Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell
Lieutenant-General Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell, was a British Army officer, writer and first Chief Scout of the world-wide Boy Scout Movement, founder, with his sister Agnes, of the world-wide Girl Guide / Girl Scout Movement. Baden-Powell authored the first editions of the seminal work Scouting for Boys, an inspiration for the Scout Movement. Educated at Charterhouse in Surrey, Baden-Powell served in the British Army from 1876 until 1910 in India and Africa. In 1899, during the Second Boer War in South Africa, Baden-Powell defended the town in the Siege of Mafeking. Several of his military books, written for military reconnaissance and scout training in his African years, were read by boys. In 1907, he held a demonstration camp, the Brownsea Island Scout camp, now seen as the beginning of Scouting. Based on his earlier books Aids to Scouting, he wrote Scouting for Boys, published in 1908 by Sir Arthur Pearson, for boy readership. In 1910 Baden-Powell formed The Boy Scouts Association.
The first Scout Rally was held at The Crystal Palace in 1909, at which appeared a number of girls in Scout uniform, who told Baden-Powell that they were the "Girl Scouts", following which, in 1910, Baden-Powell and his sister Agnes Baden-Powell started the Girl Guides Movement. In 1912 he married Olave St Clair Soames, he gave guidance to the Scouting and Girl Guiding Movements until retiring in 1937. Baden-Powell lived his last years in Nyeri, where he died and was buried in 1941, his grave is now a National Monument. Baden-Powell's father was the Reverend Professor Baden Powell, a prominent mathematician and theologian, whose family originated in Suffolk, his mother was Henrietta Grace, daughter of Admiral William Henry Smyth whose earliest known Smyth ancestor was a Royalist American colonist. Baden-Powell was born as Robert Stephenson Smyth Powell at 6 Stanhope Street, Paddington in London, on 22 February 1857, he was called Stephe by his family. He was named after his godfather, Robert Stephenson, the railway and civil engineer, his third name was his mother's maiden name.
Baden-Powell was the son of The Reverend Baden Powell, Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford University and Church of England priest and his third wife, Henrietta Grace Smyth, eldest daughter of Admiral William Henry Smyth. After Powell died in 1860, to identify her children with her late husband's fame, to set her own children apart from their half-siblings and cousins, his mother styled the family name Baden-Powell; the name was legally changed by Royal Licence on 30 April 1902. Baden-Powell had four older half-siblings from the second of his father's two previous marriages, six full siblings Warington, the often-ill Augustus, Francis and Baden, as well as three others, who had all died young before he was born. Baden-Powell's father died. Subsequently, Baden-Powell was raised by his mother, a strong woman, determined that her children would succeed. In 1933 he said of her "The whole secret of my getting on, lay with my mother."Baden-Powell attended Rose Hill School, Tunbridge Wells. He was given a scholarship to a prestigious public school.
He played the piano and violin, was an ambidextrous artist, enjoyed acting. Holidays were spent on canoeing expeditions with his brothers, his first introduction to Scouting skills was through stalking and cooking game while avoiding teachers in the nearby woods, which were out-of-bounds. In 1876 Baden-Powell joined the 13th Hussars in India with the rank of lieutenant, he enhanced and honed his military scouting skills amidst the Zulu in the early 1880s in the Natal province of South Africa, where his regiment had been posted, where he was Mentioned in Despatches. During one of his travels, he came across a large string of wooden beads. Although Baden-Powell claimed the beads had been those of the Zulu king Dinizulu, one researcher learned from Baden-Powell's diary that he had taken beads from a dead woman's body around that time and indeed the bead form is more similar to dowry beads than to warrior beads; the beads were incorporated into the Wood Badge training programme he started after he founded the Scouting Movement.
