After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror, at the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries. With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, while the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians. The empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, however, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian Empires. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent.
Starting before World War I, but growing increasingly common and violent during it, major atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks. The word Ottoman is an anglicisation of the name of Osman I. Osmans name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān, in Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti, the Turkish word for Ottoman originally referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, and subsequently came to be used to refer to the empires military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term Turk was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond. In Western Europe, the two names Ottoman Empire and Turkey were often used interchangeably, with Turkey being increasingly favored both in formal and informal situations and this dichotomy was officially ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name.
Most scholarly historians avoid the terms Turkey and Turkish when referring to the Ottomans, as the power of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman, osmans early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River and it is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their neighbours, due to the scarcity of the sources which survive from this period. One school of thought which was popular during the twentieth century argued that the Ottomans achieved success by rallying religious warriors to fight for them in the name of Islam, in the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over Anatolia and the Balkans.
Osmans son, captured the northwestern Anatolian city of Bursa in 1326 and this conquest meant the loss of Byzantine control over northwestern Anatolia. The important city of Thessaloniki was captured from the Venetians in 1387, the Ottoman victory at Kosovo in 1389 effectively marked the end of Serbian power in the region, paving the way for Ottoman expansion into Europe
Computer science is the study of the theory and engineering that form the basis for the design and use of computers. An alternate, more succinct definition of science is the study of automating algorithmic processes that scale. A computer scientist specializes in the theory of computation and the design of computational systems and its fields can be divided into a variety of theoretical and practical disciplines. Some fields, such as computational complexity theory, are highly abstract, other fields still focus on challenges in implementing computation. Human–computer interaction considers the challenges in making computers and computations useful, the earliest foundations of what would become computer science predate the invention of the modern digital computer. Machines for calculating fixed numerical tasks such as the abacus have existed since antiquity, algorithms for performing computations have existed since antiquity, even before the development of sophisticated computing equipment.
Wilhelm Schickard designed and constructed the first working mechanical calculator in 1623, in 1673, Gottfried Leibniz demonstrated a digital mechanical calculator, called the Stepped Reckoner. He may be considered the first computer scientist and information theorist, among other reasons and he started developing this machine in 1834, and in less than two years, he had sketched out many of the salient features of the modern computer. A crucial step was the adoption of a card system derived from the Jacquard loom making it infinitely programmable. Around 1885, Herman Hollerith invented the tabulator, which used punched cards to process statistical information, when the machine was finished, some hailed it as Babbages dream come true. During the 1940s, as new and more powerful computing machines were developed, as it became clear that computers could be used for more than just mathematical calculations, the field of computer science broadened to study computation in general. Computer science began to be established as an academic discipline in the 1950s.
The worlds first computer science program, the Cambridge Diploma in Computer Science. The first computer science program in the United States was formed at Purdue University in 1962. Since practical computers became available, many applications of computing have become distinct areas of study in their own rights and it is the now well-known IBM brand that formed part of the computer science revolution during this time. IBM released the IBM704 and the IBM709 computers, working with the IBM was frustrating if you had misplaced as much as one letter in one instruction, the program would crash, and you would have to start the whole process over again. During the late 1950s, the science discipline was very much in its developmental stages. Time has seen significant improvements in the usability and effectiveness of computing technology, modern society has seen a significant shift in the users of computer technology, from usage only by experts and professionals, to a near-ubiquitous user base
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until it was overthrown by the short-lived February Revolution in 1917. One of the largest empires in history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire happened in association with the decline of neighboring powers, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia. It played a role in 1812–14 in defeating Napoleons ambitions to control Europe. The House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, and its German-descended cadet branch, with 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, there were numerous dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts, they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia.
Economically, the empire had an agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs. The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways, the land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, and subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged and he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. Tsar Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an already huge empire into a major European power, Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. She expanded the state by conquest and diplomacy, continuing Peter the Greats policy of modernisation along West European lines, Tsar Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861. His policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire and that connection by 1914 led to Russias entry into the First World War on the side of France and Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires.
