Laubach is a town of 10,000 people in the Gießen region of Hesse, Germany. Laubach is known as a climatic health resort, it is situated 23 kilometres east of Gießen. Surrounding Laubach are the towns of Hungen, Grünberg and Lich; the dense Laubach Woods spread into the foothills of the Vogelsberg Mountains. With its many historic and colorful half-timbered buildings, Laubach is an area of interest to tourists; the main point of attraction is the castle, still owned by the count of Solms-Laubach. It was expanded over the years; the Solms castle has one of the largest private libraries in Europe, with over 120,000 titles. An original Gutenberg Bible, on display in the Johann Gutenberg Museum in Mainz, came from this private collection; the castle grounds include a huge park with a swan lake, open to the public. The city's Evangelical Lutheran Church named St. Maria, has a Baroque organ; the oldest part of the church was built in the twelfth century. It was renovated in the eighteenth century; the former district courthouse, the city hall, the Heimat Museum are together on the main street of Friedrichstrasse.
The courthouse is now a residence for senior citizens. The Heimat Museum–Fridericianum is the local history museum built near the town of Gonterskirchen in 1750 by Count August Solms-Laubach; the building was moved to its present location in 1832 and served as a school before it became a museum. The museum contains a permanent exhibit of the diary of city resident Friedrich Kellner. Friedrich Kellner - Laubach's chief justice inspector during World War II, he wrote a 10-volume diary about the misdeeds of the Nazis published as a book, My Opposition, he became deputy mayor, first town councilman, chairman of the regional branch of the Social Democrats. A Canadian documentary about Kellner was filmed on location in Laubach. Felix Klipstein, artist - grew up in Laubach and Belgium, spending his academic years in France and Spain, where he did special studies in Velázquez. In 1909 he settled in Laubach with the writer Edith Blass. Friedel Münch, head of Münch Motorcycle Works Philipp Erasmus Reich and publisher Georg Friedrich Solms-Laubach Sophie von Solms-Laubach Countess Monika zu Solms-Laubach, Princess Consort of Hanover Nachtigall, Helmut.
Die Fachwerkhäuser Alt-Laubachs: Führer durch die Holzarchitektur Alt-Laubachs. Laubach. My Opposition: The Diaries of Friedrich Kellner. Toronto, Canada: CCI Entertainment. Laubach Online
Scouting or the Scout Movement is a movement that aims to support young people in their physical and spiritual development, that they may play constructive roles in society, with a strong focus on the outdoors and survival skills. During the first half of the twentieth century, the movement grew to encompass three major age groups for boys and, in 1910, a new organization, Girl Guides, was created for girls, it is one of several worldwide youth organizations. In 1906 and 1907 Robert Baden-Powell, a lieutenant general in the British Army, wrote a book for boys about reconnaissance and scouting. Baden-Powell wrote Scouting for Boys, based on his earlier books about military scouting, with influence and support of Frederick Russell Burnham, Ernest Thompson Seton of the Woodcraft Indians, William Alexander Smith of the Boys' Brigade, his publisher Pearson. In the summer of 1907 Baden-Powell held a camp on Brownsea Island in England to test ideas for his book; this camp and the publication of Scouting for Boys are regarded as the start of the Scout movement.
The movement employs the Scout method, a programme of informal education with an emphasis on practical outdoor activities, including camping, aquatics, hiking and sports. Another recognized movement characteristic is the Scout uniform, by intent hiding all differences of social standing in a country and making for equality, with neckerchief and campaign hat or comparable headwear. Distinctive uniform insignia include the fleur-de-lis and the trefoil, as well as badges and other patches; the two largest umbrella organizations are the World Organization of the Scout Movement, for boys-only and co-educational organizations, the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts for girls-only organizations but accepting co-educational organizations. The year 2007 marked the centenary of Scouting worldwide, member organizations planned events to celebrate the occasion. Scouting started itself, but the trigger that set it going was the 1908 publication of Scouting for Boys written by Robert Baden-Powell.
