Severed Head of State
Severed Head of State is a Crust punk band with members split between Austin, Texas & Portland, Oregon. Band members play in other bands such as World Burns To Death, J Church, Warcry, Defiance, their lyrics focus on deep detestation of both human nature and the Christian belief system. Their sound ranges from slow melodies to furious thrashcore. Jack Control - vocals - Also of World Burns To Death, Formerly of Scorched Earth Policy Todd Burdette- guitar, vocals - Also of Tragedy and Warcry, Formerly of Copout, His Hero Is Gone and Call the Police Kelly Halliburton - Bass - Also of Pierced Arrows and P. R. O. B. L. E. M. S. Of Murder Disco X, Deprived, Cluster Bomb Unit, Suicide Blitz, Masskontroll and Axiom Chris Pfeffer - Drums - Also of Storm The Tower, J Church and Signal Lost, Formerly of Scorched Earth Policy and Meadowlark 1999 - One-sided S/T 12" 2000 - S/T 7" 2000 - Black Blood World 7" 2000 - S/T 7" 2000 - An Invitation To A Beheading: 1998–2001 Discography CD 2002 - No Love Lost 7"/CD-EP 2003 - Anathema Device LP/CD 2004 - Charge Ahead 7" 2005 - Fucking Butchery 7" 2005 2005 - Fucking Butchery/Charge Ahead CD 2007 - Power Hazard EP/CD Severed Head of State on Myspace
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Crust punk is a form of music influenced by English punk rock and extreme metal. The style, which evolved in the early-1980s in England has songs with dark and pessimistic lyrics that linger on political and social ills; the term "crust" was coined by Hellbastard on their 1986 Ripper Crust demo. Crust is defined by its "bassy" and "dirty" sound, it is played at a fast tempo with occasional slow sections. Vocals are guttural and may be grunted, growled or screamed. Crust punk takes cues from the anarcho-punk of Crass and Discharge and the heavy metal of bands like Venom, Hellhammer, Celtic Frost, Black Sabbath and Motörhead. While the term was first associated with Hellbastard, Amebix have been described as the originators of the style, along with Discharge and Antisect. Crust punk is a derivative form of anarcho-punk, mixed with metal riffs; the tempos are fast, but just short of thrashcore or grindcore. However, many groups confine themselves to a sludgy pace; the overall musical sound has been described as being "stripped down".
Drumming is done at high speed, with D-beats sometimes being used. Vocals in crust punk are shrieked or shouted, may be shared between two or more vocalists; the lyrical content of crust punk tends to be politically engaged. Crust punk songs are about nuclear war, animal rights, personal grievances, oppressive states and fascism. Amebix were interested in various forms of mysticism and Gnosticism. Malcolm "Scruff" Lewty and vocalist of Hellbastard, describes the distinction between metal and crust punk lyrics: Metal lyrics were so dumb, so far removed from daily life. Venom were going on about Satan... and bikes... and Satan... and women... and Satan! You know what? I never got up in the morning and said,'Fuck yeah! Satan! Let's go and meet my disciples from Hell!' I'd switch on the TV and know I was going to see hundreds of people dying because there'd been an earthquake in the third world... and all these people starving to death while military expenditure still increased... That was — and still is — the reality of it.
The whole heavy metal thing is just an escape from reality, into this other world of... well, bullshit basically. The initial inspiration for the crust punk scene came from the anarcho-punk of Crass and D-beat of Discharge. Swedish D-beat groups such as Crude SS, Skitslickers/Anti Cimex and Mob 47 and the Finnish Rattus were early influences. Amebix brought in influences from various post-punk bands, including Public Image Ltd. Bauhaus, Joy Division, Killing Joke; the early metal sound of Black Sabbath and Motörhead was a big influence on both Amebix and Antisect. Crust was founded by the bands Antisect; the term "crust" was coined by Hellbastard on their 1986 Ripper Crust demo. As punk historian Ian Glasper puts it,'Rippercrust' is regarded as the first time the word'crust' was used in the punk context, hence the specific starting point of the whole crust punk genre, although some would attribute that accolade to the likes of Disorder, Chaos UK, Amebix several years earlier. Malcolm "Scruff" Lewty and guitarist of the group, commented, A lot of people say we started the crust punk genre, but whatever.
