West Indies cricket team
The West Indies cricket team, traditionally known as the Windies, is a multi-national cricket team representing the Anglophone Caribbean region and administered by Cricket West Indies. The players on this composite team are selected from a chain of fifteen Caribbean territories, which are parts of several different countries and dependencies; as of 24 June 2018, the West Indian cricket team is ranked ninth in the world in Tests, ninth in ODIs and seventh in T20Is in the official ICC rankings. From the mid-late 1970s to the early 1990s, the West Indies team was the strongest in the world in both Test and One Day International cricket. A number of cricketers who were considered among the best in the world have hailed from the West Indies: Sir Garfield Sobers, Lance Gibbs, George Headley, Brian Lara, Clive Lloyd, Malcolm Marshall, Sir Andy Roberts, Rohan Kanhai, Sir Frank Worrell, Sir Clyde Walcott, Sir Everton Weekes, Sir Curtly Ambrose, Michael Holding, Courtney Walsh, Joel Garner, Sir Viv Richards and Sir Wes Hall have all been inducted into the ICC Hall of Fame.
The West Indies have won the ICC Cricket World Cup twice, the ICC World Twenty20 twice, the ICC Champions Trophy once, the ICC Under 19 Cricket World Cup once, have finished as runners-up in the Cricket World Cup, the Under 19 Cricket World Cup, the ICC Champions Trophy. The West Indies appeared in three consecutive World Cup finals, were the first team to win back-to-back World Cups; the West Indies has hosted the 2007 Cricket World Cup and the 2010 ICC World Twenty20. The current side represents: Sovereign states Antigua and BarbudaL Barbados DominicaW GrenadaW Guyana Jamaica Saint LuciaW Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesW Trinidad and Tobago Parts of Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint KittsL NevisL British Overseas Territories AnguillaL MontserratL British Virgin IslandsL Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands Sint MaartenL Territory of the United States US Virgin IslandsLLegends L = Participant of the Leeward Islands team and member of the Leeward Islands Cricket Association W = Participant of the Windward Islands team and member of the Windward Islands Cricket Board of ControlNotes Cricket West Indies, the governing body of the team, consists of the six cricket associations of Barbados, Jamaica and Tobago, Leeward Islands and Windward Islands.
The Leeward Islands Cricket Association consists of associations of one sovereign state, the two entities of Saint Kitts and Nevis, three British Overseas Territories and two other dependencies. The Windward Islands Cricket Board of Control consists of associations of four sovereign states. Cayman Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands, other historical parts of the former West Indies Federation and now British Overseas Territories, have their own teams. National teams exist for the various islands, which, as they are all separate countries much keep their local identities and support their local favourites; these national teams take part in the Carib Beer Cup. It is common for other international teams to play the island teams for warm-up games before they take on the combined West Indies team; the population of these countries and dependencies is estimated at around 6 million, more than Scotland and the Republic of Ireland. The member associations of Cricket West Indies are: Barbados Cricket Association Guyana Cricket Board Jamaica Cricket Association Trinidad & Tobago Cricket Board Leeward Islands Cricket Association.
The WICB joined the sport's international ruling body, the Imperial Cricket Conference, in 1926, played their first official international match, granted Test status, in 1928, thus becoming the fourth Test nation. In their early days in the 1930s, the side represented the British colonies that would form the West Indies Federation plus British Guiana; the last series the West Indies played before the outbreak of the Second World War was against England in 1939. There followed a hiatus. Of the West Indies players in that first match after the war only Gerry Gomez, George Headley, Jeffrey Stollmeyer, Foffie Williams had played Test cricket. In 1948, leg spinner Wilfred Ferguson became the first West Indian bowler to take ten wickets in a Test, finishing with 11/229 in a match against England.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of, a 20-metre pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at the wicket with the bat, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each player. Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, by the fielding side catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before it hits the ground; when ten players have been dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches, they communicate with two off-field scorers. There are various formats ranging from Twenty20, played over a few hours with each team batting for a single innings of 20 overs, to Test matches, played over five days with unlimited overs and the teams each batting for two innings of unlimited length.
Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, a hard, solid spheroid made of compressed leather with a raised sewn seam enclosing a cork core, layered with wound string. Cricket's origins are uncertain and the earliest definite reference is in south-east England in the middle of the 16th century, it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the second half of the 19th century. The game's governing body is the International Cricket Council, which has over 100 members, twelve of which are full members who play Test matches; the game's rules are held in a code called the Laws of Cricket, owned and maintained by Marylebone Cricket Club in London. The sport is followed in the Indian subcontinent, the United Kingdom, southern Africa and the West Indies, its globalisation occurring during the expansion of the British Empire and remaining popular into the 21st century.
Women's cricket, organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. The most successful side playing international cricket is Australia, having won seven One Day International trophies, including five World Cups, more than any other country, having been the top-rated Test side more than any other country. Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere that involve hitting a ball with a hand-held implement. In cricket's case, a key difference is the existence of a solid target structure, the wicket, that the batsman must defend; the cricket historian Harry Altham identified three "groups" of "club ball" games: the "hockey group", in which the ball is driven to and fro between two targets. It is believed that cricket originated as a children's game in the south-eastern counties of England, sometime during the medieval period. Although there are claims for prior dates, the earliest definite reference to cricket being played comes from evidence given at a court case in Guildford on Monday, 17 January 1597.
The case concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the court heard the testimony of a 59-year-old coroner, John Derrick, who gave witness that: "Being a scholler in the ffree schoole of Guldeford hee and diverse of his fellows did runne and play there at creckett and other plaies". Given Derrick's age, it was about half a century earlier when he was at school and so it is certain that cricket was being played c. 1550 by boys in Surrey. The view that it was a children's game is reinforced by Randle Cotgrave's 1611 English-French dictionary in which he defined the noun "crosse" as "the crooked staff wherewith boys play at cricket" and the verb form "crosser" as "to play at cricket". One possible source for the sport's name is the Old English word "cryce" meaning a staff. In Samuel Johnson's Dictionary, he derived cricket from "cryce, Saxon, a stick". In Old French, the word "criquet" seems to have meant a kind of stick. Given the strong medieval trade connections between south-east England and the County of Flanders when the latter belonged to the Duchy of Burgundy, the name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch "krick", meaning a stick.
Another possible source is the Middle Dutch word "krickstoel", meaning a long low stool used for kneeling in church and which resembled the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of Bonn University, "cricket" derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de sen. Gillmeister has suggested that not only the name but the sport itself may be of Flemish origin. Although the main object of the game has always been to score the most runs, the early form of cricket differed from the modern game in certain key technical aspects; the ball was bowled underarm by the bowler and all along the ground towards a batsman armed with a bat that, in shape, resembled a hockey stick.
Alvin Isaac Kallicharran, BEM is a former cricketer of Indo-Guyanese ethnicity who played Test cricket for the West Indies between 1972 and 1981. Kallicharran was born in Georgetown, British Guiana, his brother Derek played first class cricket for Guyana and the United States of America. A left-handed batsman and right-arm off spinner, Kallicharran was known for his elegant, watchful batting style, he was a Wisden Cricketer of the Year for 1973. He was part of the 1979 teams that won the Cricket World Cup, his highest score is 187 against India in the 1978–79 tour. He found success with Warwickshire in English County cricket. While playing against minor county Oxfordshire in the 1984 one day Natwest Trophy he scored 206 and took 6 for 32. One of his most noted international innings, a knock of 158 against England, was shrouded in controversy when he was run out by Tony Greig on the final ball of the first day, he attempted to join World Series Cricket, but failed, was appointed captain of the West Indies in 1977–1978 when Clive Lloyd resigned over the Packer issue.
