Sailing at the 2000 Summer Paralympics
Sailing at the 2000 Summer Paralympics consisted of two mixed events. Sailing at the 2000 Summer Paralympics from the International Paralympic Committee
The Ocean Race
The Ocean Race is a yacht race around the world, held every three years. Named after its initiating sponsor, British Whitbread brewing company, it carried the name of its former owner, Swedish automobile manufacturer Volvo Cars and Swedish multinational manufacturing company, the Volvo Group from 2001, it has now, in 2019, been renamed The Ocean Race following four months of being known under a working title of "Fully-Crewed Around the World Race" and is owned by Atlant Sports Group. Presently, the Netherlands holds the record of three wins, with Dutchman Conny van Rietschoten the only skipper to win the race twice. Though the route changes to accommodate various ports of call, the race departs Europe in October, in recent editions has had either 9 or 10 legs, with in-port races at many of the stopover cities; the 2008–09 race started in Alicante, Spain, on October 11, 2008. The route for the 2008–2009 race was altered from previous years to include stopovers in India and Asia for the first time.
The 2008–09 route covered nearly 39,000 nmi, took over nine months to complete, reached a cumulative TV audience of 2 billion people worldwide. During the nine months of the 2011–12 Volvo Ocean Race, which started in Alicante, Spain in October 2011 and concluded in Galway, Ireland, in July 2012, the teams were scheduled to sail over 39,000 nmi of the world’s most treacherous seas via Cape Town, Abu Dhabi, Auckland, around Cape Horn to Itajaí, Miami and Lorient; as in the previous editions the 2014–15 Volvo Ocean Race started in Alicante, Spain on October 11. Destination was Gothenburg, scheduled for June 2015, with stopovers in the ports of Cape Town, Abu Dhabi, Auckland, Itajaí, Lisbon and with a Pitstop at The Hague through the last leg; each of the entries has a sailing team of professional crew who race day and night for more than 20 days at a time on some of the legs. The crew members are required to be more than sailors, some of them will be trained in medical response, sail-making, diesel engine repair, nutrition and hydraulics.
There is a dedicated media crew member, called the On Board Reporter who does not contribute to the sailing of the boat, but is responsible for sending images and video to race headquarters via satellite from the middle of the ocean. In the 2017-2018 race the number of crew ranged between 7 and 10 depending on the gender ratio, with the rules providing an incentive to having women sailors on board. Fresh food is not permitted to be taken on board after the start, so the crew lives off freeze-dried fare. In 1972 England's Whitbread company and the British Royal Naval Sailing Association agreed to sponsor a globe-circling regatta, which would be called the'Whitbread Round the World Yacht Race'. 17 yachts and 167 crew started the first race of 27,500 nmi, which began from Portsmouth, United Kingdom on 8 September 1973. 3000 spectator boats set out to witness the historic start. The first race was won by Mexican amateur Ramon Carlin in a Swan 65 yacht, Sayula II The original course was designed to follow the route of the square riggers, which had carried cargo around the world during the 19th Century.
From 2001 the ownership of the race was taken over by Volvo and Volvo Cars and the race was renamed the ‘Volvo Ocean Race’. Stopover ports were added in Germany and Sweden being Volvo's three biggest car markets in Europe. Winning the race does not attract a cash prize, as the feat of competing is presented as sufficient reward. Many of the crew in the Volvo Ocean Race race crew other professional teams in other high-profile events, such as the Olympic Games, Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race, the America's Cup, or the Fastnet Race; the worst weather conditions are encountered in the Southern Ocean where waves sometimes top 150 feet and winds can reach 70 knots. The 2017-18 race covered 45,000nautical miles, the longest route in its history; the Volvo Open 70 has been replaced by the Volvo Ocean 65, a new class of high performance one-design racing yacht created by Farr Yacht Design and built by a consortium of four European boatyards. For the 2021-22 edition of the race, two classes of boats will be used - the IMOCA 60 and the Volvo Ocean 65.