The Russian Empire functioned as a monarchy until the Revolution of 1905. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917, largely as a result of failures in its participation in the First World War. Perhaps the latter was done to make Europe recognize Russia as more of a European country, Poland was divided in the 1790-1815 era, with much of the land and population going to Russia. Most of the 19th century growth came from adding territory in Asia, Peter I the Great introduced autocracy in Russia and played a major role in introducing his country to the European state system. However, this vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns, the class of kholops, close to the one of slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter I converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali, is a landlocked country in West Africa. Mali is the eighth-largest country in Africa, with an area of just over 1,240,000 square kilometres, the population of Mali is 14.5 million. The countrys economy centers on agriculture and fishing, some of Malis prominent natural resources include gold, being the third largest producer of gold in the African continent, and salt. About half the population lives below the poverty line of $1.25 a day. A majority of the population are Muslims, present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade, the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire, and the Songhai Empire. During its golden age, there was a flourishing of mathematics, literature, at its peak in 1300, the Mali Empire covered an area about twice the size of modern-day France and stretched to the west coast of Africa. In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for Africa, France seized control of Mali, French Sudan joined with Senegal in 1959, achieving independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation.
Shortly thereafter, following Senegals withdrawal from the federation, the Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent Republic of Mali. After a long period of one-party rule, a coup in 1991 led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state. In January 2012, a conflict broke out in northern Mali, in which Tuareg rebels took control of by April and declared the secession of a new state. The conflict was complicated by a coup that took place in March. In response to Islamist territorial gains, the French military launched Opération Serval in January 2013, a month later and French forces recaptured most of the north. Presidential elections were held on 28 July 2013, with a second round held on 11 August. The name Mali is taken from the name of the Mali Empire, the name was originally derived from the Mandinka or Bambara word mali, meaning “hippopotamus”, but it eventually came to mean the place where the king lives. The word carries the connotation of strength, D.
Niane suggests in Sundiata, An Epic of Old Mali that it is not impossible that Mali was the name given to one of the capitals of the emperors. 14th century Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta reported that the capital of the Mali Empire was indeed called Mali and this name could have formerly been that of a city. In old Mali there is one village called Malikoma which means “New Mali. ”Another theory suggests that Mali is a Fulani pronunciation of the name of the Mande peoples. It is suggested that a sound shift led to the change, whereby in Fulani the alveolar segment /nd/ shifts to /l/, Mali was once part of three famed West African empires which controlled trans-Saharan trade in gold, salt and other precious commodities
The Codex Gigas is the largest extant medieval manuscript in the world. It is known as the Devils Bible because of an illustration of the devil on the inside. It is thought to have created in the early 12th century in the Benedictine monastery of Podlažice in Bohemia. It contains the Vulgate Bible as well as historical documents all written in Latin. The codex is bound in a folder covered with leather. At 92 cm tall,50 cm wide and 22 cm thick, weighing 74.8 kg, Codex Gigas is composed of 310 leaves of vellum allegedly made from the skins of 160 donkeys or perhaps calfskin. It initially contained 320 sheets, though some of these were subsequently removed and it is unknown who removed the pages or for what purpose but it seems likely that they contained the monastic rules of the Benedictines. Legend has it, that it was written by one scribe, according to legend, the Codex was created by Herman the Recluse in the Benedictine monastery of Podlažice near Chrudim in the Czech Republic. The monastery was destroyed sometime in the 15th century during the Hussite Revolution, records in the codex end in the year 1229.