Baden-Powell's skills impressed his superiors and in 1890 he was brevetted Major as Military Secretary and senior Aide-de-camp to the Commander-in-Chief and Governor of Malta, his uncle General Sir Henry Augustus Smyth. He was posted to Malta for three years working as intelligence officer for the Mediterranean for the Director of Military Intelligence, he travelled disguised as a butterfly collector, incorporating plans of military installations into his drawings of butterfly wings. In 1884 he published Scouting. Baden-Powell returned to Africa in 1896, served in the Second Matabele War, in the expedition to relieve British South Africa Company personnel under siege in Bulawayo; this was a formative experience for him not only because he commanded reconnaissance missions into enemy territory in the Matopos Hills, but because many of his Boy Scout ideas took hold here. It was during this campaign that he first met and befriended the American scout Frederick Russell Burnham, who introduced Baden-Powell to stories of the American O
In Scouting, a jamboree is a large gathering of Scouts who rally at a national or international level. The 1st World Scout Jamboree was held in 1920, was hosted by the United Kingdom. Since there have been twenty three World Scout Jamborees, hosted in various countries every four years; the 24th World Jamboree is to be held in North America in 2019. The average Scout Life of a boy is a comparatively short one, it is good for each generation of Scouts to see at least one big rally, since it enables the boy to realize his membership of a great brotherhood, at the same time brings him into personal acquaintance with brother Scouts of other districts and other countries. There are national and continental jamborees held around the world with varying frequency. Many of these events will attract Scouts from overseas. With the birth of the Jamboree concept, other large gatherings are organized by national Scout organizations, geared towards a particular group of Scouts. Examples of these large gatherings include: Moot - a camp or a gathering of Rovers Venture - a gathering of young people in the Venture section Indaba - a camp or a gathering of Adult Scout leaders Agoonoree - a camp of Scouts with special needs COMDECA - acronym for Community Development Camp, a large gathering of young people, implementing community development projects The origin of the word "Jamboree" is not well understood.
This is reflected in many dictionary entries. For example, according to the Canadian Oxford Dictionary, the etymology is "19th century, origin unknown"; the Oxford English Dictionary identifies it as coming from American slang, identifying a use in the New York Herald in 1868 and in Irish writings in the 19th century. Within a half century, the meaning outside the Scouting program was becoming lost. For example, Robert Graves in The Crowning Privilege: The Clark Lectures, 1954–1955 suggests Baden-Powell might have known the word through his regiment's Irish links rather than from the US slang. Poet Robert W. Service used the term well before the first Scouting jamboree, it appears in the poem "Athabaska Dick" in his Rhymes of a Rolling Stone, published in 1912. By the word was becoming to mean a rowdy, boisterous gathering. Baden-Powell was once asked why he chose "jamboree", he replied, "What else would you call it?" His response made sense if the word had had a specific meaning other than a boisterous gathering.
It is popularly believed within the Scout Movement that the word was coined by Baden-Powell but it was never formally documented by either. The word "Jamboree" today has several claimed possible origins, ranging from Hindi to Swahili to Native American dialects, which further confuses the meaning used by Baden-Powell; the most logical use is that the name "Jamboree" is derived from the Swahili for hello, Jambo!, as a result of the considerable amount of time he spent in the South African region in the 1880s again in the late 1890s. The word Jamboree is used as a borrowed foreign word, with the ending - ree; the word Jamboree is a transitive verb with a direct action of the primary word Jambo. For example, an attendee of a Jambo is a Jamboree; the word "Jamboree" is used by the Scouting program before the first Boy Scout Jamboree in 1920. The word has come to mean "a lavish or boisterous celebration or party" outside of the Scouting program. Baden-Powell deliberately chose the name "Jamboree" where attendees were warmly welcomed attending this first Boy Scout rally or meeting with the word "Jambo!"
Many, at this first "Jamboree" or "Scout gathering" did not capture the spirit of this then-new concept or greeting. At the first "World Jamboree" at Olympia in 1920, Lord Baden-Powell said "People give different meanings for this word, but from this year on, jamboree will take a specific meaning, it will be associated to the largest gathering of youth that took place."Olave, Lady Baden-Powell, coined the term jamborese to refer to the lingua franca used between Scouts of different languages and cultural habits, that develops when diverse Scouts meet, that fosters friendship and understanding between Scouts of the world. Sometimes the word jamborette is used to denote smaller, either international, gatherings. A used word "Camporee" in the Scouting program is reflective of the older English style of use. "Camporee" today reflects a local or regional gathering of Scouting units for a period of camping and common activities. Similar to a camporee, a jamboree occurs less and draws units from the entire nation or world.