List of Volvo Ocean Race sailors Danger on the high seas – whales and weather just some of the obstacles in the Volvo Ocean Race - Steve Elling, The National, 9 October 2014 Official website
Sailing employs the wind—acting on sails, wingsails or kites—to propel a craft on the surface of the water, on ice or on land over a chosen course, part of a larger plan of navigation. A course defined with respect to the true wind direction is called a point of sail. Conventional sailing craft cannot derive power from sails on a point of sail, too close into the wind. On a given point of sail, the sailor adjusts the alignment of each sail with respect to the apparent wind direction to mobilize the power of the wind; the forces transmitted via the sails are resisted by forces from the hull and rudder of a sailing craft, by forces from skate runners of an iceboat, or by forces from wheels of a land sailing craft to allow steering the course. In the 21st century, most sailing represents a form of sport. Recreational sailing or yachting can be divided into cruising. Cruising can include extended offshore and ocean-crossing trips, coastal sailing within sight of land, daysailing; until the mid of the 19th century, sailing ships were the primary means for marine commerce, this period is known as Age of Sail.
Throughout history sailing has been instrumental in the development of civilization, affording humanity greater mobility than travel over land, whether for trade, transport or warfare, the capacity for fishing. The earliest representation of a ship under sail appears on a painted disc found in Kuwait dating between 5500 and 5000 BCE. Polynesian oceanfarers traveled vast distances of open ocean in outrigger canoes using navigation methods such as stick charts. Advances in sailing technology from the Middle Ages onward enabled Arab, Chinese and European explorers to make longer voyages into regions with extreme weather and climatic conditions. There were improvements in sails and rigging. From the 15th century onwards, European ships went further north, stayed longer on the Grand Banks and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, began to explore the Pacific Northwest and the Western Arctic. Sailing has contributed to many great explorations in the world. According to Jett, the Egyptians used a bipod mast to support a sail that allowed a reed craft to travel upriver with a following wind, as late as 3,500 BCE.
Such sails evolved into the square-sail rig. Such rigs could not sail much closer than 80° to the wind. Fore-and-aft rigs appear to have evolved in Southeast Asia—dates are uncertain—allowing for rigs that could sail as close as 60–75° off the wind; the physics of sailing arises from a balance of forces between the wind powering the sailing craft as it passes over its sails and the resistance by the sailing craft against being blown off course, provided in the water by the keel, underwater foils and other elements of the underbody of a sailboat, on ice by the runners of an ice boat, or on land by the wheels of a sail-powered land vehicle. Forces on sails depend on the speed and direction of the craft; the speed of the craft at a given point of sail contributes to the "apparent wind"—the wind speed and direction as measured on the moving craft. The apparent wind on the sail creates a total aerodynamic force, which may be resolved into drag—the force component in the direction of the apparent wind—and lift—the force component normal to the apparent wind.
Depending on the alignment of the sail with the apparent wind, lift or drag may be the predominant propulsive component. Depending on the angle of attack of a set of sails with respect to the apparent wind, each sail is providing motive force to the sailing craft either from lift-dominant attached flow or drag-dominant separated flow. Additionally, sails may interact with one another to create forces that are different from the sum of the individual contributions each sail, when used alone; the term "velocity" refers both to direction. As applied to wind, apparent wind velocity is the air velocity acting upon the leading edge of the most forward sail or as experienced by instrumentation or crew on a moving sailing craft. In nautical terminology, wind speeds are expressed in knots and wind angles in degrees. All sailing craft reach a constant forward velocity for a given true wind velocity and point of sail; the craft's point of sail affects its velocity for a given true wind velocity. Conventional sailing craft cannot derive power from the wind in a "no-go" zone, 40° to 50° away from the true wind, depending on the craft.