The codex was pledged to the Cistercians Sedlec Monastery and bought by the Benedictine monastery in Břevnov. From 1477 to 1593, it was kept in the library of a monastery in Broumov until it was taken to Prague in 1594 to form a part of the collections of the Emperor Rudolf II. At the end of the Thirty Years War in 1648, the collection was taken as war booty by the Swedish army. From 1649 to 2007, the manuscript was kept in the Swedish Royal Library in Stockholm, the site of its creation is marked by a maquette in the town museum of Chrast. On Friday,7 May 1697, a fire broke out at the royal castle in Stockholm. The codex was rescued from the flames by being out of a window. This damaged the binding and knocked loose some pages which are missing today. According to the vicar Johann Erichsons, the codex landed on, in September 2007, after 359 years, the Codex Gigas returned to Prague on loan from Sweden until January 2008, and was on display at the Czech National Library. A National Geographic documentary included interviews with experts who argued that certain evidence indicates the manuscript was indeed the work of just one scribe
Organization of American States
The Organization of American States, or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states. Headquartered in Washington, United States, the OASs members are the 35 independent states of the Americas, as of 26 May 2015, the Secretary General of OAS is Luis Almagro. Bolívars dream of American unity was meant to unify Hispanic American nations against external powers, the pursuit of regional solidarity and cooperation again came to the forefront in 1889–1890, at the First International Conference of American States. These two bodies, in existence as of 14 April 1890, represent the point of inception to which the OAS and its General Secretariat trace their origins. At the Fourth International Conference of American States, the name of the organization was changed to the Union of American Republics, the Pan American Union Building was constructed in 1910, on Constitution Avenue, Washington, D. C.
In the mid-1930s, U. S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt organized a conference in Buenos Aires. One of the items at the conference was a League of Nations of the Americas, an idea proposed by Colombia and the Dominican Republic. At the subsequent Inter-American Conference for the Maintenance of Peace,21 nations pledged to remain neutral in the event of a conflict between any two members. The experience of World War II convinced hemispheric governments that unilateral action could not ensure the integrity of the American nations in the event of external aggression. This was the event that saw the birth of the OAS as it stands today, the meeting adopted the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, the worlds first general human rights instrument. The transition from the Pan American Union to OAS would have been if it had not been for the assassination of Colombian leader Jorge Eliécer Gaitán. The Director General of the former, Alberto Lleras Camargo, became the Organizations first Secretary General, the current Secretary General is former Uruguayan minister of foreign affairs Luis Almagro.
Significant milestones in the history of the OAS since the signing of the Charter have included the following,1959,1969, American Convention on Human Rights signed. 1970, OAS General Assembly established as the Organizations supreme decision-making body,1979, Inter-American Court of Human Rights created. 1991, Adoption of Resolution 1080, which requires the Secretary General to convene the Permanent Council within ten days of a coup détat in any member country,1994, First Summit of the Americas, which resolved to establish a Free Trade Area of the Americas by 2005. 2009, OAS revokes 1962 suspension of Cuba,2009, OAS suspends Honduras due to the coup which ousted president Manuel Zelaya. 2011, OAS lifts the suspension of Honduras with the return of Manuel Zelaya from exile, article 2 defines eight essential purposes, To strengthen the peace and security of the continent. To promote and consolidate representative democracy, with due respect for the principle of nonintervention, to prevent possible causes of difficulties and to ensure the pacific settlement of disputes that may arise among the member states
An architectural drawing or architects drawing is a technical drawing of a building that falls within the definition of architecture. Architectural drawings are made according to a set of conventions, which include particular views, sheet sizes, units of measurement and scales and cross referencing. Conventionally, drawings were made in ink on paper or a similar material, the twentieth century saw a shift to drawing on tracing paper, so that mechanical copies could be run off efficiently. Today the vast majority of drawings are created using CAD software, the size of drawings reflects the materials available and the size that is convenient to transport – rolled up or folded, laid out on a table, or pinned up on a wall. The draughting process may impose limitations on the size that is realistically workable, sizes are determined by a consistent paper size system, according to local usage. Normally the largest paper size used in architectural practice is ISO A0 or in the USA Arch E or Large E size.