Kallicharan was involved in further controversy when he led an unofficial rebel tour to South Africa in defiance of the Gleneagles Agreement and anti-apartheid protesters in that country who asserted that official sporting structures were discriminatory. He saw out the rest of his career playing for Orange Free State and Transvaal in South African domestic cricket, he is manager of Lashings World XI. Presently, Kallicharran lives in Northolt, England and is involved in coaching cricket among youth around the country, he was awarded the British Empire Medal in the 2019 New Year's Honours List for services to cricket and charity. Kallicharran is Brand Ambassador of UiTV Connect – A Global Internet Network. Alvin Kallicharran at ESPNcricinfo Alvin Kallicharran at CricketArchive
Cuthbert Gordon Greenidge MBE is a Barbadian former first-class cricketer, who played Tests and One Day Internationals for 17 years for West Indies. Greenidge began his career in English county cricket, he played for many seasons with Hampshire in the English County Championship, where he batted as an opener with Barry Richards. He was therefore eligible to play for England, he made an appearance for Scotland. During his first-class career, he scored a total of 37,000 runs with 92 centuries. Born in St. Peter, Greenidge played as an opening batsman for the West Indies, he began his Test career in 1974 against India at Bangalore. Greenidge and Desmond Haynes formed a prolific opening partnership; the pair made 6,482 runs while batting together in partnerships, the third highest total for a batting partnership in Test cricket history as of 2019. During the 5th test of the 1983 series between West Indies and India, Greenridge became the first and, as of 2019 only, person in test history to be retired not out.
He had to leave the match in Antigua while on 154 to visit his gravely ill daughter, who died two days in Barbados. Greenidge scored two double centuries against England in the 1984 summer Test series; this series was dubbed the "Blackwash" because West Indies won by a margin of 5–0. Greenidge scored 214 not out in the second innings of the second Test at Lord's in June 1984 and followed up with 223 in the fourth Test at Old Trafford in late July; the 214* was achieved on the fifth and last day of the match as West Indies chased 342 for victory. It remains the highest run chase at Lords. Greenidge became the first player in One Day International history to score a century in his 100th ODI when he scored 102* against Pakistan in 1988. In that game he achieved that milestone as captain, with his century going in vain as West Indies lost that match. In total, Greenidge played in 108 Test matches, scoring 7,558 runs with 19 centuries, in 128 ODIs, including the 1975 and 1983 World Cup Finals, scoring 5,134 runs and 11 centuries.
Gordon Greenidge decided to pursue a coaching career and became the coach of the Bangladeshi national cricket team in 1996. He was appointed the head coach of the Bangladesh national cricket team in 1997. Under his guidance, the Bangladesh men's cricket team won the 1997 ICC Trophy beating 22 other nations; this ensured the qualification of Bangladesh to the 1999 ICC Cricket World Cup, the first appearance in top-level cricket. Participating in their first cricket world cup changed Bangladesh cricket forever and lead to Test cricket status for the Bangladesh national cricket team in 2000, which meant Bangladesh was promoted to full ICC member status and began playing Test cricket matches. Soon after winning the 1997 ICC Trophy, Gordon Greenidge was conferred honorary citizenship of Bangladesh for these outstanding achievements of winning the 1997 ICC Trophy and qualifying for the cricket world cup. Greenidge is on the West Indies selection committee for Test matches, along with Viv Richards.
Greenidge's son Carl is a former cricketer. He has a grandson, Reiss Greenidge, a footballer and plays in Norway for Sogndal, he received citizenship of Bangladesh for his great contribution as a coach of Bangladesh National Cricket Team. List of international cricket centuries by Gordon Greenidge List of centuries scored on Test cricket debut Gordon Greenidge at CricketArchive Gordon Greenidge at ESPNcricinfo
Sir Isaac Vivian Alexander Richards, KNH, OBE, known as Viv Richards, is an Antiguan former cricketer, who represented the West Indies at test and international levels. He is regarded as one of the greatest batsmen of all time. Richards was voted one of the five Cricketers of the Century by a 100-member panel of experts in 2000, along with Sir Donald Bradman, Sir Garfield Sobers, Sir Jack Hobbs and Shane Warne, he is the mentor of T20 team Quetta Gladiators in Pakistan Super League. In one-day cricket, Richards was judged by Wisden Cricketers' Almanack to have played the best One Day International innings of all time. In December 2002, he was chosen by Wisden as the greatest ODI batsman of all time, as well as the third greatest Test batsman of all time, after Sir Don Bradman and Sachin Tendulkar, his consistent batting ability is regarded. Overall, Richards scored 8,540 runs in 121 Test matches at an average of 50.23, including 24 centuries. As a captain, he won 27 of 50 Test matches and lost only 8.
