World Trade Center (1973–2001)

The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. It opened on April 4, 1973, was destroyed in 2001 during the September 11 attacks. At the time of their completion, the Twin Towers—the original 1 World Trade Center, at 1,368 feet. Other buildings in the complex included the Marriott World Trade Center, 4 WTC, 5 WTC, 6 WTC, 7 WTC; the complex contained 13,400,000 square feet of office space. The core of the complex was built at a cost of $400 million. During its existence, the World Trade Center experienced several major incidents, including a fire on February 13, 1975, a bombing on February 26, 1993, a bank robbery on January 14, 1998. In 1998, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey decided to privatize it by leasing the buildings to a private company to manage, it awarded the lease to Silverstein Properties in July 2001. On the morning of September 11, 2001, Al-Qaeda-affiliated hijackers flew two Boeing 767 jets into the North and South Towers within minutes of each other.

The attacks killed 2,606 people in and within the vicinity of the towers, as well as all 157 on board the two aircraft. Falling debris from the towers, combined with fires that the debris initiated in several surrounding buildings, led to the partial or complete collapse of all the buildings in the complex, caused catastrophic damage to ten other large structures in the surrounding area; the cleanup and recovery process at the World Trade Center site took eight months, during which the remains of the other buildings were demolished. A new World Trade Center complex is being built with six new skyscrapers and several other buildings, many of which have been completed. A memorial and museum to those killed in the attacks, a new rapid transit hub, an elevated park have been opened. One World Trade Center, the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere at 1,776 feet, is the lead building for the new complex, was completed in November 2014. During its existence, the World Trade Center was one of the major icons of New York City.

It had a major role in popular culture and according to one estimate was depicted in 472 films. Following the World Trade Center's destruction, mentions of the complex were altered or deleted, several dozen "memorial films" were created; the western portion of the World Trade Center site was under the Hudson River. The shoreline was in the vicinity of Greenwich Street, closer to the site's eastern border, it was on this shoreline, close to the intersection of Greenwich and the former Dey Street, that Dutch explorer Adriaen Block's ship, burned to the waterline in November 1613, stranding him and his crew and forcing them to overwinter on the island. They built the first European settlement in Manhattan; the remains of the ship were buried under landfill when the shoreline was extended beginning in 1797 and were discovered during excavation work in 1916. The remains of a second eighteenth century ship were discovered in 2010 during excavation work at the site; the ship, believed to be a Hudson River sloop, was found just south of where the Twin Towers stood, about 20 feet below the surface.

The area became New York City's Radio Row, which existed from 1921 to 1966. The neighborhood was a warehouse district in what is now the Financial District. Harry Schneck opened City Radio on Cortlandt Street in 1921, the area held several blocks of electronics stores, with Cortlandt Street as its central axis; the used radios, war surplus electronics and parts were piled so high they would spill out onto the street, attracting collectors and scroungers. According to a business writer, it was the origin of the electronic component distribution business; the idea of establishing a World Trade Center in New York City was first proposed in 1943. The New York State Legislature passed a bill authorizing New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey to begin developing plans for the project, but the plans were put on hold in 1949. During the late 1940s and 1950s, economic growth in New York City was concentrated in Midtown Manhattan. To help stimulate urban renewal in Lower Manhattan, David Rockefeller suggested that the Port Authority build a World Trade Center there.

Plans for the use of eminent domain to remove the shops in Radio Row bounded by Vesey, Church and West Streets began in 1961 when the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was deciding to build the world's first world trade center. They had two choices: the east side of Lower Manhattan, near the South Street Seaport. Initial plans, made public in 1961, identified a site along the East River for the World Trade Center; as a bi-state agency, the Port Authority required approval for new projects from the governors of both New York and New Jersey. New Jersey Governor Robert B. Meyner objected to New York getting a $335 million project. Toward the end of 1961, negotiations with outgoing New Jersey Governor Meyner reached a stalemate. At the time, ridership on New Jersey's H&M Railroad had declined from a high of 113 million riders in 1927 to 26 million in 1958 after new automobile tunnels and bridges had opened across the Hudson River. In a December 1961 meeting between Port Authority director Austin J. Tobin and newly elected New Jersey Governor Richard J. Hughes, the Port Authority offered to take over the H & M Railroad.

They decided to move the World Trade Center project to the

Karl Kani

Karl Kani is an American fashion designer, founder and CEO of the hip hop fashion brand Karl Kani. Carl Williams was born in Costa Rica to Costa Rican mother; the family migrated to the United States in the late 1960s, he grew up in the Flatbush neighborhood of Brooklyn. At age 16, Williams started designing clothes after learning the essential handcraft at his father's company, he never studied tailoring or design. He would buy material and tell a tailor how he wanted his garments to look. "For a small sum", as he put it, "I had a fresh outfit that nobody had."After seeing him on the scene in local clubs, men started asking for a Carl Williams outfit of their own. Soon he was taking his first orders in his car; the death of one of his close friends inspired some deep contemplation. "It made me think about life differently", he added " I thought I should do something positive."In 1989 he went to Los Angeles, where he and a friend opened a clothing shop on Crenshaw Boulevard. They made no profit at this location, after the shop was robbed, they moved to Hollywood, where he started selling catalogs for $2 that he and his partner had put together.