Architectural drawings are drawn to scale, so that relative sizes are correctly represented, the scale is chosen both to ensure the whole building will fit on the chosen sheet size, and to show the required amount of detail. At the scale of one eighth of an inch to one foot or the metric equivalent 1 to 100, walls are typically shown as simple outlines corresponding to the overall thickness. At a larger scale, half an inch to one foot or the nearest common metric equivalent 1 to 20, construction details are drawn to a larger scale, in some cases full size. Scale drawings enable dimensions to be read off the drawing, i. e. measured directly, imperial scales are equally readable using an ordinary ruler. On a one-eighth inch to one foot scale drawing, the divisions on the ruler can be read off as feet. Architects normally use a ruler with different scales marked on each edge. A third method, used by builders in estimating, is to measure directly off the drawing, dimensions can be measured off drawings made on a stable medium such as vellum.
All processes of reproduction introduce small errors, especially now that different copying methods mean that the drawing may be re-copied. Consequently, dimensions need to be written on the drawing, the disclaimer Do not scale off dimensions is commonly inscribed on architects drawings, to guard against errors arising in the copying process. This section deals with the conventional views used to represent a building or structure, see the Types of architectural drawing section below for drawings classified according to their purpose. Technically it is a section cut through a building, showing walls and door openings. The plan view includes anything that could be seen below that level, objects above the plan level can be indicated as dashed lines
Written Chinese comprises Chinese characters used to represent the Chinese language. Chinese characters do not constitute an alphabet or a compact syllabary, the writing system is roughly logosyllabic, that is, a character generally represents one syllable of spoken Chinese and may be a word on its own or a part of a polysyllabic word. The characters themselves are composed of parts that may represent physical objects, abstract notions. Literacy requires the memorization of a great many characters, educated Chinese know about 4,000, the large number of Chinese characters has in part led to the adoption of Western alphabets as an auxiliary means of representing Chinese. Various current Chinese characters have been traced back to the late Shang Dynasty about 1200–1050 BC, after a period of variation and evolution, Chinese characters were standardized under the Qin Dynasty. Over the millennia, these characters have evolved into well-developed styles of Chinese calligraphy, as the varieties of Chinese diverged, a situation of diglossia developed, with speakers of mutually unintelligible varieties able to communicate through writing using Classical Chinese.
In the early 20th century, Classical Chinese was replaced in this role by written vernacular Chinese, although most other varieties of Chinese are not written, there are traditions of written Cantonese, written Shanghainese and written Hokkien, among others. Written Chinese is not based on an alphabet or a compact syllabary, Chinese characters are glyphs whose components may depict objects or represent abstract notions. Occasionally a character consists of one component, more commonly two or more components are combined to form more complex characters, using a variety of different principles. The best known exposition of Chinese character composition is the Shuowen Jiezi, since Xu Shen did not have access to Chinese characters in their earliest forms, his analysis cannot always be taken as authoritative. Nonetheless, no work has supplanted the Shuowen Jiezi in terms of breadth. According to the Shuowen Jiezi, Chinese characters are developed on six basic principles, the first two principles produce simple characters, known as 文 wén, 象形 xiàngxíng, Pictographs, in which the character is a graphical depiction of the object it denotes.
