The World Organisation for Animal Health the Office International des Epizooties is an intergovernmental organization coordinating and promoting animal disease control. The main objective of the OIE is to control epizootic diseases and thus to prevent their spread. Other objectives consist of: transparency, scientific information, international solidarity, sanitary safety, the promotion of Veterinary Services, food safety and animal welfare, it is recognized as a reference organisation by the World Trade Organization and in 2018 had a total of 182 member states. Its newest member state is Saint Lucia; the OIE maintains permanent relations with 45 other international and regional organisations and has Regional and sub-regional Offices on every continent. The OIE does not depend on the UN system. Since its first General Session held in Paris, the Office carries out its work under the authority of a Committee consisting of delegates of the contracting Governments; the need to fight animal diseases at a global level led to the creation of the Office International des Epizooties through the international Agreement signed on January 25, 1924.
In May 2003 the Office became the World Organisation for Animal Health but kept its historical acronym OIE. In December 2016, 430 delegates to the 4th Global Conference on Animal Welfare approved a range of measures aimed to improve animal welfare. An OIE strategy document which stemmed from this conference was to be presented for adoption at the OIE World Assembly in May 2017. In January 2017, the outgoing Obama administration designated the OIE as an organization entitled to benefits of the International Organizations Immunities Act; the OIE's headquarters are located in the 17th arrondissement. It was in 1939 that the OIE moved to the aristocratic district of Parc Monceau, after having occupied premises since 1927 near the Champs de Mars and the Eiffel Tower, provided by the French Higher Public Health Council. In May 1938, the OIE Members gave Dr Emmanuel Leclainche and first General Director of the OIE, full powers to buy a townhouse in Paris, using the reserve fund. Dr Lecleinche chose the mansion from four properties selected by a Commission comprising the President of the OIE, H.
C. L. E. Berger, the Vice-President, Carlo Bisanti, the accountant, Gotlieb Flückiger. On 22 February 1939, the OIE, represented by E. Leclainche bought the mansion from the Marquise de Montebello, at a cost of 700,000 francs; the 13th General Session of the OIE was held from May 30 to June 5, 1939 at 12 rue de Prony after rebuilding work had been completed. Due to the Second World War, the following General Session did not take place until 1946, from 2 to 5 October. Following their entry into Paris in June 1940, the German occupying forces temporarily closed and sealed the OIE headquarters; the efforts of the President, Gotlieb Flückiger, elected in 1939, resulted in its re-opening. 12 rue de Prony was built in 1879, in the Neo-Renaissance style, by the celebrated architect Jean-Louis Pascal for the Austrian Baron, Jonas Königswater, a former banker and railway owner. A succession of major works to renovate and modernise the headquarters were undertaken by the Directors General elected after E.
Leclainche: Gaston Ramon, René Vittoz, Louis Blajan, Jean Blancou and Bernard Vallat. Due to the headlong development of the organisation, additional premises have been rented at 14 rue de Prony since 2004. On 16 March 2009, the OIE purchased a large part of the building at 14 rue de Prony, adjoining its headquarters. Timely dissemination of information is crucial to containing outbreaks; the WAHID Interface provides access to all data held within OIE's new World Animal Health Information System. It replaces and extends the former web interface named Handistatus II System. A comprehensive range of information is available from: Immediate notifications and follow-up reports submitted by Member Countries in response to exceptional disease events occurring in these countries as well as follow-up reports about these events, Six-monthly reports describing the OIE-listed disease situations in each country, Annual reports providing further background information on animal health, on laboratory and vaccine production facilities.
Aquatic Animal Health Code Terrestrial Animal Health Code OIE official website OIE Mission Statement World Animal Health Information System Interface
Chan Chor Min Tong is a Buddhist vegetarian hall located in Balestier, Singapore. It is separated into one at 2 Jalan Kemaman and another at 3 Bassein Road. Built by the Cantonese philanthropist Chan Chor Min in 1926 and 1936 the hall hosted migrant Chinese workers with no family or means of support in Singapore. From being a place of lodging to now being a place of worship, Chan Chor Min Tong is significant as a representation of the vegetarian hall culture as well as the migrant origins of Singapore. Chan Chor Min Tong was a vegetarian hall known as a zhaitang. Vegetarian halls practice a Buddhist religion, known as the Great Way; this religion was a folk layman religion, considered to be heterodox and was suppressed by China. Thus, the ideology spread to countries in South East Asia to avoid persecution. In these halls, worshippers would only consume a vegetarian diet as a form of purification and practice Buddhist rituals. However, these worshippers were not monks and were rather laymen, with one main master of the house acting as the primary caretaker.
