Tourism in Colombia
The contribution of travel and tourism to GDP was US$5,880.3bn in 2016. Tourism generated 556,135 jobs in 2016. Foreign tourist visits were predicted to have risen from 0.6 million in 2007 to 4 million in 2017. Responsible tourism became a peremptory need for Colombia because minimizes negative social and environmental impacts and makes positive contributions to the conservation of natural and cultural heritage. Colombia has major attractions for a tourist destination, such as Cartagena and its historic surroundings, which are on the UNESCO World Heritage List; the coffee region is a popular destination the city of Armenia and its surroundings. Bogotá, the nation's capital, has become Colombia's major tourist destination because of its improved museums and entertainment facilities and its major urban renovations, including the rehabilitation of public areas, the development of parks, the creation of an extensive network of cycling routes. With its rich and varied geography, which includes the Amazon and Andean regions, the llanos, the Caribbean and Pacific coasts, the deserts of La Guajira and Tatacoa Desert, its unique biodiversity, Colombia has major potential for ecotourism.
Indigenous people inhabited what is now Colombia by 12,500 BCE. In 1500, Rodrigo de Bastidas was the first Spanish explorer of the Caribbean coast. In 1510, Vasco Núñez de Balboa founded the town of Santa María la Antigua del Darién. Throughout Colombia's history there were several rebel movements against Spanish rule, but most were unsuccessful. In 1810 the rebels, lead by Simón Bolívar achieved independence from Spain. Colombia was the first constitutional government in South America, the Liberal and Conservative parties, founded in 1848 and 1849 are two of the oldest surviving political parties in the Americas. Slavery was abolished in the country in 1851; the United States of America's intentions to influence the area led to the separation of the Department of Panama in 1903 and the establishment of it as a nation. In the early to mid-1980s, international tourism arrivals in Colombia reached nearly 1.4 million per year. Although they decreased by more than half thereafter, they have recovered at rates of more than 10 percent annually since 2002, reaching 1.9 million visitors in 2006.
Tourism has been considered a low-growth service industry in Colombia because of internal violence, but in 2006 the country earned US$2 billion from international tourism. Tourists visiting Colombia from abroad came from the United States, followed by Venezuela, Ecuador and Mexico. 90 percent of foreign tourists arrive by air, 10 percent by land transportation, a tiny share by sea. The Democratic Security and Defense Policy of Álvaro Uribe Vélez organized tourist caravans to protect tourists and boost tourism; the caravans transported tourists to holiday celebration sites and were protected by military forces. The Democratic Security Policy's goal is to "reestablishing control over all of the nation's territory, fighting illegal drugs and organized crime, strengthening the justice system." Another project to boost tourism and tourist safety in Colombia is the Proexport Colombia. The Ministry of Commerce and Tourism is the Colombian ministry in charge of tourism affairs. Colombia is located in the North West area of the South American continent.
Colombia coasts are along the Caribbean Pacific Ocean. The Andes Mountains are within the borders of Colombia, are a popular destination for tourists to hike. Along the coast and in the northern areas of the country the climate is "warm and tropical... with a rainy season from May to November." The temperature stays consistent throughout the year because Colombia is so close to the equator. The variety in temperature comes from the level of altitude. Popular times to visit Colombia include the most famous festivals such as the Cali's Fair, the Barranquilla's Carnival, the Bogota Summer Festival, the Ibero-American Theater Festival and Whites' Carnival in Pasto, Manizales fair the Flower Festival is when the most foreign tourists go to Colombia. Many people visit Colombia during Christmas time and the celebrations surrounding the Independence of Colombia; the Ministry of Tourism considers high seasons the Holy Week, the northern hemisphere summer months and Christmas season. During the Holy Week many travel to the Caribbean Region of Colombia or visit popular landmarks like Las Lajas Cathedral, Salt Cathedral of Zipaquirá, Monserrate and Guadalupe Hill the towns of Santa Cruz de Mompox, villa de Leyva, Guamal or Popayán where Roman Catholic traditions and rituals are performed, among others.