Examples, 人 rén person, 日 rì sun, 木 mù tree/wood, 指事 zhǐshì, Indicatives, or ideographs, in which the character represents an abstract notion. Examples, 上 shàng up, 下 xià down, 三 sān three, the remaining four principles produce complex characters historically called 字 zì. Of these four, two characters from simpler parts, 會意/会意 huìyì, Logical aggregates, in which two or more parts are used for their meaning. This yields a composite meaning, which is applied to the new character. Example, 東/东 dōng east, which represents a sun rising in the trees, example, 晴 qíng clear/fair, which is composed of 日 rì sun, and 青 qīng blue/green, which is used for its pronunciation. In fact, some phonetic complexes were originally simple pictographs that were augmented by the addition of a semantic root
James H. Billington
He served as the 13th Librarian of Congress after being nominated as 13th by President Ronald Reagan in 1987, and his appointment was approved unanimously by the U. S. Senate. He retired as Librarian on September 30,2015, born in Bryn Mawr, Billington was educated in Philadelphia-area public schools. He was class valedictorian at both Lower Merion High School and Princeton University, where he graduated with highest honors in 1950, Three years later, he earned his doctorate from Balliol College, where he was a Rhodes Scholar and student of the philosopher, Isaiah Berlin. From 1973 to 1987, Billington was director of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, as director, he founded the Kennan Institute for Advanced Russian Studies at the Center and seven other new programs as well as the Wilson Quarterly. Billington is married to the former Marjorie Anne Brennan and they have four children, Dr. Susan Billington Harper, Anne Billington Fischer, the Rev. James Hadley Billington Jr, and Thomas Keator Billington, as well as 12 grandchildren.
Dr. Billington and his daughter Susan are the first father and daughter both to be awarded Rhodes Scholarships and to use them to earn Doctorates of Philosophy at Oxford University, Billington was sworn in as the Librarian of Congress on September 14,1987. He is the 13th person to hold the position since the Library of Congress was established in 1800 and he was nominated by President Ronald Reagan and his appointment was unanimously confirmed by the Senate. During his tenure at the Library of Congress, Billington doubled the size of the Librarys traditional analog collections and he led the acquisition of Lafayettes previously inaccessible papers in 1996 from a castle at La Grange, France. Billington has since been the only non-Frenchman on the Board of the governing the castle. He acquired the only copy of the 1507 Waldseemüller world map in 2003 for permanent display in the Librarys Thomas Jefferson Building. Billington pioneered the reconstruction, using privately raised funds, of Thomas Jeffersons original library, every three years, the Librarian reviews the Digital Millennium Copyright Act.
It was probably Billingtons unassailable reputation for integrity and probity that won the LOC this power under the DMCA, besides these unique American Memory materials, the Library Internet services include the congressional database, THOMAS, the on-line card catalog, information from the U. S. Copyright Office, and a web site for children and families called Americas Library, in fiscal year 2013 the Librarys website recorded 84 million visits and 519 million page views. Kluge, the Kluge Center increases engagement of scholars with the U. S.1 million additional support from Congress. Winners have included Paul Simon, Stevie Wonder, Paul McCartney, Burt Bacharach and Hal David, Carole King, Billy Joel, Open World began as a Library of Congress project, and became an independent agency in the legislative branch. Billington is founder and was Chairman of the Board of Trustees, the Fiction Prize created in 2008 to recognize distinguished lifetime achievement in the writing of fiction. During Billingtons tenure at the Library of Congress, he raised more than half a billion dollars of private support to supplement Congressional appropriations and these private funds were used to increase Library collections and digital outreach.
Billington asked the GAO to conduct the first Library-wide audit in 1987 and this precedent led to regular annual financial audits, which produced unmodified opinions from 1995 onwards
La Marseillaise is the national anthem of France. The song was written in 1792 by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle in Strasbourg after the declaration of war by France against Austria, and was originally titled Chant de guerre pour lArmée du Rhin. The Marseillaise was a song, an anthem to freedom, a patriotic call to mobilize all the citizens. The French National Convention adopted it as the Republics anthem in 1795 and it acquired its nickname after being sung in Paris by volunteers from Marseille marching to the capital. The song is the first example of the European march anthemic style, the anthems evocative melody and lyrics have led to its widespread use as a song of revolution and its incorporation into many pieces of classical and popular music. As the French Revolution continued, the monarchies of Europe became concerned that revolutionary fervor would spread to their countries, the War of the First Coalition was an effort to stop the revolution, or at least contain it to France. Initially, the French army did not distinguish itself, and Coalition armies invaded France and that evening, Rouget de Lisle wrote Chant de guerre pour lArmée du Rhin, and dedicated the song to Marshal Nicolas Luckner, a Bavarian in French service from Cham.