If they wanna say that, I don't mind, but I'm no Malcolm McLaren, saying I invented something I didn't. Punk journalist Felix von Havoc contends that Doom, Excrement of War, Electro Hippies and Extreme Noise Terror were among the first bands to have the traditional UK "crust" sound. Additional subgenres of this style began to develop. Deviated Instinct, from Norwich, created "stenchcore", bringing "both the look and sound — dirty and metallic — to their natural conclusion". An anarcho-punk group, they began to take increasing influence from metal; as vocalist Julian "Leggo" Kilsby comments, We were much a part of the anarcho scene, to start with politically motivated... all the way through the band's existence although it got less obvious as time went by. But I never liked the straightforward'War is bad...' Lyrics that were so prevalent at the time, so as my writing skills improved I wanted to add more depth to our lyrics and make them more metaphorical. Extreme Noise Terror is credited with developing this style into grindcore.
However, Pete Hurley, the guitarist for the group, declared that he had no interest in being remembered as a pioneer of this style: "'grindcore' was a legendarily stupid term coined by a hyperactive kid from the West Midlands, it had nothing to do with us whatsoever. ENT were, — I suspect — always will be a hardcore punk band... not a grindcore band, a stenchcore band, a trampcore band, or any other sub-sub-sub-core genre-defining term you can come up with."American crust punk began in New York City in the mid-1980s, with the work of Nausea. The group emerged from the Lower East Side squat scene and New York hardcore, living with Roger Miret of Agnostic Front; the early work of Neurosis, from San Francisco borrowed from Amebix, inaugurated crust punk on the West Coast. Disrupt, Antischism, MISERY and Destroy were significant U. S. crust groups. An important American crust punk band was Aus Rotten from Pennsylvania. Crust punk flourished in Minneapolis, shepherded by the Profane Existence label.
In this period, the ethos of crust punk became codified, with vegetarianism and sometimes straight edge being prescribed by many of the figures in the scene. The powerviolence scene associated with Sl
Negative Approach is an American hardcore punk band, formed in Detroit, Michigan in 1981. The band is considered among the pioneers of hardcore punk in the Midwest region. Like most hardcore bands, Negative Approach was little known in its day outside of its hometown, it is now idolized in the Detroit rock underground and the punk subculture, considered to be one of the elite bands of the "old school" era, continues to be influential. Negative Approach broke up in 1984 with singer John Brannon moving on to the Laughing Hyenas, Easy Action, but the band has reformed as of 2006 and continues to tour sporadically. Negative Approach was formed in August 1981 in Detroit, Michigan by Brannon and Pete Zelewski after seeing a Black Flag/Necros show; the first NA lineup consisted of Brannon on vocals, Rob McCulloch on guitar, Pete Zelewski on bass and Zuheir Fakhoury on drums. Not long after, Zelewski left the band to form the Allied and was replaced by McCulloch's brother Graham. Fakhoury was replaced by Chris "Opie" Moore.
The lineup of Brannon/McCulloch/McCulloch/Moore would remain unchanged until NA disbanded. NA's first gig was in the basement of Necros drummer Todd Swalla's mother's home. Soon after, they recorded a demo, followed that up with an appearance on the Process of Elimination compilation 7" EP, released on Meatmen frontman Tesco Vee's fledgling Touch and Go label, named after his fanzine of the same name; the comp featured the Meatmen and Necros, among others. NA, the Meatmen and Necros embarked on the Process of Elimination tour. Although this "tour" consisted of a mere three shows, it is cited as being a key event in the early spread of hardcore; the first proper Negative Approach studio release came in 1982 with their self-titled 7" EP on Touch and Go. It contained "Can't Tell No One," "Ready to Fight" and "Nothing", the latter considered by many to be the quintessential NA song; the following year saw the release of the Tied Down album venerated as a hardcore classic. The classic lineup fell apart in 1983.
