The World Calendar is a proposed reform of the Gregorian calendar created by Elisabeth Achelis of Brooklyn, New York in 1930. The World Calendar is a perennial calendar with equal quarters; each quarter ends on a Saturday. The quarters are equal: each has 91 days, 13 weeks, or 3 months; the three months in each quarter have 31, 30, 30 days respectively. Each quarter begins with the 31-day months of January, July, or October; the World Calendar has the following two additional days to maintain the same new year days as the Gregorian calendar. Worldsday The last day of the year following Saturday 30 December; this additional day is named Worldsday, a year-end world holiday. It is followed by 1 January in the new year. Leapyear Day This day is added at the end of the second quarter in leap years, it is dated "W" and named Leapyear Day. It is followed by 1 July within the same year; the World Calendar treats Worldsday and Leapyear Day as a 24-hour waiting period before resuming the calendar again. These off-calendar days known as "intercalary days", are not assigned weekday designations.
They are intended to be treated as holidays. Because any three-month sequence repeats with the same arrangement of days, The World Calendar can be expressed concisely: The World Calendar has its roots in the proposed calendar of the Abbot Marco Mastrofini, a proposal to reform the Gregorian calendar year so that it would always begin on Sunday, 1 January, would contain equal quarters of 91 days each; the 365th day of the solar cycle would be a year-end, "intercalary" and optionally holiday. In leap years, a second "intercalary day" follows 30 June. Elisabeth Achelis founded The World Calendar Association in 1930 with the goal of worldwide adoption of The World Calendar, it functioned for most of the next twenty-five years as Inc.. Throughout the 1930s, support for the concept grew in the League of Nations, the precursor of the United Nations. Achelis started the Journal of Calendar Reform in 1931, publishing it for twenty-five years, wrote five books on the calendar concept. Following World War II, Achelis solicited worldwide support for The World Calendar.
As the movement gained international appeal with legislation introduced in the United States Congress, awaiting international decisions, Achelis accepted advice that the United Nations was the proper body to act on calendar reform. At the United Nations in 1955, the United States delayed universal adoption by withholding support "unless such a reform were favoured by a substantial majority of the citizens of the United States acting through their representatives in the Congress of the United States." Achelis wrote in 1955, "While Affiliates and Committees have over the years and still are able to approach all branches of their governments, the Incorporated Association was prevented from seeking legislation in the United States lest it lose its tax exempt status. Because of this I have been prevented from doing in my own country that which I have been urging all other Affiliates to do in theirs." By 1956, she dissolved Incorporated. It continued as the International World Calendar Association through the rest of the century with several directors including Molly E. Kalkstein, related to Achelis, who provided the Association's first official website during her 2000–2004 tenure.
The Association reorganised in 2005 as International. It is active with resumed efforts towards adoption of The World Calendar in 2017 or 2023; the World Calendar Association's current director is Wayne Edward Richardson of Kansas. As with other calendar reform proposals, supporters point out several benefits to The World Calendar over the current Gregorian calendar. Proponents refer to its simple structure; each day is assigned an repetitive date relative to week and month. Quarterly statistics are easier to compare. Economic savings occur from less need to print calendars. Work and school schedules do not need to unnecessarily reinvent themselves, at great expense, year after year; the World Calendar can be memorised by anyone and used to a clock. Because The World Calendar is perpetual, there is no need to churn out copies of it every year. Dates in The World Calendar occur with no more than two days difference from Gregorian calendar dates; the main opponents of The World Calendar in the 20th century were leaders of religions that worship according to a seven-day cycle.
