In hand-to-hand combat, grappling is a close fighting technique used to gain a physical advantage such as improving relative position, or causing injury to the opponent. Grappling covers techniques used in many disciplines and martial arts that are practiced both as combat sports and for self-defense. Grappling most does not include striking or the use of weapons. However, some fighting styles or martial arts known for their grappling techniques teach tactics that include strikes and weapons either alongside grappling or combined with it. Grappling techniques can be broadly subdivided into Clinch fighting. Clinching, or clinch work, takes place with both competitors on their feet using various clinch holds applied to the upper body of the opponent. Clinch work is used to set up or defend against throws or takedowns. Takedowns A takedown is used by one grappler to manipulate his opponent from a position where both are standing, to a position on the ground; the grappler completing the takedown aims to end on top of the opponent in a position of relative control.
Throws: A throw is a technique in which one grappler lifts or off-balances his opponent and maneuvers him forcefully through the air or to the ground. The purpose of throws varies among the different disciplines of grappling with some emphasizing throws with the potential to incapacitate the opponent, while leaving the thrower standing, or to gain a takedown or controlling position. Sprawling: A sprawl is a defensive technique done when the opponent attempts a takedown, it is spread out in one fast motion. If done one will land on their opponent's back and gain control. Submission holds: There are two types of submission holds: those that would strangle or suffocate an opponent, those that would cause injury to a joint or other body part. In sport grappling, a competitor is expected to submit, either verbally or by tapping the opponent, to admit defeat when he is caught in a submission hold that he cannot escape. Competitors who refuse to "tap out" risk serious injury. Securing or Controlling Techniques: A pin involves holding an opponent on his back in a position where he is unable to attack.
In some styles of competitive grappling a pin is an instant victory, in other styles it is considered a dominant position, rewarded with points. Other controlling techniques are used to hold an opponent face down on the ground or on all fours in order to prevent an escape or attack. Either of these types of technique may be used as a prelude to a submission hold. Escapes: In a general sense, an escape is accomplished by maneuvering out of danger or from an inferior position. Turnovers: used to maneuver an opponent, on all fours or flat on their stomach to their back, in order to score points, prepare for a pin or in order to gain a more dominant position. Reversals or Sweeps: These occur when a grappler, underneath his opponent on the ground is able to maneuver so that he gains a top position over his opponent; the degree to which grappling is utilized in different fighting systems varies. Some systems, such as amateur wrestling, Pehlwani submission wrestling, judo and Brazilian jiu-jitsu are grappling arts and do not allow striking.
Many combat sports, such as shooto and mixed martial arts competitions use grappling while retaining striking as part of the sport Grappling is not allowed in some martial arts and combat sports for the sake of focusing on other aspects of combat such as punching, kicking or mêlée weapons. Opponents in these types of matches, still grapple with each other when fatigued or in pain. Examples of these include boxing, taekwondo and fencing. While prolonged grappling in Muay Thai will result in a separation of the competitors, the art extensively uses the clinch hold known as a double collar tie. Grappling techniques and defenses to grappling techniques are considered important in self-defense applications and in law enforcement; the most common grappling techniques taught for self-defense are escapes from holds and application of pain compliance techniques. Grappling can be trained for self-defense and mixed martial arts competition. Stand-up grappling is arguably an integral part of all grappling and clinch fighting arts, considering that two combatants start fighting from a stand-up position.
The aim of stand-up grappling varies according to the martial arts or combat sports in question. Defensive stand-up grappling concerns itself with pain-compliance holds and escapes from possible grappling holds applied by an opponent, while offensive grappling techniques include submission holds, trapping and throws, all of which can be used to inflict serious damage, or to move the fight to the ground. Stand-up grappling can be used both offensively and defensively with striking, either to trap an opponents arms while striking, prevent the opponent from obtaining sufficient distance to strike or to bring the opponent close to apply, for instance, knee strikes. In combat sports, stand-up grappling revolves around successful takedowns and throws. G
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined amount of time in a boxing ring. Amateur boxing is both an Olympic and Commonwealth Games sport and is a common fixture in most international games—it has its own World Championships. Boxing is overseen by a referee over a series of one- to three-minute intervals called rounds; the result is decided when an opponent is deemed incapable to continue by a referee, is disqualified for breaking a rule, or resigns by throwing in a towel. If a fight completes all of its allocated rounds, the victor is determined by judges' scorecards at the end of the contest. In the event that both fighters gain equal scores from the judges, professional bouts are considered a draw. In Olympic boxing, because a winner must be declared, judges award the content to one fighter on technical criteria. While humans have fought in hand-to-hand combat since the dawn of human history, the earliest evidence of fist-fighting sporting contests date back to the ancient Near East in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC.