Rob McCulloch claims that the band had grown weary of the group's reputation for writing negative lyrics but that Brannon was not comfortable writing differently. McCulloch stated that Brannon's involvement with Larissa Stolarchuk from L-Seven was another source of tension for the group; the band regrouped long enough to record the Tied Down albumP split for good. Afterwards, Brannon assembled a new lineup with members Kelly Dermody and Mike McCabe; this version of Negative Approach played a series of live shows throughout 1984 which featured some new songs, such as "Obsession", "Tunnel Vision", "Kiss Me Kill Me" and a cover of "I Got a Right" by the Stooges. This lineup was documented on the Live at the Newtown Theater bootleg 7" and some live tracks recorded at Boston's Paradise Rock Club that appeared on the Total Recall CD collection; the new lineup split during the first week of their tour in support of Tied Down, playing their last show in Memphis. Brannon went on to front the punk blues band Laughing Hyenas with his girlfriend Stolarchuk, sings for Easy Action.
In 2008, Brannon recorded vocals for two songs on Vitamin X's album Full Scale Assault, recorded by Steve Albini. Moore moved out from behind the drums to front alt-rock act Crossed Wire along with Rob McCulloch. After Crossed Wire, McCulloch attended college and has not pursued a career in music, although he maintains a home recording studio. Moore embarked on a respected solo career as a roots-oriented singer and songwriter, his band Moore & Sons, featuring Lambchop member Dennis Cronin, signed to the UK's Triumphant Sounds/Drawing Room label. Graham McCulloch moved to Washington, DC and joined the Meatmen, before forming Earth 18 with John "Bubba" Dupree. Earth 18 toured the US, opening for Nitzer Ebb. After Earth 18 disbanded, McCulloch played for several years in Mother May I. On May 2006, it was announced that Brannon and Moore would play a Negative Approach reunion show of sorts, for Touch and Go's 25th anniversary show on September 9, 2006, as well as two shows in the UK. Despite repeated efforts by Rob and Graham McCulloch to be a part of the reunion and have the classic NA lineup play, Brannon refused.
It was instead announced that Harold Ron Sakowski would complete the lineup. Negative Approach closed out the No Fun Fest in Brooklyn, New York on May 20, 2007. Thurston Moore played guitar on two songs at the start of their set; the band did a brief reunion tour in the northeast United States in April 2008, performing in Brooklyn and Providence. They played the wedding of Anal Cunt founder Seth Putnam; the band did a lengthier tour of Europe in June 2008, that year, a concert in Los Angeles. In 2009, they played a string of shows in the U. S. On July 31, 2010, Negative Approach played a book release party for Tony Rettman's Why Be Something That Your Not at St. Andrew's Hall in Detroit with other bands reflecting the formative years of the Midwest hardcore scene such as Tesco Vee's Hate Police, Violent Apathy and Hellmouth; the book was titled after a Negative Approach song, included interviews with artists from the Detroit hardcore scene. The tour featured the signing of the book Touch and Go: The Complete Hardcore Punk Zine'79–'83 written by Vee and Dave Stimson and edited by Steve Miller.
In 2010, Brannon discovered several unreleased Negative Approach recordings, including the lost 1984 sessions of unreleased studio tracks. After meeting Brannon, Cu
Discharge are a British musical group formed in 1977 by Terence "Tezz" Roberts and Royston "Rainy" Wainwright. While the band has had substantial line-up changes over its history, the classic line-up from the early 1980s featured bassist Wainwright, drummer Gary Maloney, Anthony "Bones" Roberts playing guitar, vocalist Kelvin "Cal" Morris; the band is characterized by a minimalistic approach to music and lyrics, using a heavy and grinding guitar-driven sound and raw, shouted vocals similar to a political speech, with lyrics on anarchist and pacifist themes, over intense drone-like rhythms. The band's sound has been called a "grave-black aural acid assault." Discharge "paved the way for an astounding array of politically motivated, musically intense and confrontational bands". Discharge was "explicitly political" and used a "revolutionary/activist" attitude that moved hardcore away from its pub rock origins and towards a "dangerous and provocative" territory. AllMusic calls the band's sound a "high-speed noise overload" characterized by "ferocious noise blasts".
