Fauna and Flora International
Fauna & Flora International the Fauna and Flora Preservation Society, is an international conservation charity and non-governmental organization. FFI was founded in 1903 as the Society for the Preservation of the Wild Fauna of the Empire by a group of British naturalists and American statesmen in Africa, it became the Fauna Preservation Society, before being renamed Fauna and Flora Preservation Society in 1981. The goal of the society was to safeguard the future of southern Africa’s large mammal populations, which had declined alarmingly due to over-hunting and habitat encroachment. Working in tandem with landowners and sport hunters, the Society helped pass legislation which controlled hunting in vast stretches of East Africa and South Africa; this paved the way for the formation of National Parks, such as Kruger National Park and Serengeti National Park. FFI has been referred to by many historians as the world's first conservation society, the society's early work in Africa was trend-setting in ecotourism.
The Society's scientific journal – Oryx – The International Journal of Conservation – is published on its behalf by Cambridge University Press. FFI has a seven-step approach to conserving biodiversity: Building local capacity for conservation Integrating biodiversity and human needs Direct protection of species and habitats Securing land for conservation Emergency response to conservation needs Influencing policy and the practice of conservation Bridging the gap between business and biodiversityIn line with its seven-step approach to conservation, Fauna & Flora International has endorsed the Forests Now Declaration, which calls for new market based mechanisms to protect tropical forests. Fauna & Flora International is constituted under English law as a company limited by guarantee and is a registered charity with its head office in Cambridge. FFI has sister organisations in the U. S. and Australia, a subsidiary in Singapore. The logo of the society is the Arabian oryx, after the successful Operation Oryx, a flagship Arabian oryx captive breeding project undertaken by the society.
Queen Elizabeth II is FFI's patron, Princess Laurentien of the Netherlands is the president of the organization. FFI has a number of high-profile vice-presidents, including Sir David Attenborough, David Bellamy, Stephen Fry, Charlotte Uhlenbroek, Rove McManus, Judi Dench and Lord Browne of Madingley. FFI has members in over 80 countries. 1903 - First publication of the society’s journal, the precursor of Oryx - The International Journal of Conservation 1962 - Operation Oryx helps rescue the Arabian oryx from extinction through a captive breeding program, with successful reintroductions into the wild in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. This was one of the world's first successful captive breeding and reintroduction efforts for an endangered species. 1966 - Peter Scott, Chairman of IUCN Species Survival Commission, becomes Chairman of FFI and devises the Red Data Books, a systematic study of all endangered species. 1971 - Launch of the 100% Fund, set up to support small-scale projects where urgent conservation action is needed to protect endangered species around the world.
1972 - Gerald Durrell's initiative caused the society to start the World Conference on Breeding Endangered Species in Captivity as an Aid to their Survival at Jersey, the first knowledge sharing among scientists regarding ideas of captive breeding. 2000 - Alexander Peal, President of the Society for the Conservation of Nature of Liberia, whose work FFI has supported since 1996, receives the Goldman Environmental Prize, one of the highest honours for a conservationist. Official website Cool Earth The Guardian
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Captive breeding is the process of maintaining plants or animals in controlled environments, such as wildlife reserves, botanic gardens, other conservation facilities. It is sometimes employed to help species that are being threatened by human activities such as habitat loss, over hunting or fishing, predation and parasitism. In some cases a captive breeding program can save a species from extinction, but for success, breeders must consider many factors—including genetic, ecological and ethical issues. Most successful attempts involve the coordination of many institutions. Captive breeding techniques began with the first human domestication of animals such as goats, plants like wheat, at least 10,000 years ago; these practices were expanded with the rise of the first zoos, which started as royal menageries in Egypt and its popularity, which led to the increase in zoos worldwide. The first actual captive breeding programs were only started in the 1960s; these programs, such as the Arabian Oryx breeding program from The Phoenix Zoo in 1962, were aimed at the reintroduction of these species into the wild.
These programs expanded under The Endangered Species Act of 1973 of the Nixon Administration, which focused on protecting endangered species and their habitats to preserve biodiversity. Since research and conservation centers have been housed in zoos, such as the Institute for Conservation Research at the San Diego Zoo founded in 1975 and expanded in 2009, which have contributed to the successful conservation efforts of species such as the Hawaiian Crow; the breeding of species of conservation concern is coordinated by cooperative breeding programs containing international studbooks and coordinators, who evaluate the roles of individual animals and institutions from a global or regional perspective. These studbooks contain information on birth date, gender and lineage, which helps determine survival and reproduction rates, number of founders of the population, inbreeding coefficients. A species coordinator reviews the information in studbooks and determines a breeding strategy that would produce most advantageous offspring.