The earliest evidence of boxing rules date back to Ancient Greece, where boxing was established as an Olympic game in 688 BC. Boxing evolved from 16th- and 18th-century prizefights in Great Britain, to the forerunner of modern boxing in the mid-19th century with the 1867 introduction of the Marquess of Queensberry Rules; the earliest known depiction of boxing comes from a Sumerian relief in Iraq from the 3rd millennium BC. Depictions from the 2nd millennium BC are found in reliefs from the Mesopotamian nations of Assyria and Babylonia, in Hittite art from Asia Minor. A relief sculpture from Egyptian Thebes shows both spectators; these early Middle-Eastern and Egyptian depictions showed contests where fighters were either bare-fisted or had a band supporting the wrist. The earliest evidence of fist fighting with the use of gloves can be found on Minoan Crete. Various types of boxing existed in ancient India; the earliest references to musti-yuddha come from classical Vedic epics such as the Ramayana and Rig Veda.
The Mahabharata describes two combatants boxing with clenched fists and fighting with kicks, finger strikes, knee strikes and headbutts. Duels were fought to the death. During the period of the Western Satraps, the ruler Rudradaman - in addition to being well-versed in "the great sciences" which included Indian classical music, Sanskrit grammar, logic - was said to be an excellent horseman, elephant rider and boxer; the Gurbilas Shemi, an 18th-century Sikh text, gives numerous references to musti-yuddha. In Ancient Greece boxing was enjoyed consistent popularity. In Olympic terms, it was first introduced in the 23rd Olympiad, 688 BC; the boxers would wind leather thongs around their hands. There were no boxers fought until one of them acknowledged defeat or could not continue. Weight categories were not used; the style of boxing practiced featured an advanced left leg stance, with the left arm semi-extended as a guard, in addition to being used for striking, with the right arm drawn back ready to strike.
It was the head of the opponent, targeted, there is little evidence to suggest that targeting the body was common. Boxing was a popular spectator sport in Ancient Rome. In order for the fighters to protect themselves against their opponents they wrapped leather thongs around their fists. Harder leather was used and the thong soon became a weapon; the Romans introduced metal studs to the thongs to make the cestus. Fighting events were held at Roman Amphitheatres; the Roman form of boxing was a fight until death to please the spectators who gathered at such events. However in times, purchased slaves and trained combat performers were valuable commodities, their lives were not given up without due consideration. Slaves were used against one another in a circle marked on the floor; this is. In AD 393, during the Roman gladiator period, boxing was abolished due to excessive brutality, it was not until the late 16th century. Records of Classical boxing activity disappeared after the fall of the Western Roman Empire when the wearing of weapons became common once again and interest in fighting with the fists waned.
However, there are detailed records of various fist-fighting sports that were maintained in different cities and provinces of Italy between the 12th and 17th centuries. There was a sport in ancient Rus called Kulachniy Boy or "Fist Fighting"; as the wearing of swords became less common, there was renewed interest in fencing with the fists. The sport would resurface in England during the early 16th century in the form of bare-knuckle boxing sometimes referred to as prizefighting; the first documented account of a bare-knuckle fight in England appeared in 1681 in the London Protestant Mercury, the first English bare-knuckle champion was James Figg in 1719. This is the time when the word "boxing" first came to be used; this earliest form of modern boxing was different. Contests in Mr. Figg's time, in addition to fist fighting contained fencing and cudgeling. On 6 January 1681, the first recorded boxing match took place in Britain when Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle engineered a bout between his butler and his butcher with the latter winning the prize.
Early fighting had no written rules. There were no weight divisions or round limits, no referee. In general, it was chaotic. An early article on boxing was published i
NBCSN is an American pay television channel, owned by the NBC Sports Group division of NBCUniversal. It launched on July 1, 1995, as the Outdoor Life Network, dedicated to programming involving fishing, outdoor adventure programs, outdoor sports. By the turn of the 21st century, OLN became better known for its extensive coverage of the Tour de France but began covering more "mainstream" sporting events, resulting in its relaunch as Versus in September 2006. In 2011, the original owner of the network, acquired a majority stake in NBC Universal; as a result, Comcast merged the operations of its pay channels with those of NBC. In particular, it aligned the operation of its sports channels with NBC's sports division, NBC Sports. On January 2, 2012, Versus was rebranded as the NBC Sports Network to reflect these changes; as of September 15, 2014, the majority of NBC Sports' operations, including NBCSN, is based in facilities in Stamford, Connecticut. As of February 2015, NBCSN is available to 81,578,000 pay television households in the United States.