The directly downwind speed of all conventional sailing craft is limited to the true wind speed. As a sailboat sails further from the wind, the apparent wind becomes smaller and the lateral component becomes less. In order to act like an airfoil, the sail on a sailboat is sheeted further out as the course is further off the wind; as an iceboat sails further from the wind, the apparent wind increases and the boat speed is highest on the broad reach. In order to act like an airfoil, the sail on an iceboat is sheeted in for all three points of sail. Lift on a sail, acting as an airfoil, occurs in a direction perpendicular to the incident airstream and is a result of pressure differences between the windward and leeward surfaces and depends on angle of attack, sail shape, air density, speed of the apparent wind; the lift force results from the average pressure on the windward surface of the sail being higher than the ave
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
1996 Summer Paralympics
The 1996 Paralympic Games in Atlanta, USA were held from August 16 to 25. It was the first Paralympics to get mass media sponsorship, had a budget of USD $81 million, it was the first Paralympic Games where International Sports Federation for Persons with an Intellectual Disability athletes were given full medal status. The mascot for the Paralympic Summer Games in Atlanta 1996 was Blaze. Blaze was created by Trevor Stone Irvin of Irvin Productions in Atlanta. Blaze is a mythical bird that rises from ashes to experience a renewed life; the phoenix appears in Greco-Roman, Arabian, Chinese and Native American folklore and in all instances symbolizes strength, vision and survival. The phoenix was an ideal mascot for the 1996 Atlanta Paralympic Games and for BlazeSports America, a nonprofit organization, the direct legacy of the Games; the phoenix has long been the symbol of Atlanta's rebirth after its devastation in the American Civil War. But most it is the personification of the will and determination of youth and adults with physical disability to achieve full and productive lives.
Blaze, with his bright colors and broad wing span, reflects the traits, identified in a focus group of athletes with disability, as those they believed best represented the drive to succeed of persons with physical disability who pursue sports as recreation and as a competitive endeavor. Today, Blaze is the most recognizable symbol of disability sport in America; the games consisted including three demonstration sports. Archery Athletics Boccia Cycling Equestrian Football 7-a-side Goalball Judo Lawn bowls Powerlifting Racquetball Sailing Shooting Swimming Table tennis Volleyball Wheelchair basketball Wheelchair fencing Wheelchair rugby Wheelchair tennis In total 11 venues were used at the 1996 Summer Olympics and five new venues were used at the Games in Atlanta. Centennial Olympic Stadium – opening/closing ceremonies, athletics Alexander Memorial Coliseum – standing volleyball Georgia Tech Aquatic Center – swimming Henderson Arena – judo and wheelchair rugby Panther Stadium – lawn bowls and 7-side-football Woodruff P.
E. Center – boccia GSU Sports Arena – goalball Marriott Marquis – powerlifiting Sheffield Building – wheelchair fencing Forbes Arena and Omni Coliseum – wheelchair basketball Clayton State Arena – sitting volleyball Lake Lanier – yachting Georgia International Horse Park – equestrian Infinite Energy Center – table tennis Stone Mountain Park – archery,wheelchair tennis and cycling Wolf Creek Shooting Complex – shooting A total of 1577 medals were awarded during the Atlanta games: 518 gold, 517 silver, 542 bronze; the host country, the United States, topped the medal count with more gold medals, more bronze medals, more medals overall than any other nation. Germany took the most silver medals, with 58. In the table below, the ranking sorts by the number of gold medals earned by the top ten nations; the number of silver medals is taken into consideration next and the number of bronze medals. Host country For the first time the Paralympics were being televised on American TV; this has now led to each following paralympic games being televised.
Germany was the second largest contingency of spectators apart from America, highlighted in there 149 medal tally, only second to the USA. A total of 100 nations were represented at the 1996 Games, the combined total of athletes was about 3,260. 1996 Summer Olympics BlazeSports America, the legacy organization of the 1996 Paralympic Games International Paralympic Committee Official site at the Wayback Machine
A radio-controlled boat is a boat controlled remotely with radio control equipment. Electric sport boats are the most common type of boat amongst casual hobbyists. Hobby-quality boat speed start at around 20 mph and go up from there, can be just as fast or faster than their internal-combustion counterparts, with the latest in lithium polymer and brushless motor technology. Ready-to-run speedboats from AquaCraft, ProBoat and OffshoreElectrics can reach speeds over 40 mph out of the box and with modifications can reach well into the 50-60 mph range; these types of boats are referred to as "hobby grade" and can be found only at hobby shops and retailers. "Toy grade" boats which are obtained through mass consumer retailers, are much slower and their maximum speeds are less than 15 mph. Scale boats are replicas of full-size boats, they are to scale of the full sized ones. They can be small enough to fit into your hand, or large, trailer-transported models weighing hundreds of pounds. More than not they are a miniaturized version of a prototype, built using plans and/or photos, although there are variants that utilize freelance designs.