If two compatible animals are found at different zoos, the animals may be transported for mating, but this is stressful, which could in turn make mating less likely. However, this is still a popular breeding method among European zoological organizations. Artificial fertilization is another option, but male animals can experience stress during semen collection, the same goes for females during the artificial insemination procedure. Furthermore, this approach yields lower-quality semen, because shipping requires extending the life of the sperm for the transit time. There are regional programmes for the conservation of endangered species: Americas: Species Survival Plan SSP Europe: European Endangered Species Programme EEP Australasia: Australasian Species Management Program ASMP Africa: African Preservation Program APP Japan: Conservation activities of Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums JAZA South Asia: Conservation activities of South Asian Zoo Association for Regional Cooperation SAZARC South East Asia: Conservation activities of South East Asian Zoos Association SEAZA The objective of many captive populations is to hold similar levels of genetic diversity to what is found in wild populations.
As captive populations are small and maintained in artificial environments, genetics factors such as adaptation and loss of diversity can be a major concern. Adaptive differences between plant and animal populations arise due to variations in environmental pressures. In the case of captive breeding prior to reintroduction into the wild, it's possible for species to evolve to adapt to the captive environment, rather than their natural environment. Reintroducing a plant or animal to an environment dissimilar to the one they were from can cause fixation of traits that may not be suited for that environment leaving the individual disadvantaged. Selection intensity, initial genetic diversity, effective population size can impact how much the species adapts to its captive environment. Modeling works indicate that the duration of the programs is an important determinant of reintroduction success. Success is maximized for intermediate project duration allowing the release of a sufficient number of individuals, while minimizing the number of generations undergoing relaxed selection in captivity.
Can be minimized by reducing the number of generations in captivity, minimizing selection for captive adaptations by creating environment similar to natural environment and maximizing the number of immigrants from wild populations. One consequence of small captive population size is the increased impact of genetic drift, where genes have the potential to fix or disappear by chance, thereby reducing genetic diversity. Other factors that can impact genetic diversity in a captive population are bottlenecks and initial population size. Bottlenecks, such as rapid decline in the population or a small initial population impacts genetic diversity. Loss can be minimized by establishing a population with a large enough number of founders to genetically represent the wild population, maximize population size, maximize ratio of effective population size to actual population size, minimize the number of generations in captivity. Inbreeding is when organisms mate with related individuals
Harderwijk is a municipality and city at the exact geographical centre of the Netherlands. It is served by the Harderwijk railway station, its population centres are Hierden. Harderwijk is on the western boundary of the Veluwe; the southeastern half of the municipality is forests. Harderwijk received city rights from Count Otto II of Guelders in 1231. A defensive wall surrounding the city was completed by the end of that century; the oldest part of the city is near where the streets Grote Poortstraat now are. Around 1315 the city was expanded southwards, which included the construction of what is now called the Grote Kerk. A second, northward expansion took place around 1425. Along the west side of town, much of the wall still exists but not in original form; that goes for the only remaining city gate, the Vischpoort. Between 1648 and 1811, the University of Harderwijk operated in the city; the Swedish botanist and zoologist, Carl Linnaeus graduated at this university. The university, together with the universities of Zutphen and Franeker, was abolished by Napoleon.
Harderwijk was a member of the Hanseatic League. It lies on what used to be the Zuiderzee shore and its economy was based on fishing and seafaring in general; that changed after 1932, when the Zuiderzee was cut off from the North Sea for safety reasons. Few fishing boats thus now remain in the Harbour, which now is home to yachts. An annual event illustrating the former importantance of the fishing industry to Harderwijk is Aaltjesdag, which translates to Eel day. Fish can still be bought at stands and restaurants on the boulevard throughout the year except for the winter months. Tourists are common customers. Today, Harderwijk is known best for the Dolfinarium Harderwijk, a marine mammal park where dolphin shows are held and various other marine mammals and fish are kept. Jan Bos, speedskater Theo Bos, cyclist Joost Eerdmans, politician Theo de Meester and prime minister Roef Ragas, actor Dirk Rijnders, politician Marco Roelofsen, Dutch football midfielder Richard Roelofsen, Dutch football striker Henk Schiffmacher, tattoo artist Henk Timmer, Dutch football goalkeeper Marianne Timmer, speedskater This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Harderwyk". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Media related to Harderwijk at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Jersey Zoo is a zoological park established in 1959 on the island of Jersey in the English Channel by naturalist and author Gerald Durrell. It is operated by the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, it has 169,000 visitors per year. Jersey Zoo has always concentrated on rare and endangered species, it has mammals, birds and reptiles, comprising over 130 species. Since 1964, the zoo has been home to the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust; the park is located at Les Augrès Manor, Jersey, 5 miles north of Saint Helier. It opened on 26 March 1959; the park is situated in 32 acres of landscaped parkland and water-gardens. The Trust has a strong commitment to looking after the Island's native wildlife, large areas within the grounds have been designated native habitat areas; the extensive planting of flowering and fruiting trees throughout the grounds serves to attract a plethora of wild birds and insects. Included in the former are several species of bird which used to be seen in island gardens but have become scarce, including the house sparrow and song thrush.