The channel launched as the Outdoor Life Network on July 1, 1995. Its programming consisted of hunting and outdoor adventure shows. In its early days, the channel reached around one million homes and found most of its carriage via the then-infant platforms of direct broadcast satellite services and digital cable. In 1999, OLN acquired the U. S. broadcast rights to the Tour de France for US$3 million. Coverage of the Tour on OLN brought greater viewership to the fledgling channel, due in part to the then-growing popularity of American rider Lance Armstrong. In 2004, where Armstrong would aim for a record-breaking sixth straight Tour de France title, OLN would devote over 344 hours in July to coverage of the Tour, along with documentaries and other original programming surrounding the event –, promoted through a $20 million advertising campaign. Overall, while its coverage of the Tour de France helped OLN expand its carriage to over 60 million homes, critics became concerned that OLN's coverage had placed too much of its focus on Armstrong as its main attraction for viewers, doubted if OLN could sustain itself without the viewership that Lance Armstrong's presence had brought to its coverage.
Some critics had jokingly referred to OLN as the "Only Lance Network" due to its overemphasis on the American rider. Following the 2005 Tour, OLN debuted a new lineup of programming – anchored by repeats of the popular reality television series Survivor. OLN's executives believed that bringing Survivor into its lineup would fit well with the new direction it had planned for OLN, could attract viewership from fans of the show who had watched it on CBS. Around the same period, OLN acquired the rights to the Dakar Rally, America's Cup, the Boston Marathon, the Iditarod. OLN planned to cover these multi-day events in a similar style to how it covered the Tour, hoping that its coverage might bring "surprise" results for the channel. Due in part to Lance's absence from the Tour in 2006, its ratings for live coverage of the first four stages of the race drew in 49% fewer viewers than previous years. In May 2005, ESPN rejected a $60 million offer to renew its broadcasting contract with the National Hockey League into the 2005-06 NHL season, the league rejected its alternate proposal for a revenue sharing agreement similar to the one it had established with NBC.
With the NFL shopping a new late-season package of Thursday and Saturday night games to potential broadcasters, speculation began to surface that Comcast would bid on the new NHL contract as its first step to transforming OLN into a mainstream sports channel that could compete with ESPN. Comcast had been involved in NHL broadcasting. In August 2005, ESPN declined to match Comcast's offer, OLN acquired pay television rights to the NHL beginning in the 2005–2006 season in a three-year deal worth close to $200 million; the new deal would include 58 regular season games on Monday and Tuesday nights, coverage of the NHL All-Star Game, conference finals, the first two games of the Stanley Cup Finals. With the help of its new NHL package, by June 2006, OLN had now reached 75 million subscribers. However, due in part to OLN's lesser carriage in comparison to ESPN, the NHL's ratings that season had suffered in comparison. In 2006, OLN broadcast selected games in the Arena Football League's 2006 season.
The channel televised a weekly regular-season game for 11 weeks as well as a wild card playoff game. However, the agreement was not renewed and was picked up by ESPN, who acquired a minority stake in the league's ownership. In April 2006, Comcast announced that it would be renaming Outdoor Life Network to Versus in the fall of 2006; as the network had shifted beyond "outdoor" programming, the name "Versus" was intended to represent the common element of competition within its lineup. OLN's re-launch as Versus occurred on September 25, 2006. Among the new programming acquired by Versus was a number of combat sports, beginning with a series of boxing programs promoted by Bob Arum's Top Rank group; the channel began televising Chuck Norris's World Combat League, a kickboxing promotion where fights are contested in a unique round ring without ropes. Versus entered into a partnership with World Extreme Cagefighting to bring mixed martial arts events to the chan
Chuck Norris Superkicks
Chuck Norris Superkicks, is a 1983 video game produced by Xonox where the player takes control of Chuck Norris. It was sold as Kung Fu Superkicks when the license for the use of the name Chuck Norris expired; the game was produced for the Commodore 64, Commodore VIC-20, Atari 2600, Colecovision as part of Xonox's double-ender cartridge line. You play as Chuck Norris trying to reach an ancient monastery to rescue a famous leader being held hostage. Dangerous warriors lie in waiting to stop you; the game combines two types of gameplay: moving through a map and fighting against enemies. The game begins in a vertically scrolling overworld, with two paths and grass where you have 6 minutes to reach the monastery. If you step into the grass, you lose time at a much faster rate; as you walk down either path, you are taken to the fight screen. In the fight screen, you face three enemies, one at a time, who run back and forth and throw shuriken. If an enemy hits you, he knocks you down, you become a sitting duck for a shuriken.
