In architecture, an atrium is a large open air or skylight covered space surrounded by a building. Atria were a common feature in Ancient Roman dwellings, providing light and ventilation to the interior. Modern atria, as developed in the late 19th and 20th centuries, are several stories high and having a glazed roof or large windows, located beyond the main entrance doors. Atria are a popular design feature because they give their buildings a "feeling of space and light." The atrium has become a key feature of many buildings in recent years. Atria are popular with building designers and building developers. Users like atria because they create a dynamic and stimulating interior that provides shelter from the external environment while maintaining a visual link with that environment. Designers enjoy the opportunity to create new types of spaces in buildings, developers see atria as prestigious amenities that can increase commercial value and appeal. Fire control is an important aspect of contemporary atrium design due to criticism that poorly designed atria could allow fire to spread to a building's upper stories more quickly.
Another downside to incorporating an atrium is that it creates unused vertical space which could otherwise be occupied by additional floors. In a domus, a large house in Ancient Roman architecture, the atrium was the open central court with enclosed rooms on all sides. In the middle of the atrium was the impluvium, a shallow pool sunken into the floor to catch rainwater from the roof; some surviving examples are beautifully decorated. The opening in the ceiling above the pool called for some means of support for the roof, it is here where one differentiates between five different styles of atrium; as the centrepiece of the house, the atrium was the most lavishly-furnished room. It contained the little chapel to the ancestral spirits, the household safe and sometimes a bust of the master of the house; the term was used for a variety of spaces in public and religious buildings forms of arcaded courtyards, larger versions of the domestic spaces. Byzantine churches were entered through such a space.
The 19th century brought the industrial revolution with great advances in iron and glass manufacturing techniques. Courtyards could have horizontal glazing overhead, eliminating some of the weather elements from the space and giving birth to the modern atrium. One of the main public spaces at Federation Square, in Melbourne, Australia, is called The Atrium and is a street-like space, five stories high with glazed walls and roof; the structure and glazing pattern follow the system of fractals used to arrange the panels on the rest of the facades at Federation Square. In Nashville, Tennessee, U. S. the Opryland Hotel hosts 4 different large atria, spanning 9 acres of glass ceiling in total, in the hotel above the gardens of: Delta, Garden-Conservatories, Magnolia. As of 2016, the Burj Al Arab hotel in Dubai, has the world's tallest atrium at 180 metres; the Luxor Hotel, in Las Vegas, has the largest atrium in the world at 29 million cubic feet. Cavaedium Quadrangle Roth, Leland M.. Understanding Architecture: Its Elements History and Meaning.
Oxford, UK: Westview Press. P. 520. ISBN 0-06-430158-3
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor
Architectural conservation describes the process through which the material and design integrity of any built heritage are prolonged through planned interventions. The individual engaged in this pursuit is known as an architectural conservator-restorer. Decisions of when and how to engage in an intervention are critical to the ultimate conservation-restoration of cultural heritage; the decision is value based: a combination of artistic and informational values is considered. In some cases, a decision to not intervene may be the most appropriate choice; the Conservation Architect must consider factors that deal with issues of prolonging the life and preserving the integrity of architectural character, such as form and style, and/or its constituent materials, such as stone, glass and wood. In this sense, the term refers to the "professional use of a combination of science, art and technology as a preservation tool" and is allied with - and equated to - its parent fields, of historic environment conservation and art conservation.
In addition to the design and art/science definition described above, architectural conservation refers to issues of identification, policy and advocacy associated with the entirety of the cultural and built environment. This broader scope recognizes that society has mechanisms to identify and value historic cultural resources, create laws to protect these resources, develop policies and management plans for interpretation and education; this process operates as a specialized aspect of a society's planning system, its practitioners are termed built or historic environment conservation professionals. Architectural conservation is the process by which individuals or groups attempt to protect valued buildings from unwanted change; as a movement, architectural conservation in general, the preservation of ancient structures gained momentum during the 18th and 19th centuries. It was a response to Modernism and its corresponding architectural perspective, which eschewed sentimental attachment to old buildings and structures in favor of technological and architectural progress and change.
Prior to this time most of the ancient buildings that were still standing had only survived because they either had significant cultural or religious import, or they had yet to be discovered. The growth of the architectural conservation movement took place at a time of significant archaeological discovery and scientific advancement; those educated in the field began to see various examples of architecture as either being "correct" or "incorrect". Because of this, two schools of thought began to emerge within the field of building conservation. Preservation/Conservation were used interchangeably to refer to the architectural school of thought that either encouraged measures that would protect and maintain buildings in their current state, or would prevent further damage and deterioration to them; this school of thought saw the original design of old buildings as correct of themselves. Two of the main proponents of preservation and conservation in the 19th century were art critic John Ruskin and artist William Morris.