World Scout Jamboree, a gathering of Scouts from all over the world under the World Organization of the Scout Movement. Attendance is 30-40,000. World Scout Jamboree on the Air - an amateur radio event linking Scouts across the world World Scout Jamboree on the Internet Jamboree on the Trail is an international day of hiking Africa Scout Jamboree Arab Scout Jamboree Asia-Pacific Scout Jamboree Caribbean Scout Jamboree, a gathering of Scouts from the Caribbean Central European Jamboree, a gathering of Scouts from Central Europe European Scout Jamboree, a gathering of Scouts from all over Europe Interamerican Scout Jamboree, a gathering of Scouts from the Interamerican Scout Region Essex International Jamboree, a gathering of 7,000-9,000 Scouts and Guides from all over the world, held since 1927 World Federation of Independent Scouts World Jamboree, a gathering of Scouts of the World Federation of Independent Scouts Jamboree 2008, a celebration of the 1908 Humshaugh camp Homenetmen General Jamboree, a gathering of Scouts of the Homenetmen National Scout jamboree, Boy Scouts of America Canadian Scout Jamboree, a gathering of Scouts from Canada Australian Scout Jamboree, a gatheri
The fleur-de-lis or fleur-de-lys is a stylized lily, used as a decorative design or motif. Many of the Catholic saints of France St. Joseph, are depicted with a lily. Since France is a Catholic nation, the fleur-de-lis became "at one and the same time, political, artistic and symbolic" in French heraldry; the fleur-de-lis is represented in Unicode at U+269C in the Miscellaneous Symbols block. While the fleur-de-lis has appeared on countless European coats of arms and flags over the centuries, it is associated with the French monarchy in a historical context, continues to appear in the arms of the King of Spain and the Grand Duke of Luxembourg and members of the House of Bourbon, it remains an enduring symbol of France which appears on French postage stamps, although it has never been adopted by any of the French republics. According to French historian Georges Duby, the three petals represent the three medieval social estates: the commoners, the nobility, the clergy, it remains unclear where the fleur-de-lis originated, though it has retained an association with French nobility.
It is used in French city emblems as in the coat of arms of the city of Lille, Saint-Denis, Clermont-Ferrand, Boulogne-Billancourt and Calais. Some cities, faithful to the French Crown were awarded a heraldic augmentation of two or three fleurs-de-lis on the chief of their coat of arms; the fleur-de-lis was the symbol of the core of the French kingdom. It has appeared on the coat-of-arms of other historical provinces of France including Burgundy, Picardy, Orléanais, Maine, Artois, Dauphiné, Saintonge and the County of La Marche. Many of the current French departments use the symbol on their coats-of-arms to express this heritage. In Italy, the fleur de lis, called giglio, is known from the crest of the city of Florence. In the Florentine fleurs-de-lis, the stamens are always posed between the petals. Argent on gules background, the emblem became the standard of the imperial party in Florence, causing the town government, which maintained a staunch Guelph stance, being opposed to the imperial pretensions on city states, to reverse the color pattern to the final gules lily on argent background.
This heraldic charge is known as the Florentine lily to distinguish it from the conventional design. As an emblem of the city, it is therefore found in icons of Zenobius, its first bishop, associated with Florence's patron Saint John the Baptist in the Florentine fiorino. Several towns subjugated by Florence or founded within the territory of the Florentine Republic adopted a variation of the Florentine lily in their crests without the stamens; the heraldic fleur-de-lis is still widespread: among the numerous cities which use it as a symbol are some whose names echo the word'lily', for example, Liljendal and Lelystad, Netherlands. This is called canting arms in heraldic terminology. Other European examples of municipal coats-of-arms bearing the fleur-de-lis include Lincoln in England, Morcín in Spain, Wiesbaden in Germany, Skierniewice in Poland and Jurbarkas in Lithuania; the Swiss municipality of Schlieren and the Estonian municipality of Jõelähtme have a fleur-de-lis on their coats. In Malta, the town of Santa Venera has three red fleurs-de-lis on its coat of arms.