Singapore faced an influx of immigrants in the early 20th century after World War 1. These immigrants were the main population of Singapore's workforce and consisted of not just men but women; these women left their homes in order to find work. Unfettered by the trappings of traditional marriage, they were free to gain their independence through finding work and becoming self-sustainable, they most took inspiration from the 19th-century independence movement in the districts of Guangzhou, where the mahjie and samsui women in Singapore originated from. Thus the majority of them were to speak the Cantonese dialect. Alone, they lived in these vegetarian halls as a community; the vegetarian halls offered a place to stay for these migrants with no homes or relationships with kin, provided that they would convert, practice the vegetarian diet and the Buddhist rituals. They had to remain single and abstain from sex, it was not free of charge, as they still had to do chores to stay. These places established a community amongst these immigrants, bounded by their oaths to care of each other.
This was important since most would never return to their hometown again due to financial costs. As part of a community, they were assured that through old age and in death they were not alone and that the necessary funeral rites would be performed for them. At the same time, Balestier was slowly evolving to be a affluent residential neighborhood; this invited many wealthy philanthropists to erect religious institutions. This resulted in the creation of many Chinese religious institutions like the Thong Teck Sian Tong Lian Sin Sia Buddhist-Taoist temple and the Fei Hsia Tsing She Buddhist temple in Balestier. In 1926, Chan Chor Min Tong was founded by Master Chan Chor Min; the first temple was a one-story terrace house built at 2 Jalan Kemaman housed migrant men. A decade in 1936, the second temple was built as a two-storey terrace house at 3 Bassein Road; this temple housed the migrant women instead. In the 1940s just before World War II, the old master Chan passed away, the current master took over his duties.
During the 1960s–1970s, the last residents in both halls have all passed away and Chan Chor Min Tong ceased being a place for lodging. Today, both halls are maintained by a trust as religious halls, only opens its doors to visitors during Chinese New Year; the Jalan Kemaman site is only open on the 3rd day of the Chinese New Year, while the Bassein Rd site is open for the first 3 days. The visitors are the elderly who have been coming for decades, as well as their families. Many of the adults there are continuing the tradition, they were brought to the temple by their parents, are now bringing children of their own there as well. As Chan Chor Min Tong is a Cantonese enclave, most of the visitors converse in Cantonese as well. At Jalan Kemanan, visitors would first enter the compound and make their way past the garden and into the side of the house, they offer their prayers to Guanyin the Goddess of Mercy, through offerings and joss sticks for their wishes such as wealth and good studies in the coming year.
After, they proceed to the back where they pay their respects to the deceased past master of the house. Following, visitors crawl under the offering table in a tradition unique to the temple. Devotees believe in that crawling under the table would bring them good fortune in the coming year, encourage visitors to repeat this three times for extra luck. After which, they proceed back to the main altar where they pray and drink holy water in front of the current master of the house. Visitors are treated to vegetarian food cooked by the temple volunteers. Visitors will be seated around a table with other strangers and be served Yu Sheng, vegetarian bee hoon and noodles. At Bassein Road, most visitors arrive on the first day, the number dwindles by the third day in which it becomes quiet. Just like at Jalan Kemanan, one pays their respect to the old masters of the house. Chan Chor Min Tong is managed by a trust, which would decide the future of both buildings, it is situated in a prime location of Balestier.
