles to gather forces and attack Themyscira. Heracles subdues and ravages Hippolyta, his forces succeed in ransacking Themyscira and making the Amazons their slaves. Hippolyta pleads with the goddesses for help. Athena agrees to aid the Amazons, but only if they do not go against their purpose of creation by seeking revenge; when they agree to her terms, Athena frees the Amazons from their chains. Once freed, the Amazons proceed to slaughter most of their captors. Antiope leads a force of Amazons off into Greece; as decreed by the goddesses, Hippolyta leads the remaining Amazons to a remote island where, as penance for their failures as teachers, they become guardians of Doom’s Doorway, preventing the escape of the monsters beneath.
Renaming the island paradise Themyscira after their fallen capital, the Amazons began their new lives, erecting buildings and monuments and perfecting their skills as artisans and warriors. For centuries, the Amazons of Themyscira live in a perfect state of harmony with their surroundings, under a theocracy, they know no racism, although many consider Antiope's Lost Tribe of Amazons as little more than savages. They do not think in terms of male gender. Homosexuality is natural to them — while some Amazons are chaste, others have loving consorts, their city is composed of Greco-Roman architecture from 1200 BCE, they wear Greek garb, togas and period armor. The Amazons all wear the Bracelets of Submission as constant reminders of their Enslavement and obedience to their patrons, although only Diana is able to deflect bullets with them, they are fervently religious. Artemis is their primary goddess, they worship her with a sacrifice of a deer; the Amazons celebrate their creation each year in a Feast of Five, remembering the goddesses who brought them to life.
The Nereides bring to the shores of Themyscira young infants who would have otherwise drowned in accidents. Called "sending forth", these infants are tutored spiritually in Amazonian ideals, they are sent back mystically to the place of their disappearance. Julia Kapate
Adventure Comics is an American comic book series published by DC Comics from 1938 to 1983 and revived from 2009 to 2011. In its first era, the series ran for 503 issues, making it the fifth-longest-running DC series, behind Detective Comics, Action Comics and Batman, it was revived in 2009 by writer Geoff Johns with the Conner Kent incarnation of Superboy headlining the title's main feature, the Legion of Super-Heroes in the back-up story. It returned to its original numbering with #516; the series ended with #529, prior to DC's The New 52 company reboot as a result of the Flashpoint storyline. Adventure Comics began its nearly 50-year run in December 1935 under the title New Comics, only the second comic book series published by National Allied Publications, now DC Comics; the series was retitled New Adventure Comics with its 12th issue in January 1937. Issue #32 saw the title changed again to Adventure Comics, which would remain the book's name for the duration of its existence. A humor series, it evolved into a serious adventure series.
In issue #12 when the series was titled New Adventure Comics, Joe Shuster and Jerry Siegel introduced the first version of the character Jor-L as a science fiction detective in the far future. The series' focus shifted to superhero stories starting with the debut of the Sandman in issue #40. Other superheroes who appeared in the early days of Adventure included Hourman. A pivotal issue of the series was #103, when Superboy, Green Arrow, Johnny Quick, Aquaman moved from More Fun Comics, being converted to a humor format to Adventure. Starman's and Sandman's series were canceled to make room for the new features, while Genius Jones moved to the comic the new arrivals had just vacated. Superboy became the star of the book, would appear on each cover into 1969. Superboy's popularity in Adventure resulted in the character receiving his own title in 1949, when superhero titles in general were losing popularity. Krypto the Superdog debuted in issue # 210 in a Curt Swan. In issue #247, by Otto Binder and artist Al Plastino, Superboy met the Legion of Super-Heroes, a team of super-powered teens from the future.
The group became popular, would replace "Tales of the Bizarro World" as the Adventure backup feature with #300, soon be promoted to its lead. Lightning Lad, one of the Legion's founding members, was killed in Adventure Comics #304 and revived in issue #312. Issue #260 saw the first Silver Age appearance of Aquaman. In Adventure Comics #346, Jim Shooter, 14 years old at the time, wrote his first Legion story. Shooter wrote the story in which Ferro Lad died – the first "real" death of a Legionnaire – and introduced the Fatal Five; the Legion feature lasted until issue #380. With the next issue, Supergirl migrated from the backup slot in Action Comics to the starring feature in Adventure and ran until issue #424; the series reached its 400th issue in December 1970 and featured a Supergirl story written and drawn by Mike Sekowsky. As of #425, the book's theme changed from superhero adventure to fantasy/supernatural adventure; that issue debuted one new feature along with three non-series stories, the pirate saga "Captain Fear".