Colombia hosts dozens of popular music festivals throughout the year, such as Rock al Parque and Estereo Picnic. Colombia is known as "the land of a thousand rhythms". Colombia has more than 1,025 folk rhythms; some of the main genres are: Most visitors arriving to Colombia on short term basis in are from the following countries of nationality: The great variety in geography and fauna across Colombia has resulted in the development of an ecotourist industry, concentrated in the country's national parks. Popular ecotourist destinations include: along the Caribbean coast, the Tayrona National Natural Park in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range
Tourism in Hong Kong
The tourism industry has been an important part of the economy of Hong Kong since it shifted to a service sector model in the late 1980s and early 90s. There has been a sharp increase of domestic tourists from Mainland China following the introduction of the Individual Visit Scheme in 2003; the total tourism expenditure associated with inbound tourism reached HK$7,333 per capita in 2011. According to the Hong Kong Tourism Board Overall visitor arrivals to Hong Kong in 2010 totalled just over 36 million, a 21.8% increase over the previous year. The numbers included 22.5 million mainland Chinese arrivals, 8.2 million short-haul arrivals, 4.8 million long-haul arrivals. In July 2011 more than 3.8 million visitors arrived in Hong Kong, equivalent to more than half of Hong Kong's population and setting an outright record for a single month. Along with the strong growth in the number of Mainland visitors, most other long and short-haul markets are performing healthily with double-digit growth over 2006.
Among long-haul markets, Europe and the Middle East took the lead with arrivals of 1,916,861, an 11.1% increase that made this Hong Kong's best-performing market region in 2006. While facing increasing competition from Mainland cities and Macau, the Hong Kong Tourism Board works with authorities and trade to make Hong Kong an essential component in all combo and multi-destination itineraries. Tourism, along with international trade and financial services are the three main sources of income for Hong Kong. In December 2006, there were 612 hotels and tourist guest houses in Hong Kong, with 52,512 rooms; the average occupancy rate across all categories of hotels and tourist guesthouses was 87% for the whole of 2006, a one-percentage-point growth compared with 2005 despite the 7.4% increase in Hong Kong's room supply between December 2005 and December 2006. During 2006, 62.7% of all visitors stayed one night or longer, a trend reflecting Hong Kong's increasing importance as a regional transport hub.
The Tourism Commission was established in May 1999 to promote Hong Kong as Asia's premier international city for all visitors. A Tourism Strategy Group, comprising representatives from the Government, the HKTB and various sectors of the tourism industry has been established to advise the Government on tourism development from a strategic perspective. Most visitors arriving to Hong Kong were from the following country or territory of residence: Almost any of the districts of Hong Kong can be considered a tourist destination; the following locations are areas marked as main attractions. Including New Kowloon Including the Outlying Islands Hong Kong has a number a events throughout the year that are aimed at attracting visitors; the authority claims. International Chinese New Year Night Parade First organised in 1996, the International Chinese New Year Night Parade is one of the most important celebratory events during Chinese New Year in Hong Kong, it was held during day time on Hong Kong Island, from 2004 onward the event has been held during night time in Tsim Sha Tsui.
Apart from the decorated floats, the parade features local and international performance groups. The 2018 parade attracted over 150,000 spectators, half of them were visitors. To facilitate entry of visitors, various measures were introduced in 2002; the quota of the Hong Kong Tour Group Scheme of Mainland visitors has been abolished since January 2002. The number of Mainland travel agents authorized to organize such tours has increased significantly. Nationals from some 170 countries can visit Hong Kong visa free for period from seven days to 180 days; the Individual Visit Scheme was introduced on 28 July 2003. The Scheme has been extended and now covers Guangdong province, Beijing, Chongqing and nine cities in Fujian and Zhejiang. In 2006, over 6.6 million Mainland citizens traveled to Hong Kong under the IVS, 20.2% more than 2005. The HKTB continues to promote the destination to business and leisure travellers through its worldwide "Hong Kong – Live it, Love it!" campaign. Leveraging on the opening of several new attractions from 2005 onwards, the HKTB has designated 2006 as "Discover Hong Kong Year".
The global marketing campaign makes use of a series of strategic promotions to showcase the new image of Hong Kong and promote it as a "must-visit" destination in 2006. The HKTB began its travel trade promotion in May 2005 and rolled out the consumer promotions worldwide in late 2005. Aloagreement, a series of joint overseas marketing initiatives is being conducted with Macau and the nine provincial tourism bureaus concerned. In the years up to till 2012, birth tourism in Hong Kong had been increasing. Pregnant mainland women seeking to give birth in Hong Kong to benefit from the right of abode, their parents came from mainland to give birth in Hong Kong, which resulted in their children gaining the right to abode and enjoy social welfare in the city. Hong Kong citizens expressed concerns that the pregnant women and babies put heavier burden on Hong Kong's medical system; some of them called mainland people "locusts" which take away Hong Kong's resources from locals. Over 170,000 new births where both parents were mainland people between 2001 and 2011, of which 32,653 were born in 2010.