For Jews and Muslims, particular days of worship are ancient and fundamental elements of their faith. Jews observe Saturday as Shabbat, on the basis of the Decalogue's injunction to "Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy". Christians worship on the Lord's Day, on which they believe Christ rose from the dead. Muslims perform the jumu'ah prayer in Mosques on Fridays, the day. Seventh-day Adventists are required to worship every Saturday. Adherents of these religions object that intercalary days are counted outside the usual seven-day week and disrupt the traditional weekly cycle. A week with a Worldsday would be eight days long. Adherents of these religions insist that they would have to continue observing their holidays every seventh day, causing the worship days to drift by one day each year, relative to The World Calendar week; the day of rest would no longer coincide with the weekend. These concerns played a role in the United States government's decision at the United Nations in 1955 not to
The Miami RedHawks men's basketball team intercollegiate men's basketball program representing Miami University. The school competes in the Mid-American Conference in Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association; the RedHawks play home basketball games at Millett Hall in Ohio on the university campus. Miami has reached the NCAA Championship's Sweet Sixteen four times and has been the MAC regular season champions twenty times; the team is coached by Jack Owens. In May 2013, the Ohio Basketball Hall of Fame inducted 11 players and coaches who starred in the state including Miami's Wayne Embry, Randy Ayers, Ron Harper and Wally Szczerbiak; the RedHawks have appeared in the NCAA Tournament 17 times. Their combined record is 6–19; the RedHawks have appeared in the National Invitation Tournament six times. Their combined record is 2–6; the RedHawks have appeared in the College Basketball Invitational three times. Their combined record is 0–3
Olive Chifefe Kobusingye MB ChB, MMed, MSc, MPH is a Ugandan consultant trauma surgeon, emergency surgeon, accident injury epidemiologist and academic, who serves as a Senior Research Fellow at both Makerere University School of Public Health and the Institute for Social and Health Sciences of the University of South Africa. She heads the Trauma, Injury, & Disability Project at Makerere University School of Public Health, where she coordinates the TRIAD graduate courses. Kobusingye was born in Uganda in the 1960s, she attended local secondary schools. In 1982, she was admitted to Makerere University School of Medicine, graduating with a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degree in 1987, she continued with her studies at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, graduating with a Master of Science degree in 1991. Two years after that, she graduated with a Master of Medicine degree in General Surgery, from Makerere University School of Medicine, she followed that with a Master of Public Health degree, majoring in Epidemiology, obtained from the State University of New York at Albany in 1995.
Olive Kobusingye was the founding executive director of the Injury Control Center, at Makerere Medical School in Kampala, Uganda. She has experience in the design and implementation of injury surveillance systems in low income settings, she was the founding Secretary General of the Injury Prevention Initiative for Africa. She established, she is Chair of the International Network for Clinical Epidemiology Africa Injury Research Cluster, consisting of researchers from four African countries. Before joining Makerere University School of Public Health Olive worked as Regional Advisor on Violence and Disabilities at the World Health Organization’s regional office for Africa, based in Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo, she previously served as a lecturer, in the Department of Surgery at Makerere University and as an emergency and trauma surgeon at Mulago National Referral Hospital, the largest referral hospital in Uganda. As of April 2019, Kobusingye has been cited 17,489 times, she is an expert on the design and implementation of injury surveillance systems in low income settings, on designing interventions for the prevention of traffic injuries.
Kobusingye is a contributing author to Disease Control Priorities 3, having edited the volume about Injury Prevention and Environmental Health and authored the chapters on "Universal Health Coverage and Intersectoral Action for Health" and "Key Messages from Disease Control Priorities, Third Edition."Kobusingye developed the Kampala Trauma Score in 2000 designed for use in low-resource, low-income settings of LMICs, after establishing a hospital-based trauma registry that generated relevant and timely data on the causes, morbidity and outcomes of injuries in Mulago Hospital. Her KTS has since been validated and modified by other researchers, creating the M-KTS, which excludes respiratory rate from the calculation. Kobusingye is a mother of two girls, she is a younger sister to opposition politician Dr. Colonel Warren Kiiza Besigye Kifefe, a four-time presidential candidate and former president of the Forum for Democratic Change political party. Kobusingye's research interests include injury surveillance, emergency trauma care systems, injury severity measurement, road safety, drowning.
She has served on the Core Advisory Group of the World Bank’s Global Road Safety Facility. She is the Chairperson of the Road Traffic Injuries Research Network John Omagino Mulago National Referral Hospital Website of Makerere University School of Public Health
The 1962–63 DDR-Oberliga was the 14th season of the DDR-Oberliga, the first tier of league football in East Germany. The league was contested by fourteen teams. SC Motor Jena won the club's first-ever national East German championship; the club would go on to win two more under the name of FC Carl Zeiss Jena. Peter Ducke of SC Motor Jena was the league's top scorer with 19 goals. For the first time the title East German Footballer of the year was awarded, going to Manfred Kaiser of SC Wismut Karl-Marx-Stadt. On the strength of the 1962–63 title Motor Jena qualified for the 1963–64 European Cup where the club was knocked out by Dinamo Bucharest in the preliminary round. Seventh-placed club BSG Motor Zwickau qualified for the 1963–64 European Cup Winners' Cup as the seasons FDGB-Pokal winner and was knocked out by MTK Budapest in the second round after having received a bye in the first round; the 1962–63 season saw two newly promoted clubs, SC Karl-Marx-Stadt and Dynamo Dresden. "Das war unser Fußball im Osten".