He scored nearly 7,000 runs in One Day Internationals and more than 36,000 in first-class cricket. Knighted for his contributions to cricket, today Richards is an occasional cricket commentator and team mentor. Richards was born to Malcolm and Gretel Richards in St. John's, Antigua part of the British Leeward Islands, he attended St. John's Boys Primary School and Antigua Grammar Secondary School on a scholarship. Richards discovered cricket at a young age, his brothers and Donald, both played the game, representing Antigua as amateurs, they encouraged him to play. The young Viv practised with his father and Pat Evanson, a neighbour and family friend, who had captained the Antigua side. Richards left school aged 18, worked at D'Arcy's Bar and Restaurant in St. John's, he joined St. John's Cricket Club and the owner of the restaurant where he worked, D'Arcy Williams, provided him with new whites, pads and a bat. After a few seasons with St. John's C. C. he joined Rising Sun Cricket Club. Richards made his first-class debut in January 1972 when he was 19.
He took part in a non-competition match, representing the Leeward Islands against the Windwards: Richards made 20 and 26. His competitive debut followed a few days later. Playing in the domestic West Indian Shell Shield for the Combined Leeward and Windward Islands in Kingston, Jamaica versus Jamaica, he scored 15 and 32, top-scoring in the second innings in a heavy defeat for his side. By the time Richards was 22, he had played matches in the Antigua, Leeward Islands and Combined Islands tournaments. In 1973, his abilities were noticed by Len Creed, Vice Chairman at Somerset, in Antigua at the time as part of a West Country touring side. Richards relocated to the United Kingdom, where Creed arranged for him to play league cricket for Lansdown C. C. in Bath. He made his Lansdown debut, as part of the second XI, at Weston-super-Mare on 26 April 1973. Richards was employed by the club as assistant groundsman to head groundsman, John Heyward, to allow him some financial independence until his career was established.
After his debut he was promoted to the first team where he was introduced to the Lansdown all-rounder "Shandy" Perera from Ceylon. Richards cites Perera as a major influence on his cricket development with regards to post-game analysis, he finished his first season at Lansdown top of the batting averages and shortly afterwards was offered a two-year contract with county side Somerset. Richards moved to Taunton in 1974 in preparation for his professional debut with Somerset CCC where he was assigned living accommodation by the club. On 27 April 1974 Richards made his Benson & Hedges Cup debut for Somerset against Glamorgan in Swansea. Richards was awarded Man of the Match. Richards made his Test match debut for the West Indian cricket team in 1974 against India in Bangalore, he made an unbeaten 192 in the second Test of the same series in New Delhi. The West Indies saw him as a strong opener and he kept his profile up in the early years of his promising career. In 1975 Richards helped the West Indies to win the inaugural Cricket World Cup final, a feat he described as the most memorable of his career.
He starred in the field, running out Ian Chappell and Greg Chappell. The West Indies were again able to win the following World Cup in 1979, thanks to a Richards century in the final at Lord's, Richards believes that on both occasions, despite internal island divisions, the Caribbean came together, he was until 2005 the only man to score a century and take 5 wickets in the same one-day international, against New Zealand at Dunedin in 1986–87. He rescued his side from a perilous position at Old Trafford in 1984 and, in partnership with Michael Holding, smashed 189 to win the game off his own bat. 1976 was Richards' finest year: he scored 1710 runs, at an astonishing average of 90.00, with seven centuries in 11 Tests. This achievement is all the more remarkable considering he missed the second Test at Lord's after contracting glandular fever; this tally stood as the world record for most Test runs by a batsman in a single calendar year for 30 years until broken by Mohammad Yousuf of Pakistan on 30 November 2006.