These are derived from an arch, part of the Wignacourt Aqueduct that had three sculpted fleurs-de-lis on top, as they were the heraldic symbols of Alof de Wignacourt, the Grand Master who financed its building. Another suburb which developed around the area became known as Fleur-de-Lys, it features a red fleur-de-lis on its flag and coat of arms; the coat of arms of the medieval Kingdom of Bosnia contained six fleurs-de-lis, understood as the native Bosnian or Golden Lily, Lilium bosniacum. This emblem was revived in 1992 as a national symbol of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and was the flag of Bosnia-Herzegovina from 1992 to 1998; the state insignia were changed in 1999. The former flag of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina contains a fleur-de-lis alongside the Croatian chequy. Fleurs appear in the flags and arms of many cantons, municipalities and towns, it is still used as official insignia of the Bosniak Regiment of the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the United Kingdom, a fleur-de-lis has appeared in the official arms of the Norroy King of Arms for hundreds of years.
A silver fleur-de-lis on a blue background is the arms of the Barons Digby. In English and Canadian heraldry the fleur-de-lis is the cadence mark of a sixth son. In Mauritius, slaves were branded with a fleur-de-lis, when being punished for escaping or stealing food; the Welsh poet Hedd Wyn used Fleur de Lys as his pen name when he won his chair at the National Eisteddfod of Wales, the national poetry contest. Fleurs-de-lis appear on the logos of many organizations. During the 20th century the symbol was adopted by various Scouting organizations worldwide for their badges. Architects and designers use it alone and as a repeated motif in a wide range of contexts, from ironwork to bookbinding where a French context is implied; the symbol is often used on a compass rose to mark the north direction, a tradition started
Scouting for Boys
Scouting for Boys: A handbook for instruction in good citizenship is a book on Boy Scout training, published in various editions since 1908. Early editions were written and illustrated by Robert Baden-Powell with editions being extensively rewritten by others; the book was a manual for self-instruction in observation and woodcraft skills as well as self-discipline and self-improvement, about the Empire and duty as citizens with an eclectic mix of anecdotes and unabashed personal observations and recollections. It is pervaded by a degree of moral proselytizing and references to the author's own exploits, it is based on his boyhood experiences, his experience with the Mafeking Cadet Corps during the Second Boer War at the Siege of Mafeking, on his experimental camp on Brownsea Island, England. Scouting for Boys was Baden-Powell's rewrite of his earlier book Aids to Scouting with many youth training ideas taken from The Birch Bark Roll of the Woodcraft Indians written by Ernest Thompson Seton, who became the Chief Scout of the Boy Scouts of America.
Aids to Scouting was a written explanation of the military scouting and self-reliance skills lessons Baden-Powell had learned from Frederick Russell Burnham, the British Army Chief of Scouts, but following the siege of Mafeking this military handbook unexpectedly became popular with many youth groups and educators, like Charlotte Mason, in Britain. At Mafeking, Baden-Powell's adjutant had recruited and trained boys aged 12–15 as cadets and during the siege they acted as postmen, to carry the wounded, to free men for fighting. Upon his return to England, following the Second Boer War, Baden-Powell learned some British schools had been using Aids to Scouting to teach observation and deduction. In 1906, Seton discussed youth training ideas with Baden-Powell and shared with him a copy of The Birch Bark Roll of the Woodcraft Indians. Soon after, Baden-Powell decided to revise Aids to Scouting into a book for boys. Several friends supported Baden-Powell, including Sir William Alexander Smith, founder of the Boys' Brigade, Cyril Arthur Pearson, who owned newspapers and printing presses, the novelist Maria Fetherstonhaugh, who provided a quiet Wimbledon house where he could write.
Baden-Powell wrote a draft called Boy Patrols, which he used and tested with 22 boys for one week at camp on Brownsea Island in the summer of 1907, where Pearson's literary editor Percy Everett assisted. Scouting for Boys was published in six fortnightly instalments of 70 pages each, from January to March 1908, they were produced by Horace Cox. These six publications were a success and, as planned, were issued in book form on 1 May 1908. Although Aids to Scouting influenced the book, Scouting for Boys presents Scouting from the perspective of outdoorsmen and explorers rather than military men, it adds the Scout Oath, Scout Law and games for youth; the book was revised and an enormous variety of editions were published. Many of these editions were edited by others and, far beyond mere editing, whole sections were written by authors other than Baden-Powell; the book was a best seller upon release, and, in its various editions, is claimed to have become one of the best-selling books in history. Scouting for Boys has been translated into many languages.