At Charterhouse, one of England's most famous public schools, Baden-Powell had an interest in the outdoors. As a military officer, Baden-Powell was stationed in British India in the 1880s where he took an interest in military scouting and in 1884 he published Reconnaissance and Scouting. In 1896, Baden-Powell was assigned to the Matabeleland region in Southern Rhodesia as Chief of Staff to Gen. Frederick Carrington during the Second Matabele War. In June 1896 he met here and began a lifelong friendship with Frederick Russell Burnham, the American-born Chief of Scouts for the British Army in Africa; this was a formative experience for Baden-Powell not only because he had the time of his life commanding reconnaissance missions into enemy territory, but because many of his Boy Scout ideas originated here. During their joint scouting patrols into the Matobo Hills, Burnham augmented Baden-Powell's woodcraft skills, inspiring him and sowing seeds for both the programme and for the code of honour published in Scouting for Boys.
Practised by frontiersmen of the American Old West and indigenous peoples of the Americas, woodcraft was little known to the British Army but well-known to the American scout Burnham. These skills formed the basis of what is now called scoutcraft, the fundamentals of Scouting. Both men recognised that wars in Africa were the British Army needed to adapt. During this time in the Matobo Hills Baden-Powell first started to wear his signature campaign hat like the one worn by Burnham, acquired his kudu horn, the Ndebele war instrument he used every morning at Brownsea Island to wake the first Boy Scouts and to call them together in training courses. Three years in South Africa during the Second Boer War, Baden-Powell was besieged in the small town of Mafikeng by a much larger Boer army; the Mafeking Cadet Corps was a group of youths that supported the troops by carrying messages, which freed the men for military duties and kept the boys occupied during the long siege. The Cadet Corps performed well, helping in the defence of the town, were one of the many factors that inspired Baden-Powell to form the Scouting movement.
Each member received a badge that illustrated spearhead. The badge's logo was similar to the fleur-de-lis shaped arrowhead that Scouting adopted as its international symbol; the Siege of Mafeking was the first time since his own childhood that Baden-Powell, a regular serving soldier, had come into the same orbit as "civilians"—women and children—and discovered for himself the usefulness of well-trained boys. In the United Kingdom, the public, through newspapers, followed Baden-Powell's struggle to hold Mafeking, when the siege was broken he had become a national hero; this rise to fame fuelled the sales of the small instruction book he had written in 1899 about military scouting and wilderness survival, Aids to Scouting, that owed much to what he had learned from discussions with Burnham. On his return to England, Baden-Powell noticed that boys showed considerable interest in Aids to Scouting, unexpectedly used by teachers and youth organizations as their first Scouting handbook, he was urged to rewrite this book for boys during an inspection of the Boys' Brigade, a large youth movement drille
World Federation of Independent Scouts World Jamboree
The WFIS world jamboree is a Scouting jamboree of the World Federation of Independent Scouts. The 3rd World WFIS Jamboree was held from 16 to 23 July 2011. There were 1000 WFIS members from around 40 countries between 21 years of age. There were a great variety of activities, including workshops with various NGOs and different indigenous groups, farm activities for Cub Packs, tours in Puebla and Cuetzalan, visits to the preHispanic ruins of Yohualichan and excursions, treks and cultural activities
Scouting and Guiding in Mexico
The Scouting and Guiding movement in Mexico consists of several independent organizations. Asociación de Scouts de México, Asociación Civil, member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement Guías de México, member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts Agrupación Scout Mexicana, A. C. a member of the World Federation of Independent Scouts Federación Mexicana de Scouts Independientes, A. C. a member of the World Federation of Independent Scouts Scouts y Guías Baden Powell, A. C. independent local groups Scouts Mexicanos, A. C. member of the Order of World Scouts Asociación de Grupos de Scouts de México, A. C.. WAGGGS' world centre Our Cabaña, in Cuernavaca, opened in 1957. In addition, there are American Boy Scouts in Mexico City and Chihuahua, linked to the Direct Service branch of the Boy Scouts of America, which supports units around the world. ASMAC Home Page Federación Mexicana de Scouts Independientes
Scouting for Boys
Scouting for Boys: A handbook for instruction in good citizenship is a book on Boy Scout training, published in various editions since 1908. Early editions were written and illustrated by Robert Baden-Powell with editions being extensively rewritten by others; the book was a manual for self-instruction in observation and woodcraft skills as well as self-discipline and self-improvement, about the Empire and duty as citizens with an eclectic mix of anecdotes and unabashed personal observations and recollections. It is pervaded by a degree of moral proselytizing and references to the author's own exploits, it is based on his boyhood experiences, his experience with the Mafeking Cadet Corps during the Second Boer War at the Siege of Mafeking, on his experimental camp on Brownsea Island, England. Scouting for Boys was Baden-Powell's rewrite of his earlier book Aids to Scouting with many youth training ideas taken from The Birch Bark Roll of the Woodcraft Indians written by Ernest Thompson Seton, who became the Chief Scout of the Boy Scouts of America.