If a shuriken hits you, you are sent back to the start of the path. You have three moves: punch and block; these enemies block the upper part of their body, so you defeat them by kicking. The block can protect you from shuriken. Having defeated the villains, you continue on the path. You get to a point. You receive a new belt, showing the progress of your training, another minute; the path once again splits, this time in three. Only one path is correct; the correct path is randomly determined, so this is a Luck-Based Mission. You'll face another ambush on each path, this time the enemies block low, so you punch them. Having made it past villains and fallen trees, you get to another checkpoint; this time, in addition to your minute, you get a new move, the Somersault Superkick. This move replaces the block and works against enemies regardless of how they're blocking. Which is good, because enemies are going to start blocking either low, it goes. Inside, you face a multiples ninjas, who start turning invisible, their shuriken just knocks you down.
The more of them you defeat, the longer they stay invisible. Screenshots at uk.cheats.ign.com
Karate is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Kingdom. It developed from the indigenous Ryukyuan martial arts under the influence of Chinese Kung Fu Fujian White Crane. Karate is now predominantly a striking art using punching, knee strikes, elbow strikes and open-hand techniques such as knife-hands, spear-hands and palm-heel strikes, and in some modern styles, throws, joint locks and vital-point strikes are taught. A karate practitioner is called a karateka; the Ryukyu Kingdom was annexed by Japan in 1879. Karate was brought to Japanese archipelago in the early 20th century during a time of migration as Ryukyuans from Okinawa, looked for work in Japan, it was systematically taught in Japan after the Taishō era. In 1922, the Japanese Ministry of Education invited Gichin Funakoshi to Tokyo to give a karate demonstration. In 1924 Keio University established the first university karate club in mainland Japan and by 1932, major Japanese universities had karate clubs. In this era of escalating Japanese militarism, the name was changed from 唐手 to 空手 – both of which are pronounced karate in Japanese – to indicate that the Japanese wished to develop the combat form in Japanese style.
After World War II, Okinawa became an important United States military site and karate became popular among servicemen stationed there. The martial arts movies of the 1960s and 1970s served to increase the popularity of martial arts around the world, in English the word karate began to be used in a generic way to refer to all striking-based Asian martial arts. Karate schools began appearing across the world, catering to those with casual interest as well as those seeking a deeper study of the art. Shigeru Egami, Chief Instructor of Shotokan Dojo, opined that "the majority of followers of karate in overseas countries pursue karate only for its fighting techniques... Movies and television... depict karate as a mysterious way of fighting capable of causing death or injury with a single blow... the mass media present a pseudo art far from the real thing." Shōshin Nagamine said, "Karate may be considered as the conflict within oneself or as a life-long marathon which can be won only through self-discipline, hard training and one's own creative efforts."On 28 September 2015, karate was featured on a shortlist along with baseball, skateboarding and sport climbing to be considered for inclusion in the 2020 Summer Olympics.
On 1 June 2016, the International Olympic Committee's executive board announced they were supporting the inclusion of all five sports for inclusion in the 2020 Games. Web Japan claims there are 50 million karate practitioners worldwide, while the World Karate Federation claims there are 100 million practitioners around the world. Karate began as a common fighting system known as te among the Pechin class of the Ryukyuans. After trade relationships were established with the Ming dynasty of China in 1372 by King Satto of Chūzan, some forms of Chinese martial arts were introduced to the Ryukyu Islands by the visitors from China Fujian Province. A large group of Chinese families moved to Okinawa around 1392 for the purpose of cultural exchange, where they established the community of Kumemura and shared their knowledge of a wide variety of Chinese arts and sciences, including the Chinese martial arts; the political centralization of Okinawa by King Shō Hashi in 1429 and the policy of banning weapons by King Shō Shin in 1477 enforced in Okinawa after the invasion by the Shimazu clan in 1609, are factors that furthered the development of unarmed combat techniques in Okinawa.
There were few formal styles of te, but rather many practitioners with their own methods. One surviving example is the Motobu-ryū school passed down from the Motobu family by Seikichi Uehara. Early styles of karate are generalized as Shuri-te, Naha-te, Tomari-te, named after the three cities from which they emerged; each area and its teachers had particular kata and principles that distinguished their local version of te from the others. Members of the Okinawan upper classes were sent to China to study various political and practical disciplines; the incorporation of empty-handed Chinese Kung Fu into Okinawan martial arts occurred because of these exchanges and because of growing legal restrictions on the use of weaponry. Traditional karate kata bear a strong resemblance to the forms found in Fujian martial arts such as Fujian White Crane, Tai Zu Quan, Five Ancestors, Gangrou-quan. Many Okinawan weapons such as the sai and nunchaku may have originated in and around Southeast Asia. Sakukawa Kanga had studied staff fighting in China.
