WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 17,900 libraries in 123 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by Inc.. The subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCat's database, the world's largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscription OCLC services. WorldCat is used by librarians for cataloging and research. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour; that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat. In 2003, OCLC began the "Open WorldCat" pilot program, making abbreviated records from a subset of WorldCat available to partner web sites and booksellers, to increase the accessibility of its subscribing member libraries' collections. In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record.
WikiD was phased out, although WorldCat incorporated user-generated content in other ways. In 2006, it became possible for anyone to search WorldCat directly at its open website, not only through the subscription FirstSearch interface where it had been available on the web to subscribing libraries for more than a decade before. Options for more sophisticated searches of WorldCat have remained available through the FirstSearch interface. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million "identities", which are metadata about names—predominantly authors and persons who are the subjects of published titles; as of May 2019, WorldCat contained over 450 million bibliographic records in 484 languages, representing over 2.8 billion physical and digital library assets, the WorldCat persons dataset included over 100 million people. WorldCat contains records in MAchine Readable Cataloging format contributed by library catalogers worldwide who use OCLC as a cataloging tool, these MARC format records can be downloaded into other libraries' local catalog systems.
This allows libraries to find and download records for materials they are adding to their local catalog, without having to undergo the lengthy process of creating a new catalog entry from scratch for each new item. WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model; that is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the underlying library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently: WorldCat shows that a particular item is owned by a particular library but does not provide that library's call number. WorldCat does not indicate whether an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair, or moved to storage not directly accessible to patrons. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show; as an alternative, WorldCat allows participating institutions to add direct links from WorldCat to their own catalog entries for a particular item, which enables the user to determine its real-time status. However, this still requires users to open multiple Web pages, each pointing to a different online public access catalog with its own distinctive user interface design, until they can locate a catalog entry that shows the item is available at a particular library.
Library contributions to WorldCat are made via the Connexion computer program, introduced in 2001. Copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Open Library Blackman, Cathy. "WorldCat and SkyRiver: a comparison of record quantity and fullness". Library Resources & Technical Services. 58: 178–186. Doi:10.5860/lrts.58n3.178. Breeding, Marshall. "Library services platforms: a maturing genre of products". Library Technology Reports. 51: 1–38. Doi:10.5860/ltr.51n4. Matthews, Joseph R.. "An environmental scan of OCLC alternatives: a management perspective". Public Library Quarterly. 35: 175–187. Doi:10.1080/01616846.2016.1210440. McKenzie, Elizabeth. OCLC changes its rules for use of records in WorldCat: library community pushback through blogs and cultures of resistance. Boston: Suffolk University Law School. Research paper 12-06. What the OCLC online union catalog means to me: a collection of essays. Dublin, Ohio: OCLC. 1997. ISBN 1556532237. OCLC 37492023. Wilson, Kristen. "The knowledge base at the center of the universe".
Library Technology Reports. 52: 1–35. Doi:10.5860/ltr.52n6. "WorldCat data licensing". Oclc.org. Retrieved December 31, 2018. See also: "Data licenses & attribution". Oclc.org. Retrieved December 31, 2018. Information about licensing of WorldCat records and some other OCLC data. Official website "WorldCat". Oclc.org. Retrieved December 31, 2018. Information on the OCLC website about WorldCat. "Bibliographic Formats and Standards". Oclc.org. Retrieved December 31, 2018. "WorldCat Identities". Worldcat.org. Retrieved December 31, 2018
Birsa Agricultural University is an agricultural university at Kanke, Ranchi in the Indian state of Jharkhand. It was established on 26 June 1981, after its formal inauguration by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, its primary objective is to develop area specific technologies and manpower in the fields of agriculture, animal husbandry and forestry for the development of the plateau region of Bihar and Jharkhand. In addition, economic uplifting of tribal and other backward class population of the region is a priority; the programmes and activities of education and extension are carried out through various faculties. Faculty of Agriculture Faculty of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry Faculty of Forestry Ranchi Agriculture College, Ranchi Ranchi Vetenary College College of forestry, Ranchi College of Bio-Technology, Ranchi College of Fisheries Science, Gumla Rabindra Nath Tagore Agriculture College, Deoghar Agriculture College, Garhwa Tilka Manjhi Agriculture College, Godda College of Horticulture, Chaibasa College of Agricultural Engineering, Ranchi Phulo Jhano Murmu College of Dairy Technology, Dumka Centre of Agribusiness Management, RanchiRanchi Agriculture College was established in 1955.
It was the second oldest agriculture college after Bihar Agriculture College in Sarbour at the time of undivided Bihar. From that time, it has strives hard to achieve excellence in agriculture and to bring golden era for farmers; this college was under Ranchi University until the formation of Ranjendra Prashad Agricultural University in Pusa in 1971. On 26 June 1981, it was transferred to Birsa Agricultural University in Kanke; the college is located. Its location stands 23 ° 17'N latitude. JCECEB conducted the exam for admission of Bsc, BTech, BTech. Eligibility for Bsc PCMB/PCB/PCM, BVSc&AH-PCB, Forestry-PCB, BTech-PCM. In Ranchi Agriculture College, there are 105 seats, of which 90 are for state quota and 15 for ICAR. Birsa College, Khunti Birsa Institute of Technology Sindri Official website
Lord Nelson "Nels" Roney was a building contractor and carpenter working in the U. S. state of Oregon. He designed and built many of Oregon's early covered bridges using the Howe truss. Roney built bridges for the Oregon and California Railroad from Roseburg, Oregon south to Redding, he constructed commercial buildings and houses in Eugene, Oregon. Roney was born in Ohio, on September 2, 1853, one of 12 children, his parents named him Lord Nelson in honor of Lord Horatio Nelson. Roney may have found the name pretentious, he preferred "Nels." The Roneys moved to Missouri where Nels began a three-year apprenticeship as a carpenter, earning 17 cents per day his first year. His wages increased to 36 cents per day his second year, 54 cents per day his third year. Roney settled in Eugene City in 1876, when the local population had reached 1,000. Eugene Skinner had operated a ferry crossing the Willamette River near his Donation Land Claim, but Roney arrived at a time when the growing town of Eugene City needed a bridge.
Roney worked on a precursor to Ferry Street Bridge. When many Oregon bridges washed out in the floods of January 1881, Roney was hired to rebuild; as the Oregon and California Railroad expanded south into California, Roney took charge of bridge building from Roseburg to Redding. In 1912 Roney was appointed Superintendent of Lane County bridges. Roney is credited with building many residential structures in Eugene. A partial list includes Villard Hall McMorran and Washburne Department Store Building First National Bank Building Smeede Hotel Hoffman House Hotel Eugene Opera House Lane County Courthouse tower Lane County Bank Shelton McMurphey Johnson House Episcopal and Methodist churches List of Oregon covered bridges National Register of Historic Places listings in Lane County, Oregon Lee Nelson Collection box 7, folder 60, box 17, folder 168