Restoration was the conservationist school of thought that believed historic buildings could be improved, sometimes completed, using current day materials and techniques. In this way it is similar to the Modernist architectural theory, except it does not advocate the destruction of ancient structures. One of the most ardent supporters of this school of thought in the 19th century was the French architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. Victorian restoration of medieval churches was widespread in England and elsewhere, with results that were deplored at the time by William Morris and are now regretted; the Department of the Interior of the United States defined the following treatment approaches to architectural conservation: Preservation, "places a high premium on the retention of all historic fabric through conservation and repair. It reflects a building's continuum over time, through successive occupancies, the respectful changes and alterations that are made." Rehabilitation "emphasizes the retention and repair of historic materials, but more latitude is provided for replacement because it is assumed the property is more deteriorated prior to work.
(Both Preservation and Rehabilitation standards focus attention on the preservation of those materials, finishes and spatial relationships that, give a property its historic character." See adaptive reuse. Restoration "focuses on the retention of materials from the most significant time in a property's history, while permitting the removal of materials from other periods." Reconstruction, "establishes limited opportunities to re-create a non-surviving site, building, structure, or object in all new materials."Other nations recognize some or all of these as potential treatments for historic structures. Canada recognizes preservation and restoration; the Burra Charter, for Australia, identifies preservation and reconstruction. The earliest building materials used by ancient peoples, such as wood and mud, were organic. Organic materials were used because they were renewable; the organic materials used were very susceptible to the two most significant impediments to preservation and conservation: the elements and life.
Over time inorganic materials like brick, metal and terra cotta began to be used by ancient people instead of organic ones, due to their durability. In fact, we know that these materials are durable because many ancient structures that are composed of them some built a
St. James United Church (Montreal)
Saint James United Church is a heritage church in downtown Montreal, Canada. It is a Protestant church affiliated with the United Church of Canada, it is located at 463 Saint Catherine Street West between Saint Alexandre and City Councillors Streets, in the borough of Ville-Marie. It was designated as a National Historic Site of Canada in 1996; the Gothic Revival church was designed by Montreal architect Alexander Francis Dunlop. It is noteworthy for its Casavant Frères organ; when it was built in June 1889, it was the largest Methodist church in Canada, with 2,000 seats. It now belongs to the United Church of Canada, into which the Canadian Methodists merged in 1925, its congregation founded the first YMCA in North America on November 25, 1851 and led an active campaign for women's suffrage early in the 20th century. A World War I memorial window by Charles William Kelsey depicting a trench scene at St. James United Church was dedicated to 32 members who were killed overseas and 267 others who served in the Great War.
The side lights represent the cardinal virtues, Prudence and Fortitude. In 1927, to cover upkeep costs, the church permitted a commercial building to be built in front of its Sainte Catherine Street façade; the building, adjoining the church's structure, concealed the church for over 78 years, the church itself being announced by a large neon sign. In 2005, as part of an $8-million restoration effort sponsored by the city of Montreal and the Quebec government, a portion of the commercial buildings were demolished, once again revealing the facade of the church as well as a new public square designed by Quebec architect Claude Cormier. Access has been restored to the rear lawn from Sainte Catherine Street. Christ Church Cathedral Saint James United Church official site Religious Heritage - The story of St. James United Saint James, la résurrection
The Maison Saint-Gabriel Museum is located in Montreal, Quebec and is dedicated to preserving the history and artifacts of the settlers of New France in the mid 17th century. The museum consists of a small farm, administered for more than 300 years by the Sisters of the Congregation of Notre Dame of Montreal, founded by Marguerite Bourgeoys in Montreal in 1658; the site was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 2007. On October 31, 1662, Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve conceded land in Pointe-Saint-Charles to Marguerite Bourgeoys; the purpose of this land was to establish a farm that would feed the Congregation of Notre Dame of Montreal and support its work. In order to plant crops corn and pumpkin, the land was cleared by engagés; these workers helped with the heavy work, helped protect the Congregation from any enemy attacks. In 1668, Marguerite Bourgeoys bought land adjacent to hers, on which stood a house and a barn, from Francois Le Ber and Jeanne Testard. Though it was never referred to as such at the time, this become the Maison Saint-Gabriel.