The next edition added a semi-anthology series, "The Adventurers' Club". Soon, editor Joe Orlando was trying out horror-tinged costumed heroes such as the Black Orchid, the Spectre. Before long, conventional superheroes returned to the book, beginning behind the Spectre, first a three-issue run of Aquaman and a newly drawn 1940s Seven Soldiers of Victory script. Aquaman was promoted to lead, backing him up were three-part story arcs featuring the Creeper, the Martian Manhunter, bracketed by issue-length Aquaman leads, he was awarded his own title and Superboy took over Adventure with Aqualad and Eclipso backups. Following this was a run as a Dollar Comic format giant-sized book, including such features as the resolution of Return of the New Gods, "Deadman", the "Justice Society of America"; the standard format returned, split between a new Starman named Plastic Man. With an increase in the story-and-art page count, the last four issues included one more run of Aquaman. All three were dropped to make way for a new version of an old feature, "Dial H for Hero".
Issue #490 saw the comic's cancellation. "Dial'H' for Hero" was moved to New Adventures of Superboy as of that series' issue #28. Adventure Comics was soon rescued; as of the September issue it was revived as a digest-sized comic. This format lasted from issues #491–503, with most stories during this period being reprints, with new stories featuring the Marvel Family and the Challengers of the Unknown including a
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Matt Wagner is an American comics artist and writer, best known as the creator of the series Mage and Grendel. Matt Wagner's first published comic book work was Comico Primer #2, the first appearance of Grendel. In addition to his creator-owned series Mage and Grendel, he has worked on comics featuring the Demon and Batman as well as such titles as Sandman Mystery Theatre. In 1991, he illustrated part of the "Season of Mists" story arc in Neil Gaiman's The Sandman series, he wrote and drew Batman/Superman/Wonder Woman: Trinity a limited series featuring DC's three major heroes in 2003. He followed it with Batman and the Monster Men and Batman and the Mad Monk in 2006, his other projects include Madame Xanadu for Vertigo, with artist Amy Reeder Hadley. He has produced numerous comics covers, including painted ones for Green Arrow and has written several Green Hornet limited series for Dynamite Entertainment. Outside comics, Wagner provided art for the 1984 Villains & Vigilantes adventure Battle Above the Earth written by Steven Crow.
Wagner resides in Portland, Oregon with his wife Barbara Schutz. Wagner is an atheist. 1988: Nominated for "Best Writer" Eisner Award, for Grendel Won an Inkpot Award 1993: Won "Best Finite Series/Limited Series" Eisner Award, for Grendel: War Child Nominated for "Best Writer/Artist" Eisner Award, for Batman: Legends of the Dark Knight: "Faces" Nominated for "Best Cover Artist" Eisner Award, for Batman: Legends of the Dark Knight: "Faces" Nominated for "Best Inker" Eisner Award, for Grendel: War Child 1995: Nominated for "Best Writer" Eisner Award, for Sandman Mystery Theatre 1999: Won "Best Anthology" Eisner Award, for Grendel: Black and Red Won "Best Short Story" Eisner Award, for "Devil's Advocate" in Grendel: Black and Red #1 Nominated for "Best Writer" Eisner Award, for Grendel: Black and Red Official website Matt Wagner at the Comic Book DB Matt Wagner at Mike's Amazing World of Comics Matt Wagner at the Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators
Aquaman is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by Paul Norris and Mort Weisinger, the character debuted in More Fun Comics #73. A backup feature in DC's anthology titles, Aquaman starred in several volumes of a solo comic book series. During the late 1950s and 1960s superhero-revival period known as the Silver Age, he was a founding member of the Justice League. In the 1990s Modern Age, writers interpreted Aquaman's character more with storylines depicting the weight of his role as king of Atlantis; the character's original 1960s animated appearances left a lasting impression, making Aquaman recognized in popular culture and one of the world's most recognized superheroes. Jokes about his wholesome, weak portrayal in Super Friends and perceived feeble powers and abilities have been staples of comedy programs and stand-up routines, leading DC at several times to attempt to make the character edgier or more powerful in comic books. Modern comic book depictions have attempted to reconcile these various aspects of his public perception, casting Aquaman as serious and brooding, saddled with an ill reputation, struggling to find a true role and purpose beyond his public side as a deposed king and a fallen hero.