CY Leung's first public announcement on policy as Chief Executive-elect was to impose a'zero' quota on mainland mothers giving birth in Hong Kong. Leung further underlined that those who did may not be able to secure the right of abode for their offspring in Hong Kong. Since 2012, there have been more mainland parallel traders coming to the northern parts of Hong Kong to import goods and export them back to mainland, which ear
The Americas comprise the totality of the continents of North and South America. Together, they comprise the New World. Along with their associated islands, they cover 8% of Earth's total surface area and 28.4% of its land area. The topography is dominated by the American Cordillera, a long chain of mountains that runs the length of the west coast; the flatter eastern side of the Americas is dominated by large river basins, such as the Amazon, St. Lawrence River / Great Lakes basin, La Plata. Since the Americas extend 14,000 km from north to south, the climate and ecology vary from the arctic tundra of Northern Canada and Alaska, to the tropical rain forests in Central America and South America. Humans first settled the Americas from Asia between 17,000 years ago. A second migration of Na-Dene speakers followed from Asia; the subsequent migration of the Inuit into the neoarctic around 3500 BCE completed what is regarded as the settlement by the indigenous peoples of the Americas. The first known European settlement in the Americas was by the Norse explorer Leif Erikson.
However, the colonization never became permanent and was abandoned. The Spanish voyages of Christopher Columbus from 1492 to 1502 resulted in permanent contact with European powers, which led to the Columbian exchange and inaugurated a period of exploration and colonization whose effects and consequences persist to the present. Diseases introduced from Europe and West Africa devastated the indigenous peoples, the European powers colonized the Americas. Mass emigration from Europe, including large numbers of indentured servants, importation of African slaves replaced the indigenous peoples. Decolonization of the Americas began with the American Revolution in the 1770s and ended with the Spanish–American War in the late 1890s. All of the population of the Americas resides in independent countries; the Americas are home to over a billion inhabitants, two-thirds of which reside in the United States, Brazil, or Mexico. It is home to eight megacities: New York City, Mexico City, São Paulo, Los Angeles, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Bogotá, Lima.
The name America was first recorded in 1507. Christie's auction house says a two-dimensional globe created by Martin Waldseemüller was the earliest recorded use of the term; the name was used in the Cosmographiae Introductio written by Matthias Ringmann, in reference to South America. It was applied to both North and South America by Gerardus Mercator in 1538. America derives from the Latin version of Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci's first name; the feminine form America accorded with the feminine names of Asia and Europa. In modern English and South America are considered separate continents, taken together are called America or the Americas in the plural; when conceived as a unitary continent, the form is the continent of America in the singular. However, without a clarifying context, singular America in English refers to the United States of America. In the English-speaking world, the term America used to refer to a single continent until the 1950s: According to historians Kären Wigen and Martin W. Lewis, While it might seem surprising to find North and South America still joined into a single continent in a book published in the United States in 1937, such a notion remained common until World War II.
By the 1950s, however all American geographers had come to insist that the visually distinct landmasses of North and South America deserved separate designations. This shift did not seem to happen in Romance-speaking countries, where America is still considered a continent encompassing the North America and South America subcontinents, as well as Central America; the first inhabitants migrated into the Americas from Asia. Habitation sites are known in Alaska and the Yukon from at least 20,000 years ago, with suggested ages of up to 40,000 years. Beyond that, the specifics of the Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the dates and routes traveled, are subject to ongoing research and discussion. Widespread habitation of the Americas occurred during the late glacial maximum, from 16,000 to 13,000 years ago; the traditional theory has been that these early migrants moved into the Beringia land bridge between eastern Siberia and present-day Alaska around 40,000–17,000 years ago, when sea levels were lowered during the Quaternary glaciation.