They only did not sell any clothes. He decided to take out an advertisement in Right On! Magazine, but that did not jumpstart sales. After watching The Today Show, Kani had the idea of paying a friend in New York to make a sign with his label's name on it and hold it up during the taping of the show; the idea worked. In addition to working with a mainstream color selection, Kani modified the baggy pants that had become the basis of street fashion. According to him, black people never liked tight-fitting jeans, they would always buy a bigger size but the waist would be too big, so he decided to increase the pant size. In 1994, Kani used $500,000 in profits to launch his company "Karl Kani Infinity". In addition to his old partners, Kani now faced a marketing onslaught from hip-hop entrepreneur Russell Simmons's Phat Farm and a number of mainstream clothiers, he had reason to worry that his involvement in Cross Colours might taint his operation in the minds of retailers. "I expected some resistance," Kani said.

"A major turning point for me was when retailers accepted us back into the market."Staying ahead of fashion counterfeiters who aped his signature and sold cheaper versions of his clothes, Kani began fastening a metal-and-leather plate to his product. After some resistance from the people who made the plates, Kani decided to go ahead with it and it turned out to be his best-selling jeans ever. A sister brand, Kani Ladies, was launched in 2001; the idea for the big & tall line came to Kani after numerous conversations with National Basketball Association stars, who complained that they could not fit into much of his merchandise. Big and tall people may be just as fashion-conscious as anyone else, so Kani launched his line in mid-1995 in big & tall stores around the country. Carl Williams, the son of a Costa Rican mother and Panamanian father, comes from a modest family from Brooklyn, New York; when he was young, he dreamed of combining his passion for fashion. During Williams's rough start in Los Angeles, the question that had obsessed him for years, "Can I do it?", remained unanswered.

He kept asking himself: "Can I do it? Can I build a fashion empire? Can I become the'Ralph Lauren of the streets'?" He didn't have the answer for these questions, but it did provide the basis for his new name, Kani, a variation on "Can I?". He began a trend of merging hip-hop with fashion, he spotted an area in the market, ignored and paved the way for other hip hop fashion brands. Black Enterprise magazine named Karl Kani Infinity Corporation the most successful Black owned firm worldwide in 1996. In 2002 Kani was honored with an Urban Fashion Pioneer Award for his lifetime achievements, at the Urban Fashion Awards. Karl Kani official website


HATS-36 b is a gas giant exoplanet that orbits a F-type star. Its mass is 3.216 Jupiters, it takes 4.2 days to complete one orbit of its star, is 0.05425 AU from it. It was discovered in June 12, 2017 and was announced in 2018, its discoverers were 23, namely Daniel Bayliss, Joel Hartman, George Zhou, Gaspar Á. Bakos, Andrew Vanderburg, J. Bento, L. Mancini, S. Ciceri, Rafael Brahm, Andres Jordán, N. Espinoza, M. Rabus, T. G. Tan, K. Penev, W. Bhatti, M. de Val-Borro, V. Suc, Z. Csubry, Th. Henning, P. Sarkis, J. Lázár, I. Papp, P. Sári; the exoplanet HATS-36 b which orbits the star HATS-36 is located about 3186.5 light-years away from Solar System. It is situated in the constellation of Sagittarius; the host star HATS-36 has apparent magnitude of 14.4, with absolute magnitude of 4.4. The surface temperature is 5970 K with its spectral types of G0V class. In this planetary system, the extra-solar planet orbits around the star HATS-36 every 4.17524 days with its orbital distance of 0.05 AU. After the discovery of the HATS-36 b, or its another alias name EPIC 215969174 b, it became one of the 25 HATSouth candidates on Campaign 7 of the K2 mission.

It detects that the exoplanet, a hot Jupiter-like planet with a mass of 2.790.40 MJ and a radius of 1.2630.045 RJ, transits a solar-type G0V star in a 4.17524 days period. The planetary system of HATS-36 is classified as an eclipsing binary system based on a combination of the HATSouth data, the K2 data, follow-up ground-based photometry and spectroscopy. HATS-36 b has a typical orbital period of 4.1752379 ± 0.0000021 days and has a density of 2.12 ± 0.20 g/cm3. Its star is active, which can be seen and manifested in both the variability in the LC and the high jitters in the radial velocity measurements. Due to its high mass compared with the known population of hot Jupiters, HATS-36 b lies in a sparsely populated region of the mass-density relationship for gas giant exoplanets. However, its bulk density fits well on the mass-density sequence of the related exoplanets. HATS-36 List of habitable exoplanets List of exoplanet firsts List of exoplanetary host stars List of exoplanets discovered using the Kepler spacecraft List of planets observed during Kepler's K2 mission List of nearest terrestrial exoplanet candidates