All around the Bassein Road site, high-rise condominiums tower over the two-storey terrace house, hiding it away from view. Several visitors to the Jalan Kemanan temple have been turned away by rumors that the Bassein Road site had been demolished and have since stopped visiting. Devotees volunteer to take care of the place for short periods of time but do not reside there anymore. Most
Danielle Steel's Star is a 1993 American made-for-television film starring Jennie Garth, Craig Bierko, Terry Farrell, Penny Fuller and Mitchell Ryan. This film is set in the 1970s, it was written by Danielle Steel and Claire Labine. Crystal Wyatt's singing voice during the song Timeless Love was performed by Megon McDonough. Jennie Garth plays a sweet country girl who dreams of becoming a singer; when her father dies, Crystal's life soon becomes dramatic. After her brother-in-law rapes her in the barn, Crystal tells her mother asking for support, but her mother refuses to believe her. Crystal confronts her brother-in-law with a shotgun. Crystal runs away to San Francisco, where she becomes a singer, she falls for Spencer. They, though he is years older, have had chemistry from the beginning and begin a passionate relationship in her tumultuous life. Crystal rises up to stardom with her looks and voice and competes with life's circumstances to be with the man she adores. However, Spencer is to be engaged with a woman named Elizabeth, a socialite who wants her life to be perfect and ordered.
As Crystal's life winds down, Spencer's marriage and patience dwindles. Crystal becomes pregnant and moves in with her childhood friend with Spencer's child, but wants to let him get his life in order before they can be together, he quits his associations with the higher-ups, quits his marriage, goes back to Crystal, where he discovers her with his 5-year-old son, Zeb. The movie ends on a happy note with much history been had, it is assumed that they live the rest of their lives out in a storybook romance. Jennie Garth as Crystal Wyatt Craig Bierko as Spencer Hill Terry Farrell as Elizabeth Penny Fuller as Olivia Wyatt Roxanne Reese as Pearl Mitchell Ryan as Harrison Barclay Jim Haynie as Tad Wyatt Melendy Britt as Priscilla Barclay Danielle Steel's Star on IMDb Danielle Steel's Star at AllMovie Danielle Steel's Star at Rotten Tomatoes
Billy Connolly: Journey to the Edge of the World is a four-part travel documentary series produced by ITV Studios, presented by Scottish comedian and actor Billy Connolly. In the summer of 2008, Connolly travels from Halifax, Nova Scotia on the Canadian Atlantic coast through the notorious Northwest Passage to Vancouver Island on the Canadian Pacific coast. On the way he meets the people living there, participates in their cultures, enjoys the nature and wildlife, as well as adding in some fun and comedy along the way; the series started airing on ITV on 19 February 2009 and on Seven Network in Australia in April 2009. The DVD-release of all four episodes and a bonus feature was on 16 March 2009. Billy Connolly's Route 66 Billy Connolly: Journey to the Edge of the World on IMDb
The 370th Rifle Division was raised in 1941 as a standard Red Army rifle division, served for the duration of the Great Patriotic War in that role. It began forming in August 1941 in the Siberian Military District. After forming, it was assigned to the 58th Army, but was soon reassigned to 34th Army in Northwestern Front, until March 1943, was involved in the dismal fighting around the Demyansk salient. After this was evacuated the division took part in difficult combat for the city of Staraya Russa. Near the end of that year the division was reassigned to 2nd Baltic Front, spent several months in operations near Nevel and north of Vitebsk. In the spring of 1944 its combat path shifted southwards when it was moved to 69th Army in 1st Belorussian Front, south of the Pripet Marshes. In August it was awarded the Order of the Red Banner for its part in the liberation of Kovel, it went on to help form and hold the bridgehead over the Vistula at Puławy, in January 1945, joined the drive of 1st Belorussian Front across Poland and into eastern Germany, earning the battle honor "Brandenburg".
It was disbanded that year. The division began forming on August 1941 in the Siberian Military District at Tomsk, its basic order of battle was as follows: 1230th Rifle Regiment 1232nd Rifle Regiment 1234th Rifle Regiment 940th Artillery RegimentCol. Filipp Nikolaevich Romashin was not assigned to command of the division until November 1, he would remain in command until March 5, 1942; as with many other divisions forming in Siberia at the time it was temporarily assigned to 58th Army in the Reserve of the Supreme High Command in the same month. It was sent to the front in February 1942, joining 34th Army in Northwestern Front, facing the encircled German II Army Corps at Demyansk. On March 5 Colonel Romashin was replaced by Col. Evgenii Mikhailovich Andreev, who would be promoted to the rank of major general on December 20, would remain in command until August 24, 1943; when the 370th arrived at the front, 34th Army was holding positions north and east of the encircled enemy forces. During April a combined German attack from within and outside of the pocket managed to drive a narrow route to relieve the besieged II Corps.