These people are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. Another route proposed is that, either on foot or using primitive boats, they migrated down the Pacific coast to South America. Evidence of the latter would since have been covered by a sea level rise of hundreds of meters following the last ice age. Both routes may have
Tourism in Germany
Germany is the ninth most visited country in the world, with a total of 407.26 million overnights during 2012. This number includes 68.83 million nights by foreign visitors, the majority of foreign tourists in 2009 coming from the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Switzerland. Additionally, more than 30% of Germans spend their holiday in their own country. According to Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Reports, Germany is ranked 3 out of 136 countries in the 2017 report, is rated as one of the safest travel destinations worldwide. In 2012, over 30.4 million international tourists arrived in Germany, bringing over US$38 billion in international tourism receipts to the country. Domestic and international travel and tourism combined directly to contribute over EUR43.2 billion to the German GDP. Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry contributes 4.5% of German GDP and supports 2 million jobs. The ITB Berlin is the world's leading tourism trade fair. According to surveys, the top three reasons for tourists to come to Germany, are the German culture, outdoor activities and countryside, the German cities.
The history of tourism in Germany goes back to cities and landscapes being visited for education and recreation. From the late 18th century onwards, cities like Dresden, Munich and Berlin were major stops on a European Grand tour. Spas and Seaside resorts on the North and Baltic Sea developed during the 19th and early 20th century, when major train routes were built to connect the seaside spas to urban centers. An extense bathing and recreation industry materialized in Germany around 1900. At rivers and close to natural landscapes many health spas and recreational facilities were established since the 19th century. Since the end of World War II tourism has expanded as many tourists visit Germany to experience a sense of European history and the diverse German landscape; the country features 14 national parks, including the Jasmund National Park, the Vorpommern Lagoon Area National Park, the Müritz National Park, the Wadden Sea National Parks, the Harz National Park, the Hainich National Park, the Saxon Switzerland National Park, the Bavarian Forest National Park and the Berchtesgaden National Park.
In addition, there are 14 Biosphere Reserves, as well as 98 nature parks. The countryside has a pastoral aura, while the bigger cities exhibit both a modern and classical feel. Small and medium-sized cities preserved their historical appearance and have old towns with remarkable architectural heritage - these are called Altstadt in German; the table below shows the distribution of national and international visitor nights spent in each of the sixteen states of Germany in 2017. Germany overall had 178.23 million visitor nights in 2017, of which 37.45 million were of foreign guests. With 94.3 million nights spent in hotels, hostels or clinics, Bavaria has the most visitors. With 18.472 nights per 1.000 inhabitants, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern has the highest density of tourists per population. Most visitors arriving to Germany on short term basis are from the following countries of nationality: The official body for tourism in Germany is the German National Tourist Board, represented worldwide by National Tourist Offices in 29 countries.
Surveys by the GNTB include perceptions and reasons for holidaying in Germany, which are as follows: culture, outdoors/countryside, cleanliness, modernity, good hotels, good gastronomy/cuisine, good accessibility, cosmopolitanism/hospitality, good shopping opportunities, exciting nightlife and good price/performance ratio. About 242 million nights, or two-thirds of all nights spent in hotels in Germany, are spent in spa towns. Germany is well known for health tourism, with many of the numerous spa towns having been established at a hot spring, offering convalescence or preventive care by means of mineral water and/or other spa treatment. Spa towns and seaside resorts carry official designations such as Mineral and mud spas, Healthy climate resorts, Kneipp cure resorts, Seaside resorts, Climatic resorts, Recreation resorts; the largest and most well known resorts have casinos, most notably at Bad Wiessee, Baden-Baden, Aachen, Travemünde and Westerland. The most visited tourist regions in Germany are the East Frisian and North Frisian Islands, the Baltic Sea coasts of Holstein and Vorpommern, the Rhine Valley, the Bavarian and Black Forest, the Bavarian Alps.
The table below shows the five most visited rural districts in 2008: Other popular regions include in the North: Usedom, Holstein Switzerland, the Lüneburg Heath and Mecklenburg Lake District in the West: Teutoburg Forest, Sauerland and the Moselle Valley in the East: Saxon Switzerland, Thüringer Wald and the Elbe Valley in the South: Taunus, Spessart, Rhön, Odenwald and Allgäu. Since the 1930s, local and regional governments have set up various theme routes, to help visitors get to know a specific region and its cultural or scenic qualities; the table below shows some of the most prominent theme routes. Other popular German theme routes include parts of the European Route of Brick Gothic and European Route of Industrial Heritage, the Harz-Heide Road, Bertha Benz Memorial Route and Bergstrasse; the main winter sport regions in Germany are the
Tourism in Cuba
Tourism in Cuba is an industry that generates over 4.5 million arrivals in 2017, is one of the main sources of revenue for the island. With its favorable climate, colonial architecture and distinct cultural history, Cuba has long been an attractive destination for tourists. "Cuba treasures 253 protected areas, 257 national monuments, 7 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, 7 Natural Biosphere Reserves and 13 Fauna Refuge among other non-tourist zones."Having been Spain's closest colony to the United States until 1898, in the first part of the 20th century Cuba continued to taken advantage of by big investments, creation of industries, travel to support US interests and corporations. Its proximity and close relation to the United States helped Cuba's market economy prosper quickly; as relations between Cuba and the United States deteriorated after the Cuban Revolution and the resulting expropriation and nationalisation of businesses, the island became cut off from its traditional market by an embargo and a travel ban was imposed on U.