The band's 1982 debut album, Hear Nothing See Nothing Say Nothing, went to number two on the UK Indie Charts and number 40 in the UK Album Chart. Treble magazine calls HNSNSN one of the ten essential hardcore albums, in a list that includes Black Flag's Damaged and the Dead Kennedys' Fresh Fruit for Rotting Vegetables. In the early 1980s, numerous singles and EPs placed in the top 10 of the UK Indie Charts, including the 1981 EP Why? and the 1982 single State Violence State Control. Hear Nothing See Nothing Say Nothing paved the way for various extreme metal styles such as thrash metal, black metal, crust punk, grindcore; the band's "brutal, extremist approach" and "extreme thrash noise" style of playing led to the thrash genre. "Discharge's influence on heavy metal is incalculable and metal superstars such as Metallica and Sepultura have covered Discharge's songs in tribute." Discharge was a major influence on at least two generations of metal. Along with Napalm Death and Extreme Noise Terror, Discharge have been credited for laying the groundwork for grindcore.
The musical genre of d-beat is named after the band's distinctive drumbeat. Discharge was formed in 1977 in Stoke-on-Trent by Terence "Tez" Roberts and Royston "Rainy" Wainwright, they soon recruited Roberts's younger brother Anthony "Bones" Roberts on lead guitar, Nigel Bamford on bass and Anthony "Akko" Axon on drums. The musical style of the band was influenced by 1977-era punk bands such as the Sex Pistols, The Damned and The Clash. Engaging Tanya Rich as their manager, the band recorded their first demo, supported bands such as The Ruts, The Clash and The Damned at The Victoria Hall and began touring. Axon left that year, followed by Bamford, the band recruited their roadie Kelvin "Cal" Morris as vocalist, moving Terry Roberts to drums and Wainwright to bass. With Morris's addition, the group abandoned their previous Sex Pistols-influenced material and developed a new set of songs with a retooled sound. Anthony Roberts played guitar with a heavy and grinding style and Morris shouted or screamed vocals without melody.
The bassist played with a "immense gurgling over-driven" bass tone. The tempo of the band's songs steadily increased over the next year or so; the stylistic transition made by the band was part of a broader trend in the early 1980s in the UK, known as "UK 82" or second generation UK punk. Discharge and bands such as Chaos UK, Charged GBH took the existing 1977-era punk sound and melded it with the incessant, heavy drumbeats and "wall of sound" distortion guitar pioneered in the Overkill album by Motörhead; the new, harder-edged style tended to use much darker, more nihilistic and violent lyrics, focusing on anarchist and pacifist themes while emphasizing the grisly effects of nuclear warfare and the social ills caused by capitalism. Like Crass, Discharge displayed the anarchist symbol; the band expressed its political and social themes in its albums' artwork, which depicted the horrors of war using an iconic black-and-white photography style. One of the notable images is the "Impaled Dove" artwork from a 1930s John Heartfield anti-war poster, which depicts a dove impaled on a bayonet.
The first gig with this new line-up and new sound was at Northwood Parish Hall. Among the audience was local record shop owner Mike Stone, who ran the Clay Records punk record label. In 1980, Discharge signed with Clay Records, recorded their first single Realities of War in February 1980, which made the UK Indie Chart when it was released in April, after being played on BBC1 DJ John Peel's show, peaking at number 5 and spending 44 weeks in the chart; the band performed their first shows outside of Stoke-on-Trent in 1980, playing in Leicester and Glasgow. After two further EP releases in that same year, founding member Terry Roberts departed joining UK Subs, to be replaced by Keith Haynes of Picture Frame Seduction and soon thereafter by Dave "Bambi" Ellesmere before the Why? EP was recorded. Ellesmere did not stay long, the band replaced him with Garry Maloney of The Varukers on drums. Why? gave the band their first UK indie number one. Why? had cover photos showing the corpses of dead civilians.