Richards had a long and successful career in the County Championship in England, playing for many years for Somerset. In 1983, the team won t
Test cricket is the form of the sport of cricket with the longest duration, is considered the game's highest standard. Test matches are played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined and conferred by the International Cricket Council; the term Test stems from the fact of the form's long, gruelling matches being both mentally and physically testing. Two teams of 11 players each play a four-innings match, it is considered the most complete examination of a team's endurance and ability. The first recognised Test match took place between 15 and 19 March 1877 and was played between England and Australia at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, where Australia won by 45 runs. A Test match to celebrate 100 years of Test cricket was held in Melbourne between 12 and 17 March 1977, in which Australia beat England by 45 runs—the same margin as that first Test. In October 2012, the ICC recast the playing conditions for Test matches, permitting day/night Test matches; the first day/night game took place between Australia and New Zealand at the Adelaide Oval, Adelaide, on 27 November – 1 December 2015.
Women's Test cricket is played over four days, with slight differences in format from men's Tests. Test matches are the highest level of cricket, statistically, their data form part of first-class cricket. Matches are played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined by the International Cricket Council; as of June 2017, twelve national teams have Test status, the most promoted being Afghanistan and Ireland on 22 June 2017. Zimbabwe's Test status was voluntarily suspended, because of poor performances between 2006 and 2011. In January 2014, during an ICC meeting in Dubai, the pathway for new potential Test nations was laid out with the winners of the next round of the ICC Intercontinental Cup playing a 5-day match against the bottom ranked Test nation. If the Associate team defeats the Test nation they could be added as the new Test country and granted full membership. A list of matches, defined as "Tests", was first drawn up by Australian Clarence Moody in the mid-1890s.
Representative matches played by simultaneous England touring sides of 1891–92 and 1929–30 are deemed to have "Test status". In 1970, a series of five "Test matches" was played in England between England and a Rest of the World XI; these matches scheduled between England and South Africa, were amended after South Africa was suspended from international cricket because of their government's policy of apartheid. Although given Test status, this was withdrawn and a principle was established that official Test matches can only be between nations. Despite this, in 2005, the ICC ruled that the six-day Super Series match that took place in October 2005, between Australia and a World XI, was an official Test match; some cricket writers and statisticians, including Bill Frindall, ignored the ICC's ruling and excluded the 2005 match from their records. The series of "Test matches" played in Australia between Australia and a World XI in 1971–72 do not have Test status; the commercial "Supertests" organised by Kerry Packer as part of his World Series Cricket enterprise and played between "WSC Australia", "WSC World XI" and "WSC West Indies" from 1977 to 1979 have never been regarded as official Test matches.
There are twelve Test-playing men's teams. The teams all represent individual, independent nations, except for England, the West Indies and Ireland. Test status is conferred upon a group of countries by the International Cricket Council. Teams that do not have Test status can play in the ICC Intercontinental Cup designed to allow non-Test teams to play under conditions similar to Tests; the teams are listed below with the date of each team's Test debut: England Australia South Africa West Indies New Zealand India Pakistan Sri Lanka Zimbabwe Bangladesh Ireland Afghanistan In the mid 2010s, the ICC evaluated proposals for dividing Test cricket into two tiers, with promotion and relegation between Tier-1 and Tier-2. These proposals were opposed by others; these proposals were not implemented. A standard day of Test cricket consists of three sessions of two hours each, the breaks between sessions being 40 minutes for lunch and 20 minutes for tea; however the times of sessions and intervals may be altered in certain circumstances: if bad weather or a change of innings occurs close to a scheduled break, the break may be taken immediately.