S. citizens visiting Cuba. The tourist industry declined to record low levels within two years of Castro's accession to power. Unlike the US, Canada normalised relations with Cuba in the 1910s and Canadians visited Cuba for vacations. One third of visitors to Cuba each year are Canadians; the Cuban government has moderated its state ownership policies and allowed for localised and small private business since 1980. It pursues revitalisation programs aimed at boosting tourism. United States reestablished diplomatic relations with Cuba in 2015 and the tourism industry is expected to benefit from normalised relations with US in the near future; until 1997, contacts between tourists and Cubans were de facto outlawed by the Communist regime. Following the collapse of Cuba's chief trading partner the Soviet Union, the resulting economic crisis known as the Special Period, Cuba's government embarked on a major program to restore old hotels, remaining old pre-communism American cars, restore several Havana streets to their former glory, as well as build beach resorts to bolster the tourist industry in order to bring in much needed finance to the island.
To ensure the isolation of international tourism from the state isolated Cuban society, it was to be promoted in enclave resorts where, as much as possible, tourists would be segregated from Cuban society, known to as "enclave tourism" and "tourism apartheid". By the late 1990s, tourism surpassed Cuba's traditional export industry, sugar, as the nation's leading source of revenue. Visitors come from Canada and western Europe and tourist areas are concentrated around Varadero, Cayo Coco, the beach areas north of Holguin, Havana; the impact on Cuba's socialist society and economy has been significant. However, in recent years Cuba's tourism has decreased due to the economic recession, escalating foreign investment conflicts and fears, internal economic restrictions. Since its reopening to tourism in the mid-1990s Cuba has not met the projected growth, has had little restoration, slow growth. A lack of foreign investment has had a negative effect. Since the Dominican Republic has surpassed Cuba in tourism, new development, investment.
Cuba has long been a popular attraction for tourists. Between 1915 and 1930, Havana hosted more tourists than any other location in the Caribbean; the influx was due in large part to Cuba's proximity to the United States, where restrictive prohibition on alcohol and other pastimes stood in stark contrast to the island's traditionally relaxed attitude to leisure pursuits. Such tourism became Cuba's third largest source of foreign currency, behind the two dominant industries of sugar and tobacco. Cuban drinks such as the daiquiri and mojito became common in the United States during this time, after Prohibition was repealed. A combination of the Great Depression of the 1930s, the end of prohibition, World War II dampened Cuba's tourist industry, it wasn't until the 1950s that numbers began to return to the island in any significant force. During this period, American organized crime came to dominate the leisure and tourist industries, a modus operandi outlined at the infamous Havana Conference of 1946.
By the mid-1950s Havana became one of the main markets and the favourite route for the narcotics trade to the United States. Despite this, tourist numbers grew at a rate of 8% a year and Havana became known as "the Latin Las Vegas". Upon becoming President of Cuba after the Cuban revolution of 1959, Manuel Urrutia ordered the closing of many bars and gambling halls associated with prostitution and the drug trade, this ending Cuba's image as a hedonistic escape. A new governmental body, the National Institute of the Tourism Industry, was established to encourage more tourism. Tourist board chief Carlos Almonia announced a program of huge investment in hotels and the creation of a new airport, but fears of Cuba's post-revolutionary status amongst Americans, who constituted 8 out of 10 of visitors, meant a rapid decrease in travel to the island. In January 1961, relations between the nations deteriorated as a result of bank and business expropriations, mass exodus, summary executions, private property being declared illegal by a now communist regime being backed by the USSR.