Aids to Scouting was a written explanation of the military scouting and self-reliance skills lessons Baden-Powell had learned from Frederick Russell Burnham, the British Army Chief of Scouts, but following the siege of Mafeking this military handbook unexpectedly became popular with many youth groups and educators, like Charlotte Mason, in Britain. At Mafeking, Baden-Powell's adjutant had recruited and trained boys aged 12–15 as cadets and during the siege they acted as postmen, to carry the wounded, to free men for fighting. Upon his return to England, following the Second Boer War, Baden-Powell learned some British schools had been using Aids to Scouting to teach observation and deduction. In 1906, Seton discussed youth training ideas with Baden-Powell and shared with him a copy of The Birch Bark Roll of the Woodcraft Indians. Soon after, Baden-Powell decided to revise Aids to Scouting into a book for boys. Several friends supported Baden-Powell, including Sir William Alexander Smith, founder of the Boys' Brigade, Cyril Arthur Pearson, who owned newspapers and printing presses, the novelist Maria Fetherstonhaugh, who provided a quiet Wimbledon house where he could write.
Baden-Powell wrote a draft called Boy Patrols, which he used and tested with 22 boys for one week at camp on Brownsea Island in the summer of 1907, where Pearson's literary editor Percy Everett assisted. Scouting for Boys was published in six fortnightly instalments of 70 pages each, from January to March 1908, they were produced by Horace Cox. These six publications were a success and, as planned, were issued in book form on 1 May 1908. Although Aids to Scouting influenced the book, Scouting for Boys presents Scouting from the perspective of outdoorsmen and explorers rather than military men, it adds the Scout Oath, Scout Law and games for youth; the book was revised and an enormous variety of editions were published. Many of these editions were edited by others and, far beyond mere editing, whole sections were written by authors other than Baden-Powell; the book was a best seller upon release, and, in its various editions, is claimed to have become one of the best-selling books in history. Scouting for Boys has been translated into many languages.
In 1948, editions of the book were still selling 50,000 copies annually. Only in 1967 was a decline noted by the publisher and in the last decades of the 20th century the book came to be seen as a period curiosity by the Scout Movement, it is claimed to be the fourth bestselling book of the 20th century. A realistic estimate is that 4 million copies of the UK edition have been sold. Extrapolating this to 87 different language editions worldwide, historic world sales of Scouting for Boys can be estimated at 100 to 150 million copies since 1908. In her introduction to the 2005 edition, Elleke Boehmer criticises the book saying "the text was scored through with a contemporary class prejudice which would have been off-putting to non-middle-class readers, as captured in the sharp aphorism that bees form a'model community, for they respect their Queen and kill their unemployed' Character observation in many ways meant reading for the signs of working-class poverty." Scouting for Boys has been published in over thirty consecutive editions by London based C. Arthur Pearson Ltd. and it is translated to all the major languages of the world.