In 1948, editions of the book were still selling 50,000 copies annually. Only in 1967 was a decline noted by the publisher and in the last decades of the 20th century the book came to be seen as a period curiosity by the Scout Movement, it is claimed to be the fourth bestselling book of the 20th century. A realistic estimate is that 4 million copies of the UK edition have been sold. Extrapolating this to 87 different language editions worldwide, historic world sales of Scouting for Boys can be estimated at 100 to 150 million copies since 1908. In her introduction to the 2005 edition, Elleke Boehmer criticises the book saying "the text was scored through with a contemporary class prejudice which would have been off-putting to non-middle-class readers, as captured in the sharp aphorism that bees form a'model community, for they respect their Queen and kill their unemployed' Character observation in many ways meant reading for the signs of working-class poverty." Scouting for Boys has been published in over thirty consecutive editions by London based C. Arthur Pearson Ltd. and it is translated to all the major languages of the world.
Estimatedly, over 100 million books have been printed, making it rank high in the list of best-selling books. Scouting for Boys. London, Windsor House, Bream's Buildings, E. C.: Horace Cox. January–March 1908. Pp. six instalments of approx 70 pages each. Scouting for Boys. London, Henrietta Street: C. Arthur Pearson Ltd. 1 May 1908. Pp. 288 pages. Scouting for Boys. London: C. Arthur Pearson Ltd. June 1909. Pp. 310 pages. Plus advertisements Scouting for Boys. London: C. Arthur Pearson Ltd. July 1910. Scouting for Boys. London: C. Arthur Pearson Ltd. October 1911. Scouting for Boys. London: C. Arthur Pearson Ltd. November 1912. Scouting for Boys. London: C. Arthur Pearson Ltd. April 1913. Scouting for Boys. London: C. Arthur Pearson Ltd. December 1913. Scouting for Boys. London: C. Arthur Pearson Ltd. January 1916. Pp. 352 pages. Scouting for Boys. London: C. Arthur Pearson Ltd. May 1918. Pp. 334 pages. Scouting for Boys. London, Tower House: C. Arthur Pearson Ltd. 1924. Pp. 338 pages. Scouting for Boys. London: C. Arthur Pearson Ltd. 1926.
Pp. 338 pages. Baden-Powell's Scouting for Boys (Boy's ed
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Venturer or Venture Scouts are programs in some Scouting organisations for young people of various age ranges in the 14–20 age range. A participant in the program is called a Venturer; the Venturer Scout program in Scouts Australia just known as Venturers, is a program for young people 14–18 years old. The program is flexible, but with a strong outdoor flavour; the highest award that can be earned by a Venturer Scout is the Queen's Scout award. Venturer Scouts belong to a Venturer Scout Unit which can be part of a Scout Group or affiliated to a Scout District; the Venturer Scout section holds a Venture every 3 years. During this week and a half long camp the Venturers will participate in activities such as Mountain Biking, Wind Surfing, etc; the next Venture will be situated in Queensland. The Venturer Scout Section in União dos Escoteiros do Brasil just known as Tropa Sênior, is for young people 15–17 years old; the educational program applied to the senior branch meets the needs of young people of both sexes aged between 15 and 17 years, focuses its emphasis on the process of self-knowledge and enhancement of personal characteristics and helping the young in their physical, intellectual and social.
The troop of seniors and Guides are divided into four patrols at most 4–6 young, constituting a primary permanent and self-sufficient for excursions, jobs, good deeds, community activities Scouts and other activities. Each patrol senior or guides adopts a characteristic name, which may be the geographical accident of well known for patrol or a national indigenous tribe, it is made available to patrol it until April 30, 1990, have adopted the name of a large or national historical character, preserve the name adopted. In the work and activities that, by their nature, require interests, skills or expertise, the patrols will give way to work teams, each comprising members from different patrols, the coordination of each team member to their best qualified. Other characteristics of this branch are similar to class Scout. Venturer Scouts belong to a Scout Group; the Venturer Scout section holds a Venture every 3 years. During this week and a half long camp the Venturers will participate in activities such as Mountain Biking, Wind Surfing, etc.