Tourism travel to Cuba was soon declared by the U. S. State Department to be contrary to U. S. foreign policy and against the national interest. Tourism that year dropped to a record low of a mere 4180, forcing a dramatic downsizing of Cuba's tourist plans. Visitors to Cuba during the 1960s, 70s and 80s were compa
Tourism in Russia
Tourism in Russia has seen rapid growth since the late Soviet times, first inner tourism and international tourism as well. Rich cultural heritage and great natural variety place Russia among the most popular tourist destinations in the world. Not including Crimea, the country contains 23 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, while many more are on UNESCO's tentative lists. Major tourist routes in Russia include a travel around the Golden Ring of ancient cities, cruises on the big rivers including the Volga, long journeys on the famous Trans-Siberian Railway. Diverse regions and ethnic cultures of Russia offer many different foods and souvenirs, show a great variety of traditions, including Russian Maslenitsa, Tatar Sabantuy, or Siberian shamanist rituals. In 2013, Russia was visited by 33 million tourists, making it the ninth-most visited country in the world and the seventh-most visited in Europe. Central European Russia is in the same climate zone as the Baltic states and northern Ukraine; the climate of south-west Russia is more arid, with shorter winters.
The climate of Russia's Far East along the Pacific coast is similar to that of Hokkaido and north-east China. The most severe climate is in Siberia where winters are cold and summers are hot, in Russia's Far North where temperatures are always low, with the exception of Murmansk, where the sea never freezes due to the influence of the warm Norwegian Current; the climate of Russia's Black Sea coast is subtropical. Contrary to popular belief, the climate of most popular tourist areas of Russia is not severe and is similar to that of Eastern Europe; the mean temperatures of December and February in Moscow are −4 °C, −7 °C, −6 °C but colder weather is common. Over the past few decades spells of cold weather in central European Russia have become rare, while the number of wintry days when the temperature is close to or above the freezing point has grown significantly. In coastal areas wintry temperatures can feel somewhat colder than they are due to high humidity. Unless you are allergic to the pollen of certain trees and herbs, the best time for travelling to central European Russia is late spring when the temperatures are pleasant and many trees are in bloom, early and mid autumn when trees change their colour and it is not cold yet.
Summer months are good except for June in cities in central and south Russia when poplar fluff can be a nuisance, but the authorities of many Russian cities have taken action against the fluff by cutting and removing poplar trees and the situation has improved dramatically. Late autumn, winter months, early spring will be enjoyable if you wear appropriate clothes and shoes. If you are interested in winter activities, in central European Russia it begins to snow in late autumn and snowpack doesn't melt away before early April, although spells of warm weather do occur and snow can temporarily melt away in mid-winter. Ski resorts in mountainous areas have snow throughout the winter season. Central European Russia sometimes experiences cold spells in early May when the temperature can go from +15 °C/59 °F to the freezing point for a few days; the citizens of CIS member states, most Latin American countries and South Africa, can travel in Russia for 90 days without a visa. Free e-visas for visiting three regions in Russia's Far East are available for tourists from China, India, Turkey, Morocco and some other countries.
Tourists from other countries are required to visit a Russian diplomatic mission to purchase a visa. Tourists are required to have a valid passport. Russian visas cannot be purchased at the border. For more information see visa policy of Russia; the most popular tourist destinations in Russia are Saint Petersburg and Moscow, the current and the former capitals of the country and great cultural centers, recognized as World Cities. Moscow and Saint Petersburg feature such world-renowned museums as Hermitage and Tretyakov Gallery, famous theaters including Bolshoi and Mariinsky, ornate churches such as Saint Basil's Cathedral, Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Saint Isaac's Cathedral and Church of the Savior on Blood, impressive fortifications such as Moscow Kremlin and Peter and Paul Fortress, beautiful squares such as Red Square and Palace Square, streets such as Tverskaya and Nevsky Prospect. Rich palaces and parks of extreme beauty are found in the former imperial residences in the suburbs of Moscow and Saint Petersburg.