Aquaman has been featured in several adaptations, first appearing in animated form in the 1967 The Superman/Aquaman Hour of Adventure and in the related Super Friends program. Since he has appeared in various animated productions, including prominent roles in the 2000s series Justice League and Justice League Unlimited and Batman: The Brave and the Bold, as well as several DC Universe Animated Original Movies. Actor Alan Ritchson portrayed the character in the live-action television show Smallville. In the DC Extended Universe, actor Jason Momoa portrayed the character in the films Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice, Justice League, Aquaman. Aquaman's Pre-Crisis publication history spans many titles and anthologies, can be difficult to follow. Aquaman's appearances began in More Fun Comics #73, continued until issue #107. At this time, Aquaman began his first run in Adventure Comics, lasting from issue #103 to issue #282. A four issue run in Showcase followed; these Showcase issues are notable as Aquaman's first cover appearances in any comic.
Soon after this, Aquaman began his first solo series. After a 3 year hiatus, Aquaman returned to Adventure Comics for 15 issues. At this point, his new solo series begun at #57 and ended at #63. Aquaman once again returned to Adventure Comics as part of the Dollar Comics revamp of the series; when this ended, Aquaman appeared in 3 issues of World's Finest Comics and returned to Adventure Comics for 4 more issues. The feature found a new home in Action Comics for 14 issues; this would be the end of Aquaman's Pre-Crisis solo appearances. Post Crisis, Aquaman's next solo titles were 2 specials; this was followed up with volume 4. Preceding Aquaman's fifth solo series was the miniseries Time & Tide, which provided a revamped origin for Aquaman. Volume 5 was the longest solo series. Volume 6 followed the Obsidian Age storyline in JLA, was renamed Aquaman: Sword of Atlantis with issue #40. Aquaman's first origin story was presented in flashback from his debut in More Fun Comics #73, narrated by the character himself: The story must start with my father, a famous undersea explorer—if I spoke his name, you would recognize it.
My mother died when I was a baby, he turned to his work of solving the ocean's secrets. His greatest discovery was an ancient city, in the depths where no other diver had penetrated. My father believed, he made himself a water-tight home in one of the palaces and lived there, studying the records and devices of the race's marvelous wisdom. From the books and records, he learned ways of teaching me to live under the ocean, drawing oxygen from the water and using all the power of the sea to make me wonderfully strong and swift. By training and a hundred scientific secrets, I became what you see—a human being who lives and thrives under the water. In his early Golden Age appearances, Aquaman can breathe underwater and control fish and other underwater life for up to a minute, he was depicted as speaking to sea creatures "in their own language" rather than telepathically, only when they were close enough to hear him. Aquaman's adventures took place all across the world, his base was "a wrecked fishing boat kept underwater," in which he lived.
During his wartime adventures, most of Aquaman's foes were Nazi U-boat commanders and various Axis villains where he once worked with the All-Star Squadron. The rest of his adventures in the 1940s and 1950s had him dealing with various sea-based criminals, including modern-day pirates such as his longtime archenemy Black Jack, as well as various threats to aquatic life, shipping lanes, sailors. Aquaman's last appearance in More Fun Comics was in issue #106, before being moved along with Superboy and Green Arrow to Adventure Comics, starting with issue #103 in 1946. Aquaman's adventures continued to be published in Adventure Comics through the 1940s and 1950s, as one of the few superheroes to last through the 1950s in continuous publication. Starting in the late 1950s, new elements to Aquaman's backstory were introduced, with various new supporting characters added and several adjustments made to the character, his origins
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth formed over 4.5 billion years ago. Earth's gravity interacts with other objects in space the Sun and the Moon, Earth's only natural satellite. Earth revolves around the Sun in a period known as an Earth year. During this time, Earth rotates about its axis about 366.26 times. Earth's axis of rotation is tilted with respect to its orbital plane; the gravitational interaction between Earth and the Moon causes ocean tides, stabilizes Earth's orientation on its axis, slows its rotation. Earth is the largest of the four terrestrial planets. Earth's lithosphere is divided into several rigid tectonic plates that migrate across the surface over periods of many millions of years. About 71% of Earth's surface is covered with water by oceans; the remaining 29% is land consisting of continents and islands that together have many lakes and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere.