An offshoot of this style of marine RC's is radio-controlled submarines. Sailboats use the power of the wind acting on sails to propel the boat. Model sailboats are controlled via a multi-channel radio transmitter in the hands of the operator with a corresponding receiver in the boat. By changing the position of the two joysticks on the transmitter signals are sent over two separate channels on a single radio frequency. On the boat, the radio receiver is connected to two battery-powered electric motors or servos. Signals from the radio transmitter are interpreted by the radio receiver and translated into instructions to change the position of the servos. One servo controls the position of both main and jib sails together, the other the position of the rudder; the racing of radio-controlled yacht racing is governed by the same International Sailing Federation - Racing Rules of Sailing that are used for full-sized crewed sailing boats. Vane controlled boats sail under their own rules. There are four international classes of radio sailing boats recognized by the International Radio Sailing Association who are recoignised by the International Sailing Federation are:.
International One Metre The IOM class rules specify a monohull of maximum length 1000 mm, with maximum draught 420 mm. There is a minimum weight of 4000 g, which makes homebuilding of competitive boats possible; the IOM has three one-design rigs. To keep costs down, hull materials are restricted to either wood or glassfiber, while masts and booms are restricted to either aluminium or wood. International MarbleheadA Marblehead has a maximum length of 1290 mm and a maximum draught of ca 700 mm, but no minimum displacement. Up to six rigs are allowed, the tallest being about 2200 mm. International Ten Rater International A Class, the largest of the international radio sailing classes. Other classes of international significance include the CR-914 the RC Laser, the Micro Magic, the RG-65; the Bottle Boat is a low-cost alternative to these classes. Constructed from waste items, it represents an environmentally friendly entry to the sport. There are dozens of types and classes of race boats, they are organised by engine type and hull type.
Race: Circuit and Straight line is established at National and International levels Engine: Electric, Glow Plug, Flash Steam and Gas Hull: Mono, Cat and Eco Classes are further divided by battery type and count, Engine CC, Deep V Mono, Stepped Mono, sub surface and surface piercing prop's etc. Power boats are Fast electric or internal combustion, some are steam powered; the power is used to rotate a submerged propeller, aircraft propeller or jet which in turn provide the thrust to move the craft. Power boats have two controls, outboard motor or stern drive and throttle control. Powered scale boats will have additional remote-controlled functions to improve realism, e.g. sounding fog horns, rotating radar antennae etc. Some of the more sophisticated powered racing boats may have additional remote-controlled functions; these may include remote mixture control allowing the driver to optimise the fuel/air mixture during a race. Another function implemented for racing boats using a surface piercing propellor is remote control of depth or angle of thrust.
There are three main types of power boat. RTR, ARTR, kit versions are available. All thoroughbred racing boats are made from kits and the builders add their own gear and radio. Radio-controlled racing boats are designed for maximum speed and maneuverability. Various styles of racing include circuits of different shapes laid out on the water with buoys; the most common courses are the 1/6-mile oval that consists of 330-foot straight sections followed by 70-foot-diameter turns. The International Model Power Boat Association as well as the North American Model Boat Association have specific rules and r
Rolex SA is a Swiss luxury watch manufacturer based in Geneva, Switzerland. Founded as Wilsdorf and Davis by Hans Wilsdorf and Alfred Davis in London, England in 1905, the company registered Rolex as the brand name of its watches in 1908 and became Rolex Watch Co. Ltd. in 1915. After World War I, the company moved its base of operations to Geneva, Switzerland in order to avoid heavy taxation from a recovering post-war Britain, in 1920 Hans Wilsdorf registered Montres Rolex SA in Geneva as the new company name which became Rolex SA in years. Since 1960, the company has been owned by a private family trust. Rolex SA and its subsidiary Montres Tudor SA design, manufacture and service wristwatches sold under the Rolex and Tudor brands. In 2018, Forbes ranked Rolex as the world's 71st most valuable brand; as of 2018, among the world's top ten most expensive watches sold at auctions, three are Rolex watches. In particular, Paul Newman's Rolex Daytona holds the title of the most expensive wristwatch and the second most expensive watch sold at auction, fetching 17.75 million US dollars in New York on October 26, 2017.