Moscow contains a great variety of impressive Soviet-era buildings along with modern skyscrapers, while Saint Petersburg, nicknamed Venice of the North, boasts its classical architecture, many rivers and bridges. Nizhny Novgorod is the capital of the Volga region, it is considered to be "younger brother" of Moscow because it has its own Kremlin, the metro, the so-called "Nizhny Novgorod Arbat" and a copy of the monument to
Tourism in China
Tourism in China is a significant industry. The rate of tourism has expanded over the last few decades since the beginning of reform and opening; the emergence of a newly rich middle class and an easing of restrictions on movement by the Chinese authorities are both fueling this travel boom. China has become one of the world's hottest inbound and outbound tourist markets. According to Xinhuanet, world is on the cusp of a sustained Chinese tourism boom; as of 2015, China is the fourth most visited country in the world, after France, United States, Spain, with 56.9 million international tourists per year. In 2017, tourism contributed about CNY 8.77 trillion, 11.04% of the GDP, contributed direct and indirect employment of up to 28.25 million people. There were five billion domestic trips. Data from 2016 indicated that the majority of China's foreign tourists came from Hong Kong and Taiwan. Among the number of tourist arrivals who stayed for at least a night, 27.72 million came from Hong Kong, 4.81 million from Macau and 5.09 million from Taiwan.
When adjusted to exclude transfers from Hong Kong and Taiwan, the number of tourist arrivals from foreign countries directly to China is 21.65 million. China ranked second in the world for travel and tourism's contribution to GDP in 2014, first in the world for travel and tourism's contribution to employment. Tourism, based on direct and induced impact, accounted for 9.3 percent of China's GDP in 2013. Since 2012, tourists from have been the world's top spender in international tourism, leading global outbound travel. In 2016, the country accounted for 21% of the world's international tourism spending, or $261 billion. At the time, only 7% of Chinese had a passport, so the "potential for further growth is staggering", according to a UK news report. Between 1949 and 1974, the People's Republic was closed to all but selected foreign visitors. In the late 1970s, when Deng Xiaoping decided to promote tourism vigorously as a means of earning foreign exchange, China started to develop its tourist industry.
Major hotel construction programs increased the number of hotels and guest houses, more historic and scenic spots were renovated and opened to tourists, professional guides and other service personnel were trained. The expansion of domestic and international airline traffic and other tourist transportation facilities made travel more convenient. Over 250 cities and counties had been opened to foreign visitors by the mid-1980s. Travelers needed only valid visas or residence permits to visit 100 locations. In 1985 1.4 million foreigners visited China, nearly US$1.3 billion was earned from tourism. China has become a major tourist destination following its reform and opening to the world in the late 1970s instigated by Deng Xiaoping. In 1978, China received about 230,000 international foreign tourists because of the severe limitations that the government placed on, allowed to visit the country and, not. In 2016, overnight visitors increased 4.2% over the same period of 2015 to 59.27 million. The corresponding income increased to USD 120 billion, an increase by 5.6% over the same period of 2015.
Most visitors arriving in China were from the following areas of residence or countries of nationality: Diplomatic and political tensions appear to have a mixed correlation with China's inbound tourism. For the past decade, relations with Japan have been tense, resulting in a decline in the number of inbound tourists from Japan to China by 19 percent annually between 2004 and 2014. However, both Vietnam and the Philippines have been embroiled in contentious territorial disputes with China, yet between 2009 and 2013 the number of inbound Vietnamese and Filipino tourists increased by 65 percent and 33 percent, respectively. In December 2017, 2018 was proclaimed as the Canada China Year of Tourism, to encourage visits to/from both countries. Tensions between them increased however in December 2018 after the arrest of businesswoman Meng Wanzhou by Canada in response to a U. S. warrant and the subsequent arrest of two Canadians living in China. The retaliatory move by Beijing confirmed that the smooth working relationship between the countries had broken down.
While Canada was responding to an arrest warrant issued by a court in New York state, China had not taken steps against Americans because it "wants to improve its relations with the U. S.", a much larger trading partner, according to Nelson Wiseman, a political science professor at the University of Toronto. The tension led to the cancellation of a trip to Beijing by Canada's Tourism Minister Mélanie Joly; some form of Chinese is universal in China, with Mandarin as the standard form and many other varieties in use. Although the vast majority of Chinese do not speak English, due to the educational system, many Chinese near and in urban areas can read and write it though they may have difficulty with spoken English. According to research completed by The Telegraph in 2017, less than 1 percent of people in China speak English conversationally. Xi'an, Shaanxi Nanjing, Jiangsu Luoyang, Henan Xuchang, Henan Hangzhou, Zhejiang Zhengzhou, Henan Anyang, Henan Kaifeng, Henan Chongqing Guangzhou, Guangdong Chengde, Hebei Zhengd