The 2018 Maine gubernatorial election took place on November 6, 2018, to elect the next Governor of Maine. It occurred along with elections for the U. S. Senate, U. S. House, other state and local elections. Incumbent Republican Governor Paul LePage was term limited and could not seek reelection to a third consecutive term in office; the primaries for this election were the first in Maine to be conducted with ranked choice voting, as opposed to a simple plurality, after voters passed a citizen referendum approving the change in 2016. An advisory opinion by the Maine Supreme Judicial Court held that RCV would be unconstitutional for general elections for governor and the state legislature; this led state legislators to vote to delay its implementation pending approval of a state constitutional amendment. Backers of a "people's veto" turned in enough signatures to suspend this law until a June referendum vote, which restored RCV for future primary and congressional elections. Governor Paul LePage threatened not to certify the results of the primary elections, saying he would "leave it up to the courts to decide."
He called the use of ranked-choice voting the "most horrific thing in the world." Secretary of State Matthew Dunlap said the results would be binding regardless of whether LePage certified them. The Republican nominee was 2010 independent candidate for governor Shawn Moody; the Democratic candidate was Attorney General Janet Mills. State Treasurer Terry Hayes and businessman Alan Caron had qualified for the ballot as independents, though Caron dropped out on October 29 and endorsed Mills. Former state senator and former mayor of Lewiston and Auburn John Jenkins and perennial candidate Kenneth Capron ran write-in campaigns. Mills defeated Moody and Hayes with a majority on the first count to become the first female Governor of Maine, she became the first gubernatorial candidate to win at least 50% of the vote since Angus King in 1998, the first non-incumbent to do so since Kenneth M. Curtis in 1966. Mills became the first Maine gubernatorial candidate to earn 300,000 votes and received more votes for governor than any other candidate in state history.
Incumbent Republican Paul LePage is term-limited, having been elected twice consecutively in 2010 and 2014. LePage did not win a majority of the vote either time, with Democrats accusing independent candidate Eliot Cutler of splitting the anti-LePage vote in both instances, though Cutler finished closer to LePage than Democratic candidate Libby Mitchell in the 2010 election. Maine's history of governors elected without majorities, including LePage, was one impetus for the citizen's referendum to implement ranked choice voting. Indeed, the last time a gubernatorial candidate received a majority of the vote was in 1998, when incumbent Governor Angus King, an independent, won reelection with 58.6% of the vote. The last time a non-incumbent candidate received more than 50% of the vote was the 1966 gubernatorial election, which Democrat Kenneth M. Curtis won over incumbent Republican John H. Reed with 53.1% of the vote. Though ranked-choice voting was approved by voters in a 2016 referendum, the Maine Legislature voted to delay and repeal RCV for all elections after an advisory opinion by the Maine Supreme Judicial Court ruled it unconstitutional for general elections for state offices.
RCV supporters succeeded in a people's veto effort to prevent the delay, which suspends it until a June 2018 referendum vote. RCV supporters were victorious in the June referendum, ranked-choice voting will remain in place for state and federal primaries and federal general elections. Speculation that U. S. Senator Susan Collins was considering running for governor arose during the 2015 Maine Legislative session when Representative Matt Moonen introduced a bill to strip the governor of the power to appoint replacement U. S. Senators in the event of a vacancy and to instead have a special general election. Moonen denied that he was motivated by Collins's possible candidacy, saying he was interested only in counterbalancing Republican-sponsored bills to change how the Maine Attorney General and Maine Secretary of State are chosen. Moonen said Collins had told him speculation about her running for governor was "silly." Collins, the 1994 Republican nominee for Governor, told MPBN News on January 4, 2016 that though she was "baffled" by the rumors about her being interested in running for governor, many had encouraged her to run, she would not rule it out.
In October 2017, Collins said she would not run for governor in 2018. No Republican candidate ruled out challenging the results of a ranked-choice primary in court. Mary Mayhew called for the immediate repeal of RCV, calling it a "scam" and "probably illegal"; the Maine Republican Party filed a federal lawsuit in U. S. District Court in Bangor on May 4, 2018, seeking to bar the use of RCV for its own primary on the grounds that requiring the party to use it violates its First Amendment rights to choose its nominee as it sees fit. U. S. District Court Judge Jon Levy rejected the suit on May 29. Shawn Moody and independent candidate for governor in 2010 Ken Fredette, State House Minority Leader Garrett Mason, State Senate Majority Leader Mary Mayhew, former commissioner of the Maine Department of Health and Human Services Deril Stubenrod, write-in candidate for the U. S. Senate in 2014 Mike Thibodeau, Maine Senate President Rick Bennett, former chairman of the Maine Republican Party, former President of the Maine Senate, candidate for the U.