There are over 50 nest-boxes positioned around the grounds, which are used by a variety of birds including barn owls, kestrels and martins. Other animals which are seen within the grounds are the red squirrel, bank vole, the short-toed treecreeper. Gerald Durrell began his career capturing animals for other zoos, but thought that the facilities needed to concentrate more on animal conservation rather than mere entertainment, he tells the story of starting the zoo in his book "Menagerie Manor" and others. In January 2008 plans, known as "New Vision," were unveiled for the future of the zoo, they were brought up to help ensure another 50 years of the trust in Jersey. These ambitious plans had an emphasis on the notion of'TopSpots', it was budgeted that the cost of the redevelopment would be in the region of £46 million over the next five years. All funds needed to be raised through private donations. There were nine main aspects of development with animal welfare in its mind. Most of the plan was cancelled due to costs.
African Bai — The idea was to recreate an environment mirroring the ecology of the African habitat, that the western lowland gorillas would need to adapt to, if one day it would be safe for them to be left alone in the wild. The multimillion-pound complex would include updated facilities for the gorillas; the family size could have an additional group to live alongside the current group. With the African Bai theme, it was planned to bring in new species from the region, considered animals included red river hog, African clawless otter, guenon monkeys. Mascarenia — The idea was to integrate the mammals and terrapins of Madagascar together in one walkthrough enclosure, it is possible that species from Mauritius and Seychelles might be included. Surrounding the walkthrough area, which would include the bats, were enclosures which would house the lemurs, aye-ayes, narrow-striped mongoose and Malagasy giant rats. A new visitor centre, designed to enhance the guests overall experience. A restaurant, a hall of fame would become part of the experience.
Eco-lodge cabins, which would allow people to stay at Durrell for a holiday, all environmental modern experience New Reptile and Amphibian Centre, which would allow Durrell to expand and enhance the care for species more prone to the changing environment Redevelopment of Les Augres manor, which would allow people to stay there for holidays, by turning part into a kind of hotel Improvements to training facilities Improvements to the centres Develop the Royal Pavilion into a full-time conference suiteIn May 2011, a new visitor centre and restaurant was opened by Princess Anne. Access to the zoo is not required for access to the restaurant. A webcam service has been developed at Durrell Wildlife Park. Cameras have been installed in the meerkat enclosure, as well as in those of the Telfair's skinks, the Livingstone's fruit bats and in the Kirindy Forest, the home of a rare and colourful bird collection; the webcam lets viewers to those species at times when they are inaccessible, including watching the fruit bats during the evening when they are most active.
In 2015 an infant silverback gorilla named Indigo who lived at the park was chosen to be the mascot of the 2015 Island Games which were held on the island. Opened in 2004, this exhibit houses various Asian birds such as: Palawan peacock-pheasant Blue-crowned laughingthrush Red-tailed laughingthrush White-rumped shama Nicobar pigeon Emerald dove Mindanao bleeding-heart dove Java sparrow Pekin robin Hooded pitta Chestnut-backed thrush Asian fairy-bluebird Grey-faced liocichla Opened in 1999, the Cloud Forest is the first enclosure at Durrell to feature mixed animals, including carnivorous species. Andean bear Ring-tailed coati Black howler monkey Brazilian tanager Orange-bellied euphonia Red-cowled cardinal Silver-throated tanager The Pavilion was opened by HRH Princess Anne in the 1970s, serves as a conference centre, classroom; the theatre shows films depicting the work of the trust, exhibits artwork. It highlights the work undertaken by the Trust around the world; the Pavilion houses a number of species which are used for educational aspect of conservation.
They include corn snakes, rainbow boas, milk snakes, New Guinea blue-tongued skinks, giant African land snails, giant millipedes, Madagascar hissing cockroaches, Macleays spectre, a large
San Diego is a city in the U. S. state of California. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California 120 miles south of Los Angeles and adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,419,516 as of July 1, 2017, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California, it is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the U. S. and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. The city is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the United States Navy, recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center. San Diego has been called "the birthplace of California". Home to the Kumeyaay people, it was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later.
The Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850; the city is the seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, international trade, manufacturing; the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San La Jolla people; the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing under the flag of Castile but born in Portugal.
Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, named the site "San Miguel". In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego. Permanent colonization of California and of San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the San Carlos, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó and the soldier and future governor Pedro Fages, the San Antonio, under Juan Pérez.
An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier Fernando Rivera and included the Franciscan missionary and chronicler Juan Crespí, followed by a second party led by the designated governor Gaspar de Portolà and including the mission president Junípero Serra. In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River, it was the first settlement by Europeans in. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra. By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper. Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in Alta California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks. In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began its attempt to extend its authority over the coastal territory of Alta California.
The fort on Presidio Hill was abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, most of the Mission lands were granted to former soldiers; the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote. However, San Diego had been losing population throughout the 1830s and in 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because its size dropped to an estimated 100 to 150 residents. Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy. Americans gained increased awareness of California, its commercial possibilities, from the writings of two countrymen involved in the officially forbidden, to foreigners, but economically significant hide and tallow trade, where San Diego was a major port and the only one with an adequate harbor: William Shaler's "Journal of a Voyage Between China and the North-Western Coast of America, Made in 1804" and Richard Henry Dana's more substantial and convincing account, of his 1834–36 voyage, the classic Two Years Before the Mast.
In 1846, the United States went to war against Mexico and sent a naval and land expedition to conquer Alta California. At firs