The song "Visions of War" had an "unrepentantly angry and punishing attack" and it became a signature song for the group. The songs "Maimed and Slaughtered," "Does This System Work?" and "Mania for Conquest" set out the song and sound template for crust bands. At the same time, the record showed that it was possible for a hardcore band to incorporate the sonic power of "heavy metal wi
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people in whole or in part. The hybrid word "genocide" is a combination of the Latin suffix - caedo; the United Nations Genocide Convention, established in 1948, defines genocide as "acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, racial or religious group". The term genocide was coined by Raphael Lemkin in his 1944 book Axis Rule in Occupied Europe. Others are listed in Genocides in List of genocides by death toll; the Political Instability Task Force estimated that, between 1956 and 2016, a total of forty-three genocides took place, causing the death of about 50 million people. The UNHCR estimated that a further 50 million had been displaced by such episodes of violence up to 2008. Before 1944, various terms, including "massacre", "crimes against humanity", "extermination" were used to describe intentional, systematic killings. In 1941, Winston Churchill, when describing the German invasion of the Soviet Union, spoke of "a crime without a name".
In 1944, Raphael Lemkin created the term genocide in his book Axis Rule in Occupied Europe. The book describes the implementation of Nazi policies in occupied Europe, cites earlier mass killings; the term described the systematic destruction of a nation or people, the word was adopted by many in the international community. The word genocide is the combination of the Greek prefix geno- and caedere; the word genocide was used in indictments at the Nuremberg trials, held from 1945, but as a descriptive term, not yet as a formal legal term. According to Lemkin, genocide was "a coordinated strategy to destroy a group of people, a process that could be accomplished through total annihilation as well as strategies that eliminate key elements of the group's basic existence, including language and economic infrastructure". Lemkin defined genocide as follows: Generally speaking, genocide does not mean the immediate destruction of a nation, except when accomplished by mass killings of all members of a nation.
It is intended rather to signify a coordinated plan of different actions aiming at the destruction of essential foundations of the life of national groups, with the aim of annihilating the groups themselves. The objectives of such a plan would be the disintegration of the political and social institutions, of culture, national feelings and the economic existence of national groups, the destruction of the personal security, health and the lives of the individuals belonging to such groups; the preamble to the 1948 Genocide Convention notes that instances of genocide have taken place throughout history. But it was not until Lemkin coined the term and the prosecution of perpetrators of the Holocaust at the Nuremberg trials that the United Nations defined the crime of genocide under international law in the Genocide Convention. Lemkin's lifelong interest in the mass murder of populations in the 20th century was in response to the killing of Armenians in 1915 and to the mass murders in Nazi-controlled Europe.
He referred to the Albigensian Crusade as "one of the most conclusive cases of genocide in religious history". He dedicated his life to mobilizing the international community, to work together to prevent the occurrence of such events. In a 1949 interview, Lemkin said "I became interested in genocide, it happened to the Armenians after the Armenians, Hitler took action." After the Holocaust, perpetrated by Nazi Germany and its allies prior to and during World War II, Lemkin campaigned for the universal acceptance of international laws defining and forbidding genocides. In 1946, the first session of the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution that "affirmed" that genocide was a crime under international law and enumerated examples of such events. In 1948, the UN General Assembly adopted the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide which defined the crime of genocide for the first time. Genocide is a denial of the right of existence of entire human groups, as homicide is the denial of the right to live of individual human beings.
Many instances of such crimes of genocide have occurred when racial, religious and other groups have been destroyed or in part. The CPPCG was adopted by the UN General Assembly on 9 December 1948 and came into effect on 12 January 1951, it contains an internationally recognized definition of genocide, incorporated into the national criminal legislation of many countries, was adopted by the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, which established the International Criminal Court. Article II of the Convention defines genocide as:... any of the following acts committed with i
Herbert Marcuse was a German-American philosopher and political theorist, associated with the Frankfurt School of Critical Theory. Born in Berlin, Marcuse studied at the Humboldt University of Berlin and at Freiburg, where he received his PhD, he was a prominent figure in the Frankfurt-based Institute for Social Research – what became known as the Frankfurt School. He was married to Sophie Wertheim, Inge Neumann, Erica Sherover. In his written works, he criticized capitalism, modern technology, historical materialism and entertainment culture, arguing that they represent new forms of social control. Between 1943 and 1950, Marcuse worked in US government service for the Office of Strategic Services where he criticized the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in the book Soviet Marxism: A Critical Analysis. After his studies, in the 1960s and the 1970s he became known as the preeminent theorist of the New Left and the student movements of West Germany and the United States, his best known works are Civilization and One-Dimensional Man.