A plaque on the building on Place Broglie where De Dietrichs house once stood commemorates the event. The melody soon became the call to the French Revolution and was adopted as La Marseillaise after the melody was first sung on the streets by volunteers from Marseille by the end of May. A newly graduated medical doctor, Mireur became a general under Napoléon Bonaparte, the songs lyric reflects the invasion of France by foreign armies that were under way when it was written. Strasbourg itself was attacked just a few days later, the invading forces were repulsed from France following their defeat in the Battle of Valmy. As the vast majority of Alsatians did not speak French, a German version was published in October 1792 in Colmar, the Convention accepted it as the French national anthem in a decree passed on 14 July 1795, making it Frances first anthem. It lost this status under Napoleon I, and the song was banned outright by Louis XVIII and Charles X, only being re-instated briefly after the July Revolution of 1830.
During Napoleon Is reign, Veillons au Salut de lEmpire was the anthem of the regime. Eight years later, in 1879, it was restored as Frances national anthem, several musical antecedents have been cited for the melody, Mozarts Allegro maestoso of Piano Concerto No. Only the first verse and the first chorus are sung today in France, there are some slight historical variations in the lyrics of the song, the following is the version listed at the official website of the French Presidency. Verses sung in the version of the anthem are in bold. The United States Library of Congress holds the following English translation and these verses were omitted from the national anthem
The Bibliotheca Alexandrina is a major library and cultural center located on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea in the Egyptian city of Alexandria. It is both a commemoration of the Library of Alexandria that was lost in antiquity, and an attempt to rekindle something of the brilliance that this center of study. The notion of recreating the ancient library was adopted by other individuals, an architectural design competition was organized by UNESCO in 1988 to choose a design worthy of the site and its heritage. The competition was won by Snøhetta, a Norwegian architectural office, the first pledges were made for funding the project at a conference held in 1990 in Aswan, USD $65 million, mostly from the Arab states. Construction work began in 1995 and, after some USD $220 million had been spent, the Bibliotheca Alexandrina is trilingual, containing books in Arabic and French. In 2010, the received a donation of 500,000 books from the National Library of France. The gift makes the Bibliotheca Alexandrina the sixth-largest Francophone library in the world, the BA is now the largest depository of French books in the Arab world, surpassing those of Tunisia and Morocco, in addition to being the main French library in Africa.
The dimensions of the project are vast, the library has space for eight million books. The librarys architecture is equally striking, the main reading room stands beneath a 32-meter-high glass-panelled roof, tilted out toward the sea like a sundial, and measuring some 160 m in diameter. The walls are of gray Aswan granite, carved with characters from 120 different human scripts, the collections at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina were donated from all over the world. The Spanish donated documents that detailed their period of Moorish rule, the French donated, giving the library documents dealing with the building of the Suez Canal. The BA/IA partnership is built with the aims to preserve heritage for future generations, the BA maintains the only mirror and external backup of the Internet Archive. The Taha Hussein Library contains materials for the blind and visually impaired using special software that makes it possible for readers to read books and journals. It is named after Taha Hussein, the Egyptian professor of Arabic and literary critic and one of the figures of the Arab Renaissance in literature.
Contains book collections of Nobel Prize Laureates in Literature from 1901 to present, the Nobel Section was inaugurated by Queen Silvia of Sweden and Queen Sonja of Norway on 24 April 2002. Nobel Section Established in 2001, the BA Antiquities Museum is the first archeological museum to be situated within a library, the primary aims of the museum are to promote research and cultural awareness. The collection includes underwater antiquities from the Mediterranean seabed near the Eastern Harbour, the museum provides descriptions of artifacts in three languages, English and French. The Manuscript Museum provides visitors and researchers with rare manuscripts and books, Established in 2001, the Manuscript Museum contains the worlds largest collection of digital manuscripts