In 1806 he started teaching a fighting art in the city of Shuri that he called "Tudi Sakukawa," which meant "Sakukawa of China Hand." This was the first known recorded reference to the art of "Tudi," written as 唐手. Around the 1820s Sakukawa's most significant student Matsumura Sōkon taught a synthesis of te and Shaolin styles. Matsumura's style would become the Shōrin-ryū style. Matsumura taught his art to Itosu Ankō among others. Itosu adapted two forms; these are chiang nan. He created the ping'an forms ("heian" or "pinan" in
International Sport Karate Association
The International Sport Karate Association is one of the major international bodies regulating sport karate and kickboxing matches, is based in the United States. It was established in 1985 as a response to legal and revenue issues that sent the Professional Karate Association into decline. From 1974 until 1985, the PKA had been the most recognised worldwide kickboxing sanctioning group, it was instrumental in establishing public relay of the sport via ESPN, helping to introduce the burgeoning sport to a wider audience, had developed the first fighter's ratings systems. Five major U. S.-based promoters and resigning PKA executives created the new body, the International Sport Karate Association, with an official announcement on July 16, 1986. The first U. S. directors were Karyn Turner, Tony Thompson, John Worley and Scott Coker. It runs the biggest martial arts tournament in the world, The U. S Open. Thousands of competitors from around the world participate every year. Many of the major PKA promoters began sanctioning their events with the ISKA and several joined its administration.
ISKA secured ESPN broadcasts of its major title bouts in 1986, thus helping bring quick credibility and recognition to the new association. Since the World Association of Kickboxing Organizations was active in Europe and the World Kickboxing Association in Asia, ISKA was quick to expand through its own European Directors starting October 1986 with Olivier Muller, Jérome Canabate and Mohamed Hosseini. American Richard Mayor oversaw the establishment of this European wing as European President between 1986 and 1988. By 1991, the worldwide control of the ISKA was shared by two co-chairmen: Mike Sawyer and Olivier Muller. International TV coverage was secured, united separate organisations were formed worldwide to handle responsibility for international sanctioning and grading. ISKA has conducted its official activities under ISKA ASIA since 2008 with Dr. S. A. Moinshirazi the President of ISKA ASIA. Paul Zadro is the President of ISKA Australia, the biggest martial arts tournament circuit in Australia.
European Director - Paul Hennessey UK Director - Jagtar Johal European Tournament Director - Paul Gilmore UK Amateur Director - Clifton Findley Czech Republic Director - Mgr. Ivan Novotný Australian Director - Paul Zadro ISKA is a sport karate, all styles kickboxing, mixed martial arts sanctioning body in the United States and over 50 countries worldwide. ISKA's Martial Arts World Championships are held yearly at the US Open of Martial Arts in Disney World, Florida; the US Open ISKA World Martial Arts Championships celebrated its 40th anniversary the July 4th weekend, 2013. More than 4,000 competitors and 10,000 spectators attend the two-day event each year; the event closes with the Night of Champions featuring the ISKA World Martial Arts Championships. The Night of Champions airs live on ESPN3, while a highlights show airs on ESPN2; the US Open is the longest continuously running martial arts event on ESPN. The US Open highlights continue to air throughout the year on CSI Sports networks, reaching 85 million households.
Web resources International Sport Karate Association International Sport Karate Association International Sport Karate Association International Sport Kickboxing Association (I. S. K. A. CZECH REPUBLICBooks and articles "A History of Full Contact Karate "A History of Kickboxing" – Mikes Miles "A History of kickboxing" – « black-belt » Delmas Alain, Callière Jean-Roger, Histoire du Kick-boxing, FKBDA, France, 1998 Delmas Alain, Définition du Kick-boxing, FKBDA, France, 1999 Miles Mikes, site An interview with Joe Lewis, 1998
World Professional Muaythai Federation
The World Professional MuayThai Federation สหพันธ์มวยไทยอาชีพโลก was formed in February 2004 by the Professional Boxing Association of Thailand. The PAT is the only organization recognized by the Thai government; the WPMF was founded to promote and support Muaythai worldwide, including enforcement of its traditions and regulations. The WPMF is one of major organizations recognized in the world. Official website