The next Venture will be held July 2010 in Paranaguá, PR. Venturers are young women ages 15 through 17 organized into a company; the Venturer motto is "Challenge". Venturer companies are structured with an Executive, composed of President and Treasurer, may include a Quartermaster depending on the group's size and equipment needs. Outdoor activities may be, but are not limited to: rafting and kayaking in white water, mountain climbing and camping; the leadership of a Venturer Company is youth led with support from Scouters who are known as Advisors. Venturer companies have the option of becoming vocational Venturers; these Venturers participate on training and service related to a specific career, as well as following the Scouting program. The most common vocational Venturer Companies include Fire Venturers, Police Venturers, Medical Venturers. Medical Venturers or MedVents is a program where the youth learn and provide first-aid for camps and public events. Venturers seeks to foster the leadership and administrative skills of its members, help young people make friendships, explore career opportunities and have outdoor adventure.
Venture Scouts in Scouting Ireland are aged between 18 years. The award scheme is the Venture Scout version of ONE Programme; each group has a Venture Scout Executive which, under the guidance of an adult Scouter and implements activities. In Japan, Venturer Scouts are aged 14–19; the program focuses on self-motivation, world citizenship, outdoor activities. A Venture Scout in Malta is between 18 years of age, their programme consists of the Discovery Award, Olympian Award, Dolphin Award and President's Award. A Venture Scout in Singapore is a Scout between the ages of 15 and 18. From 2000, the two progress badges are the Venture Scout Standard and the Venture Cord, which have 8 sections each for completion; the highest award that a Venture Scout can achieve is the prestigious President's Scout Award, presented to the recipient by the current President of the Republic of Singapore in the Istana. In 1969, the Senior Scout section and the Rover Scout section in Singapore were merged to form the Venture Scout section after the Singapore Scout Association followed the recommendations of the 1966 Chief Scout's Advance Party Report in the UK.
Singapore adopted the UK training scheme and the progress badge of Venture Award but replaced the Queen's Scout Award with the President's Scout Award as the highest award attainable for a Venture Scout. The training scheme underwent further fine-tuning in the 1970s and 1980s that stipulated four key training areas in responsibility, pursuit and self-reliance before giving way to a revised programme in 2000. From 1969 to 1975, a Venture Scout only had his Venture Scout Standard or President's Scout Award to show for his progress on his left sleeve of the uniform. Feedback showed that the youths wanted a breakdown of their progress that could be displayed on the uniform. In 1975, Singapore adopted the four Venture "proficiency" badges from Hong Kong that showed the four areas that led to the completion of the Venture Standard; the four "proficiency" badges were worn on the right arm sleeve. A President's Scout would wear an additional gold flash under each "proficiency" badge when the requirements were completed.
These were replaced by the eight sectional "proficiencies"
Air Scouts are members of the international Scouting movement with a particular emphasis on an aviation themed programme and/or flying-based activities. Air Scouts follow the same basic Scouting programme as normal Scouts, but they devote certain amounts of time focused on their air activities. Air Scouts wear a different uniform from the rest of the Scouting movement and/or may have additional badges/insignia. Most air activities are ground-based like visits to airports and air museums, radio controlled model flight, aero modelling and camping on airfields. Depending on age group and Scout group the activities can include parachuting or flights in light aircraft, gliders or hot air balloons. There are claims that Major Baden Fletcher Smyth Baden-Powell, youngest brother of the founder of The Boy Scouts Association of the United Kingdom, Robert Baden-Powell and an aviator, first brought flying-based activities into Scouting. However, as late as July, 1932, Baden Baden-Powell wrote, in the Scouter: "...it has been suggested that Air Scouts should be organised in the same way as Sea Scouts.""Though the air is'ever with us', access to aerodromes is not common and though Sea Scouts can mess about'in any old boat', a Scout is unlikely to be able to get access to an aeroplane, if he did he would not be able to fly it....it seems hardly feasible to have special'Air Scouts', yet a great deal may be accomplished by troops specialising in air-work...