S. Senate in 2012 and nominee for ME-02 in 1994 Susan Collins, U. S. Senator and nominee for governor in 1994 Nick Isgro, Mayor of W
Trams are a major form of public transport in Melbourne, the capital city of the state of Victoria, Australia. As of May 2017, the Melbourne tramway network consists of 250 kilometres of double track, 493 trams, 24 routes, 1,763 tram stops; the operator Yarra Trams claims the system is the largest operational urban tram network in the world. Trams are the second most used form of public transport in overall boardings in Melbourne after the commuter railway network, with a total of 206 million passenger trips in 2017–18. Trams have operated continuously in Melbourne since 1885. Since they have become a distinctive part of Melbourne's character and feature in tourism and travel advertising. Melbourne's cable tram system opened in 1885, expanded to one of the largest in the world, with 75 kilometres of double track; the first electric tram line opened in 1889, but closed only a few years in 1896. In 1906 electric tram systems were opened in St Kilda and Essendon, marking the start of continuous operation of Melbourne's electric trams.
Victoria's public transport system was reorganised in 1983 and saw the Melbourne & Metropolitan Tramways Board absorbed into the Metropolitan Transit Authority, in turn absorbed by the Public Transport Corporation in 1989. The network has been operated under contract since the commencement of franchising, following the privatisation of the Public Transport Corporation in 1999; the current private operator contracted to run Melbourne's tram system is Keolis Downer, trading as Yarra Trams. Ticketing, public information and patronage promotion are undertaken by Victoria's public transport body, Public Transport Victoria; the multi-modal integrated ticketing system, myki operates across the tram network. At some Melbourne intersections, motor vehicles are required to perform a hook turn, a manoeuvre designed to give trams priority. To further improve tram speeds on congested Melbourne streets, trams have priority in road usage, with specially fitted traffic lights and exclusive lanes being provided either at all times or in peak times, as well as other measures.
Melbourne's first tram was a horse tram from Fairfield railway station to a real estate development in Thornbury. Seven horse tramlines operated in Melbourne, three were built by the Melbourne Tramway & Omnibus Company, while the other four were built by different private companies; the MTOC's three lines fed their cable tram system: Victoria Bridge cable tram terminus to Kew, opened in 1887 and closed in 1915 after its sale to Kew Council for conversion to a Prahran & Malvern Tramways Trust electric line. The Zoo line was Melbourne's last horse tram and the only line still in operation at the formation of the Melbourne & Metropolitan Tramways Board, however it was destroyed by fire during the 1923 police strike. Melbourne's cable tram system has its origins in the MTOC, started by Francis Boardman Clapp in 1877, with a view to operate a Melbourne tram system. After some initial resistance, he lobbied the government who passed the Melbourne Tramway & Omnibus Company Act 1883 on 10 October 1883, granting the company the right to operate a cable tram system in Melbourne.
Although several lines were intended to be horse trams, the MTOC did operate three horse tram lines on the edges of the system, the core of the system was built as cable trams. The Act established the Melbourne Tramways Trust, made up of the 12 municipalities that the MTOC system would serve; the MTT was responsible for the construction of tracks and engine house, while the MTOC built the depots and arranged for the delivery or construction of the rolling stock. The MTT granted a lease to operate the system until 1 July 1916 to the MTOC, with the MTOC paying 4.5% interest on the debts incurred by the MTT in building the system. The first cable tram line opened on 11 November 1885, running from Bourke Street to Hawthorn Bridge, along Spencer Street, Flinders Street, Wellington Parade and Bridge Road, with the last line opening on 27 October 1891. At its height the cable system was one of the largest in the world, with 75 kilometres of double track, 1200 gripcars and trailers and 17 routes covering.
On 18 February 1890, the Northcote tramway was opened by the Clifton Hill to Northcote & Preston Tramway Company. This was Melbourne's only non-MTOC cable tram, built by local land speculators and was operated as an independent line, feeding the Clifton Hill line; when the lease expired on 1 July 1916, all the assets of the MTT and MTOC cable network were taken over by the Melbourne Tramways Board. The MMTB was formed on 1 November 1919, taking over the MTB cable tram network, with the Northcote tramway and the tramway trusts transferred to the MMTB on 20 February 1920. From 1924 the cable tram lines were progressively converted to electric trams, or abandoned in favour of buses, with the last Melbourne cable tram operating on 26 October 1940; the first electric tram in Melbourne was built in 1889 by the Box Hill and Doncaster Tramway Company Limited—an enterprise formed by a group of land developers—and ran from Box Hill railway station