In the same month the division was transferred to 11th Army, north of the corridor. The 370th took part in the offensive that began on July 17, it formed a shock group with the 202nd Rifle Division with the objective of the village of Vasilevshchina on the north side of the corridor. The corridor was only 6km wide at this point and it appeared that this attack from the north would succeed in meeting a simultaneous advance by 1st Guards Rifle Corps from the south and cut it; as well, Northwestern Front now had much more artillery and air support than it had had during the winter battles. Facing them was Jäger Regiment 38 of the recently-arrived 8th Jäger Division; the attack began with a 90-minute artillery preparation before the two divisions began their advance at 1530 hours. The artillery and air support had been effective, although tanks and infantry were lost in German minefields, the village was soon in Soviet hands, a further advance to Loznitsy would cut the corridor. However, 8th Jäger ordered its 38th Regiment to counterattack and this was remarkably successful, recovering the village and throwing the Red Army forces back in disarray.
The contest for the village continued for another six days and both sides suffered serious losses, including 59 knocked-out Soviet tanks. The 370th would not be combat-effective again for several months. On October 26 it was one of the Soviet divisions attacked in Operation Pussta, a final German effort to widen the corridor before winter; this effort was called off after 48 hours. On or around October 16 the STAVKA sent preliminary orders to Northwestern Front to begin preparing for another offensive against the stubborn salient, to coincide with Operation Mars at Rzhev and 3rd Shock Army's offensive on Velikiye Luki. At this time the 370th was still with 11th Army; the makeup of the Army's shock group for this offensive, which began on the night of November 23/24, is not clear. This effort was shut down on December 11. On January 31, 1943, the German High Command ordered that the Demyansk salient be evacuated, in the wake of the encirclement and upcoming destruction of 6th Army at Stalingrad.
Operation Ziethen began on February 17, at which time the 370th was north of Vasilevshchina with the 282nd Rifle Division. The division had been earmarked for Operation Polyarnaya Zvezda, which began on February 10, but the German withdrawal from Demyansk freed up the reserves they needed to reinforce their lines along the Lovat River, the operation collapsed; as of March 1 the division was transferred to 27th Army. In March the division was reassigned to 34th Army, facing the German forces defending Staraya Russa, it took part in fighting that month, again in August, to liberate this town, but was unsuccessful. On August 24, General Andreev passed his command to Col. Zinovii Vasilevich Shakhmanov, but this officer was replaced in turn by Col. Fyodor Ivanovich Chirkov on October 14; as of October 1 the 370th was still in 34th Army as a separate division. By November 1 it was in the 96th Rifle Corps of the same Army. Shortly after, the division was moved to the Toropets area where it was assigned to 6th Guards Army in 2nd Baltic Front.
It soon moved into the northern sector of the salient west of Nevel, libe
The Independence Decoration was a Rhodesian civil decoration awarded to persons who played a notable and significant part in the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in 1965. The award was instituted in 1970 by the first awards being made the same year; the medal was a sterling silver circular medal worn on the breast. The obverse bore the arms of Rhodesia and the legend RHODESIA INDEPENDENCE ELEVENTH NOVEMBER 1965, while the reverse was blank; the medal was impressed in small capitals with the recipient's name on the rim, was awarded with a case of issue, miniature medal for wear, an illuminated certificate. The ribbon consisted of five equal stripes, white, white, green; when the ribbon alone was worn, it bore a green rosette to distinguish it from the Independence Commemorative Decoration. 29 awards of the Independence Decoration were made between 1970 and 1979. Twenty-eight awards were made in November 1970 to Rhodesian Front politicians including P. K. van der Byl, Des Lardner-Burke and the other ten signatories of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence.
No further medals were given out until April 1979, when an award was made to Ken Flower, the Head of the Rhodesian Central Intelligence Organization. Recipients were entitled to the post-nominal letters: ID; the Independence Decoration fell into abeyance following Zimbabwe Rhodesia's adoption of majority rule in 1979, the country's transformation into Zimbabwe a year later. Saffery, D. 2006. The Rhodesia Medal Roll, Jeppestown Press, United Kingdom, ISBN 0-9553936-0-4 Orders and Decorations of Zimbabwe