Today, Test matches are scheduled to be played across five consecutive days
The captain of a cricket team referred to as the skipper, is the appointed leader, having several additional roles and responsibilities over and above those of the other players. As in other sports, the captain is experienced and has good communication skills, is to be one of the most regular members of the team, as the captain has a say in team selection. Before the game the captains toss for innings. During the match the captain decides the team's batting order, who will bowl each over, where each fielder will be positioned. While the captain has the final say, decisions are collaborative. A captain's knowledge of the complexities of cricket strategy and tactics, shrewdness in the field, may contribute to the team's success. Due to the smaller coaching/management role played out by support staff, as well as the need for greater on-field decision-making, the captain of a cricket team shoulders more responsibility for results than team captains in other sports. Before the start of a match the home captain tosses a coin and the away captain calls heads or tails.
The captain who wins the toss bowl first. The decision depends on the condition of the pitch and whether it is to deteriorate, the weather conditions and the weather forecast; the decision depends on the relative strengths of the team's batting and bowling. For instance in Test Cricket, a side with only fast bowlers may choose to bowl first to try to take advantage of any early moisture in the pitch, knowing that it will be harder to take wickets in the match. A side with a weak opening batting pair may choose to bowl first in order to protect their batsmen; the captain decides where the fielders will stand, in consultation with the bowler and sometimes other senior players. The fielding positions will be dictated by the type of bowler, the batsman's batting style, the captain's assessment of the state of the match; the captain decides. If a batsman is seeking to dominate the current bowler, the captain may ask someone else to bowl. If the regular bowlers are not achieving the desired results, the captain may decide to use non-regular bowlers to attempt to unsettle the batsmen.
The captain may change the bowlers around to introduce variation, to prevent the batsmen getting "set". In limited overs cricket the captain additionally has to make certain that bowlers bowl no more than their allotted maximum number of overs, that experienced bowlers are available at the end of the batting side's innings, when the batsmen are looking to take risks to attack and score quickly. In the longer forms of cricket, when a new ball becomes available the captain decides whether to use it; when the team bats, the captain decides the batting order. In professional cricket the captain changes the established batting order only for exceptional reasons, because batsmen tend to specialise in batting at certain positions. However, in certain circumstances it may be in the team's interest to change the batting order. If quick runs are needed, a attacking batsman may be promoted up the order. A player who is'in form' may be promoted to a higher batting position, at the expense of a player who is'out of form'.
If a wicket falls near the end of a day's play if the light is failing, or if the bowlers seem confident, the captain may choose to send in a non-specialist batsman, referred to as a nightwatchman. If the nightwatchman does not get out before the end of that day's play the specialist batsman will have been protected, will not need to bat until the following day when conditions are to have improved. If the nightwatchman does get out, the cost of losing a late wicket will have been minimised, because the specialist batsman is still available to bat; the captain may declare the team's innings closed at any time, but only does so as an attacking ploy, for instance if the captain thinks the team has enough runs to win the match, or if a sudden change in conditions has made it advantageous to bowl rather than bat. In a two-innings match, if the situation arises the captain decides; the captain is consulted on whether an injured batsman from the opposing team may use a runner when batting. Permission is given if the batsman has become injured during the course of the match, but if the batsman was carrying the injury at the start of the match the captain may refuse.
As well as decisions taken either before or during a match, captains often have some responsibility for the good running of the cricket club. For instance, they may decide when the team is to practise, for how long. In professional cricket the captain has some say in who will form the squad from which teams are selected, may decide how young up-and-coming players are to be encouraged and improved, how members of the squad who are not selected for first-team matches are to gain match practice. Prior to July 2015, the captain was responsible for deciding when to take batting and bowling powerplays in limited overs matches; the captain may be assisted in some instances joint vice-captains. This is useful if the captain is forced to leave the field of play during fielding; some teams allocate the vice-captain a more or less formal role in assisting with team selection, dis