Estimatedly, over 100 million books have been printed, making it rank high in the list of best-selling books. Scouting for Boys. London, Windsor House, Bream's Buildings, E. C.: Horace Cox. January–March 1908. Pp. six instalments of approx 70 pages each. Scouting for Boys. London, Henrietta Street: C. Arthur Pearson Ltd. 1 May 1908. Pp. 288 pages. Scouting for Boys. London: C. Arthur Pearson Ltd. June 1909. Pp. 310 pages. Plus advertisements Scouting for Boys. London: C. Arthur Pearson Ltd. July 1910. Scouting for Boys. London: C. Arthur Pearson Ltd. October 1911. Scouting for Boys. London: C. Arthur Pearson Ltd. November 1912. Scouting for Boys. London: C. Arthur Pearson Ltd. April 1913. Scouting for Boys. London: C. Arthur Pearson Ltd. December 1913. Scouting for Boys. London: C. Arthur Pearson Ltd. January 1916. Pp. 352 pages. Scouting for Boys. London: C. Arthur Pearson Ltd. May 1918. Pp. 334 pages. Scouting for Boys. London, Tower House: C. Arthur Pearson Ltd. 1924. Pp. 338 pages. Scouting for Boys. London: C. Arthur Pearson Ltd. 1926.
Pp. 338 pages. Baden-Powell's Scouting for Boys (Boy's ed
Scouting and Guiding in Germany
The Scout movement in Germany consists of about 150 different associations and federations with about 260,000 Scouts and Guides. Scouting in Germany started in 1909. After World War I, German Scouting became involved with the German Youth Movement, of which the Wandervogel was a part. Another group that, while short-lived, was influential on German Scouting, was the Deutsche Jungenschaft vom 1.11.1929 founded by Eberhard Koebel. German Scouting flourished until 1934-35, when nearly all associations were closed and their members had to join the Hitler Youth. In West Germany and West Berlin, Scouting was reestablished after 1945, but it was banned in East Germany until 1990 in favor of the Thälmann Pioneers and the Free German Youth. Today it is present in all parts of the unified Federal Republic of Germany; as mentioned above, today federations exist in Germany. Most of them are coeducational, but there are some single-gender organizations - boys-only as well as girls-only; the most important and/or largest associations and federations are: Ring deutscher Pfadfinderverbände, a federation of Bund der Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder Deutsche Pfadfinderschaft Sankt Georg Verband Christlicher Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder Ring Deutscher Pfadfinderinnenverbände, a federation of Bund der Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder Pfadfinderinnenschaft Sankt Georg Verband Christlicher Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder Verband Deutscher Altpfadfindergilden, affiliated to International Scout and Guide Fellowship Deutscher Pfadfinderverband, a federation of 18 independent associations.
Most of them developed on military bases, but there are some at international schools or connected to diplomatic missions. The majority of international Scout and Guide groups dates back to the Allied occupation of Western Germany following World War II; the small remainder were started recently. Among the foreign associations in Germany are the Boy Scouts of America with about 120 units, served by three districts of the Transatlantic Council the Girl Scouts of the USA with about 80 units, served by USA Girl Scouts Overseas—North Atlantic and by USAGSO headquarters Girlguiding UK with about 60 units, served by British Guides in Foreign Countries/Germany County in five divisions the Scout Association with 11 groups, served by British Scouts Western Europe, Germany District. Scouts Canada Scouting Nederland Külföldi Magyar Cserkészszövetség - Hungarian Scout Association in ExterisThere are other foreign Scout associations active in Germany with single troops, Scouts et Guides de France in Munich and Hebrew Scouts Movement in Israel in Berlin.
The Dansk Spejderkorps Sydslesvig offers Scouting to the Danish minority of Southern Schleswig in Schleswig-Holstein. It is affiliated to the Danish Det Danske Spejderkorps as well as to the German Bund der Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder and has about 700 members in 15 troops. Sturmtrupp-Pfadfinder Scouting in displaced persons camps pfadfindertreffpunkt.de - Forum with members in about 20 countries and 150 associations Ring deutscher Pfadfinderverbände and Ring Deutscher Pfadfinderinnenverbände Deutsche Pfadfinderschaft Sankt Georg Deutscher Pfadfinderverband Christliche Pfadfinderschaft Royal Rangers Christliche Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder der Adventjugend Ring junger Bünde German Scout Wiki Christliche Pfadfinderschaft Deutschlands Katholische Pfadfinderschaft Europas http://www.pinetreeweb.com/left5-5.htm
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K