I shall always be pleased to give what advice I can."An Airman's badge was introduced by The Boy Scouts Association in December 1911. However, these did not introduce Air Scouts. Suggestions to have an Air Scout Branch within The Boy Scouts Association were first put forward in May 1927, they were not accepted for fear the Branch might be'led away by attractive non-essentials' and there was insufficient manpower in the Movement to maintain it. However, by the late 1930s, Scout Troops in the vicinity of airfields and gliding clubs were encouraged to include air activities in their programmes and an'Air Patrols' pamphlet was produced. In the Scouter of December 1937 there was an announcement about'Air Patrols' by L A Impey, Headquarters Commissioner for Scouts: "From time to time rumours reach me of troops that are co-operating with ground staff at certain aerodromes, but with the exception of the 30th Plymouth Troop, I have received no definite information.""Let me add here that there is no intention of starting a new branch of Scouting, namely Air Scouts..."The Boy Scouts Association introduced Air Scouts in 1941.
The 4th World Scout Jamboree in 1933 was the first international gathering where Air Scouts were represented. On 9 August Robert Baden-Powell visited the Air Scouts, in the company of Pál Teleki Hungarian Chief Scout and László Almásy, a leader of the Hungarian Air Scouts. Scouts Australia has a few active Air Scout groups. Air Scouts Canberra is located in Australian Capital Territory. There are two Air Scouts Groups in Western Australia and Morley Groups. There is one Air Scout Group in Victoria, 3rd Chelsea Air Scouts, located in Melbourne bayside suburb of Chelsea. There are Air Scouts in individual Scout Groups. Bangladesh Scouts is a branch of Scouting for all scouting sections. Organisationally there is a separate region for Air Scout among its 11 regions There are Air Rover Units in Bangladesh. All Scouting sections in Bangladesh follow the same programme for their section but Air Scouts sections add an aeronautical flavour to the programme and activities, it is patronized by the Bangladesh Air Force.
Every school, run by the Bangladesh Air Force has an air scout section. There are some open air scout groups in Bangladesh. Most air activities are ground based like visits to airports and air museums, radio controlled model flight, aero modelling and camping on airfields; the activities can include parachuting or flights in light aircraft, gliders or hot air balloons. That adds an Air Force flavour to the programme. In March 2014 members of the newly formed 160th Barbados Deighton Griffiths Air Scout Troop where invested by the Chief Commissioner of the Barbados Boy Scout Association at the Barbados Concorde Experience; these are the only Air Scouts in Barbados. Only one Group exists, hosted by a Belgian Paragliding Club. Brazilian Scouting União dos Escoteiros do Brasil has a active and vibrant Air Scouting program for its Air Scouts known in Portuguese as "Modalidade do Ar"; the first Air Scout Group in Brazil, named'Captain Ricardo Kirk' was founded on 28 April 1938, hosted by the local Brazilian 5th Army Aviation Regiment in Curitiba, PR which operates the Integrated Air Defense and Air Traffic Control Centre.
The original founding was initiated by Army Aviator Lt. Col Vasco Alves Secco. Subsequently, recognising the value of Air Scouting, the Brazilian Ministry of Aviation has issued decrees to all its units to provide support to Air Scout Groups at all its bases, as needed. Besides the standard activities of Scouting, Air Scouts in Brazil have additional air activities and learn suitable technical aviation related skills. Although only a recent member of WOSM, The National Association of Cambodian Scouts is reported to have some Air Scout Groups. Brazil and Chile vie for the first recorded Air Scout Groups in South America; the first Air Scout Group in Chile, "Rodolfo Marsh", was established on 17 September 1936 at the Chilean Air Force base at Quinteros. The founder and first Scoutmaster was Don Leopoldo Sánchez At present only one Air Scout Group –'Tigres Del Aire' – is known of in Colombia, a member of Asociación Scouts de Colombia. Air Scouting in Cyprus