The majority of Earth's polar regions are covered in ice, including the Antarctic ice sheet and the sea ice of the Arctic ice pack. Earth's interior remains active with a solid iron inner core, a liquid outer core that generates the Earth's magnetic field, a convecting mantle that drives plate tectonics. Within the first billion years of Earth's history, life appeared in the oceans and began to affect the Earth's atmosphere and surface, leading to the proliferation of aerobic and anaerobic organisms; some geological evidence indicates. Since the combination of Earth's distance from the Sun, physical properties, geological history have allowed life to evolve and thrive. In the history of the Earth, biodiversity has gone through long periods of expansion punctuated by mass extinction events. Over 99% of all species that lived on Earth are extinct. Estimates of the number of species on Earth today vary widely. Over 7.6 billion humans live on Earth and depend on its biosphere and natural resources for their survival.
Humans have developed diverse cultures. The modern English word Earth developed from a wide variety of Middle English forms, which derived from an Old English noun most spelled eorðe, it has cognates in every Germanic language, their proto-Germanic root has been reconstructed as *erþō. In its earliest appearances, eorðe was being used to translate the many senses of Latin terra and Greek γῆ: the ground, its soil, dry land, the human world, the surface of the world, the globe itself; as with Terra and Gaia, Earth was a personified goddess in Germanic paganism: the Angles were listed by Tacitus as among the devotees of Nerthus, Norse mythology included Jörð, a giantess given as the mother of Thor. Earth was written in lowercase, from early Middle English, its definite sense as "the globe" was expressed as the earth. By Early Modern English, many nouns were capitalized, the earth became the Earth when referenced along with other heavenly bodies. More the name is sometimes given as Earth, by analogy with the names of the other planets.
House styles now vary: Oxford spelling recognizes the lowercase form as the most common, with the capitalized form an acceptable variant. Another convention capitalizes "Earth" when appearing as a name but writes it in lowercase when preceded by the, it always appears in lowercase in colloquial expressions such as "what on earth are you doing?" The oldest material found in the Solar System is dated to 4.5672±0.0006 billion years ago. By 4.54±0.04 Bya the primordial Earth had formed. The bodies in the Solar System evolved with the Sun. In theory, a solar nebula partitions a volume out of a molecular cloud by gravitational collapse, which begins to spin and flatten into a circumstellar disk, the planets grow out of that disk with the Sun. A nebula contains gas, ice grains, dust. According to nebular theory, planetesimals formed by accretion, with the primordial Earth taking 10–20 million years to form. A subject of research is the formation of some 4.53 Bya. A leading hypothesis is that it was formed by accretion from material loosed from Earth after a Mars-sized object, named Theia, hit Earth.
In this view, the mass of Theia was 10 percent of Earth, it hit Earth with a glancing blow and some of its mass merged with Earth. Between 4.1 and 3.8 Bya, numerous asteroid impacts during the Late Heavy Bombardment caused significant changes to the greater surface environment of the Moon and, by inference, to that of Earth. Earth's atmosphere and oceans were formed by volcanic outgassing. Water vapor from these sources condensed into the oceans, augmented by water and ice from asteroids and comets. In this model, atmospheric "greenhouse gases" kept the oceans from freezing when the newly forming Sun had only 70% of its current luminosity. By 3.5 Bya, Earth's magnetic field was established, which helped prevent the atmosphere from being stripped away by the solar wind. A crust formed; the two models that explain land mass propose either a steady growth to the present-day forms or, more a rapid growth early in Earth history followed by a long-term steady continental area. Continents formed by plate tectonics