Alfred Davis and his brother-in-law Hans Wilsdorf founded Wilsdorf and Davis, the company that would become Rolex S. A. in London, England in 1905. Wilsdorf and Davis' main commercial activity at the time involved importing Hermann Aegler's Swiss movements to England and placing them in watch cases made by Dennison and others; these early wristwatches were sold to many jewellers, who put their own names on the dial. The earliest watches from Wilsdorf and Davis were hallmarked "W&D" inside the caseback. In 1908, Wilsdorf registered the trademark "Rolex", which became the brand name of watches from Wilsdorf and Davis, opened an office in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland. Wilsdorf wanted his watch brand's name to be pronounceable in any language, he thought that the name "Rolex" was onomatopoeic, sounding like a watch being wound. It is pronounceable in many languages and, as all its upper-case letters have the same size and can be written symmetrically, it was short enough to fit on the face of a watch.
In 1914, Kew Observatory awarded a Rolex watch a Class A precision certificate, a distinction granted to marine chronometers. In November 1915, the company changed its name to Rolex Watch Co. Ltd. After World War I, Hans Wilsdorf left England in 1919 due to heavy post-war taxes levied on luxury imports, as well as to the high cost driven by exporting duties on the silver and gold used for the watch cases; as a result, Wilsdorf moved the company to Geneva, where the company's name was changed to Montres Rolex S. A. in 1920, to Rolex S. A in years. Upon the death of his wife in 1944, Wilsdorf established the Hans Wilsdorf Foundation, a private trust, in which he left all of his Rolex shares, making sure that some of the company's income would go to charity. Wilsdorf passed away in 1960, since the trust has owned and run Rolex SA. In December 2008, following the abrupt departure of Chief Executive Patrick Heiniger for "personal reasons", Rolex SA denied that it had lost 1 billion Swiss francs invested with Bernard Madoff, the American asset manager who pleaded guilty to an £30 billion worldwide Ponzi scheme fraud.
The company announced Heiniger's death on March 5, 2013. Rolex SA is owned by the private Hans Wilsdorf Foundation, registered as a charity and does not pay corporate income taxes. In 2011, a spokesman for Rolex declined to provide evidence regarding the amount of charitable donations made by the Wilsdorf Foundation. In Geneva where the company is based, it is said to have gifted, among many things, two housing buildings to social institutions of Geneva. According to the 2017 Brand Z report, the brand value is estimated $8.053 billion. Rolex watches continue to have a reputation as status symbols, it produces more than 800,000 timepieces each year. Rolex SA offers products under the Tudor brands. Montres Tudor has designed and marketed Tudor watches since 6 March 1946. Rolex founder Hans Wilsdorf conceived of the Tudor Watch Company to create a product for authorized Rolex dealers to sell that offered the reliability and dependability of a Rolex, but at a lower price; the number of Rolex watches was limited by the rate that they could produce in-house Rolex movements, thus Tudor watches were equipped with off-the-shelf movements while using similar quality cases and bracelets.
Tudor watches have been manufactured by Montres Tudor SA using movements supplied by ETA SA. Since 2015, Tudor has begun to manufacture watches with in-house movements; the first model introduced with a in-house movement was the Tudor North Flag. Following this, updated versions of the Tudor Pelagos and Tudor Heritage Black Bay have been fitted with an in-house caliber. Tudor watches are marketed and sold in most countries around the world including the United States, Canada, Mexico, South Africa, some countries in Europe including the UK, South Asia, the Middle East and countries in South America Brazil and Venezuela. Montres Tudor SA discontinued sales of Tudor-branded watches in the United States in 2004, but Tudor returned to the United States market in the summer of 2013 and to the UK in 2014. One of Rolex's company slogans is "A Crown for Every Achievement". Rolex produced mechanical watches, but it has participated in the development of the original quartz watch movements. Although Rolex has made few quartz models for its Oyster line, the company's engineers were instrumental in design and implementation