His Marxist scholarship inspired many radical intellectuals and political activists in the 1960s and 1970s, both in the United States and internationally. Herbert Marcuse was born July 19, 1898, to Carl Marcuse and Gertrud Kreslawsky, his family was Jewish. In 1916 he was drafted into the German Army, but only worked in horse stables in Berlin during World War I, he became a member of a Soldiers' Council that participated in the aborted socialist Spartacist uprising. He completed his PhD thesis at the University of Freiburg in 1922 on the German Künstlerroman after which he moved back to Berlin, where he worked in publishing. In 1924 he married a mathematician, he returned to Freiburg in 1928 to study with Edmund Husserl and write a habilitation with Martin Heidegger, published in 1932 as Hegel's Ontology and the Theory of Historicity. This study was written in the context of the Hegel renaissance, taking place in Europe with an emphasis on Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's ontology of life and history, idealist theory of spirit and dialectic.
With his academic career blocked by the rise of the Third Reich, in 1933 Marcuse joined the Institute for Social Research, popularly known as the Frankfurt School, in 1932. He went at once into exile with them, first in Geneva in the United States. Unlike some others, Marcuse did not return to Germany after the war, when he visited Frankfurt in 1956, the young Jürgen Habermas was surprised to discover that he was a key member of the Institute. In 1933, Marcuse published his first major review, of Karl Marx's Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844. In this review, Marcuse revised the interpretation of Marxism, from the standpoint of the works of the early Marx. While a member of the Institute of Social Research, Marcuse developed a model for critical social theory, created a theory of the new stage of state and monopoly capitalism, described the relationships between philosophy, social theory, cultural criticism, provided an analysis and critique of German fascism. Marcuse worked with critical theorists while at the institute.
After emigrating from Germany in 1933, Marcuse immigrated to the United States in 1934, where he became a citizen in 1940. Although he never returned to Germany to live, he remained one of the major theorists associated with the Frankfurt School, along with Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno. In 1940 he published Reason and Revolution, a dialectical work studying G. W. F. Hegel and Karl Marx. During World War II, Marcuse first worked for the US Office of War Information on anti-Nazi propaganda projects. In 1943, he transferred to the Research and Analysis Branch of the Office of Strategic Services, the precursor to the Central Intelligence Agency. Directed by the Harvard historian William L. Langer, the Research and Analysis Branch was in fact the biggest American research institution in the first half of the twentieth century. At its zenith between 1943 and 1945, it comprised over twelve hundred employees, four hundred of whom were stationed abroad. In many respects, it was the site where post–World War II American social science was born, with protégés of some of the most esteemed American university professors, as well as a large contingent of European intellectual émigrés, in its ranks.
These men comprised the "theoretical brain trust" of the American war machine, according to its founder, William J. Donovan, would function as a "final clearinghouse" for the secret services—that is, as a structure that, although not engaged in determining war strategy or tactics, would be able to assemble, organize and filter the immense flow of military information directed toward Washington, thanks to the unique capacity of the specialists on hand to interpret the relevant sources. In March 1943, Marcuse joined his fellow Frankfurt School scholar Franz Neumann in R & A's Central European Section as senior analyst and established himself as "the leading analyst on Germany. After the dissolution of the OSS in 1945, Marcuse was employed by the US Department of State as head of the Central European section, retiring after the death of his first wife in 1951. In 1952, Marcuse began a teaching career as a political theorist, first at Columbia University at Harvard University. Marcuse worked at Brandeis University from 1958 to 1965 at the University of California San Diego until his retirement.
It was during his time at Brandeis University