Sister Catherine Crolo was in charge of the farm and the house: she planned the labour, the planting, the harvest, as well as the transport of produce from the farm to the surrounding community. Sister Crolo was responsible for overseeing the other Sisters in the community. In its early years, in addition to providing subsistence for the Congregation, the farm served as a preparatory school, it housed young women destined for or residing in Montreal, as well as some Filles du Roi, who were recruited in France. These girls were brought to New France in order to provide wives for the numerous single men of the colony, by so doing, to boost the settler population. In 1693, the old farmhouse burned down. However, the foundation and the creamery survived the fire, were incorporated into the reconstruction of the house, completed in 1698; this project was spearheaded by tradesmen masons and woodworkers. The architecture of the rebuilt house the two-storey body, the oak frame and ash beams, the lean-tos, contributed to the heritage value of the house because it captured the essence of 17th century structural design.
In the early to mid 18th century, in order to maintain the agricultural roots of the house and to expand the farm, the Congregation bought many pieces of surrounding land. Throughout the 18th century, the Sisters cultivated wheat and oats and built a chicken coop, a barn, stables. In the 19th century, the animals raised on the farm were used to produce butter, wool and leather; the house was modified over the years. As the city of Montreal expanded and industrialized and as immigration increased, some of the farmland of the Congregation of Notre Dame of Montreal was sold to allow for the construction of new housing; the construction of the railroad and the opening of the Lachine Canal brought rapid growth and urbanization to Pointe-Saint-Charles, from the 1850s onward and the city of Montreal dismantled the domain. In the early 1960s, after celebrating the 300th anniversary of Marguerite Bourgeoys' ownership of land in Pointe-Saint-Charles, interest in turning the original house into a museum increased.
However, in order to do so, another establishment needed to be constructed to house the sisters who would oversee the museum project. Therefore, the construction of the Jeanne-LeBer house began in 1963, was completed in 1964; the Maison Saint-Gabriel, the original farm house purchased by Bourgeoys in 1668, was classified as a historic monument by the Ministère de la Culture, des Communications et de la Condition féminine in October 1965. Work began to restore the house that same year, under the supervision of architect Victor Depocas; the objective of the restoration was to conserve the walls and re-create within them the living conditions of the sisters who resided in the house in the 17th century. Thus, the kitchen, the common room, the basement, the chapel, the dormitory, the King's daughters' room, the attic were refurbished and outfitted with artifacts that created an image and feeling reminiscent of the original house. During the summer, costumed interpreters and artisans host live demonstrations showcasing 17th century craftmaking.
In addition, the house and barn are surrounded by gardens. The Glade and the Poetry Path hosts indigenous shrubs; the Farmhouse Gardens re-create a 17th-century vegetable garden. The Sharecroppers' garden honours the women of the Congregation of Notre Dame; these gardens add an horticultural element to the museum. The Maison Saint-Gabriel museum hosts over 15,000 artifacts; the 17th-century house and the 18th-century barn hold a collection that helps re-create rural living in New France, using objects dating from the 17th century onwards. There are many original objects, while others are reproductions based on drawings conserved from the 17th century; the collection includes domestic objects, religious clothing and accessories, furniture from homes and churches, materials of correspondence and decorative art, textile, construction and trade tools. On November 1, 2010, the Jeanne-Leber house was incorporated into the Maison Saint-Gabriel Museum as the Catherine-Crolo pavilion; this building houses the gift shop, which has a tea room overlooking a terrace and which promotes local artisans.
It contains a reception area and a room for cultural activities. The cost of the project was absorbed in part of Quebec; the ministries support this project as a way of educating visitors by preserving the heritage of Marg
Notre-Dame Basilica (Montreal)
Notre-Dame Basilica is a basilica in the historic district of Old Montreal, in Montreal, Canada. The church is located at the corner of Saint Sulpice Street, it faces the Place d'Armes square. Built in the Gothic Revival style, the church is decorated; the vaults are coloured deep blue and decorated with golden stars, the rest of the sanctuary is decorated in blues, reds, purples and gold. It is filled with hundreds of several religious statues. Unusual for a church, the stained glass windows along the walls of the sanctuary do not depict biblical scenes, but rather scenes from the religious history of Montreal, it has a Casavant Frères pipe organ, dated 1891, which comprises four keyboards, 92 stops using electropneumatic action and an adjustable combination system, 7000 individual pipes and a pedal board. In 1657, the Roman Catholic Sulpician syndicate arrived in Ville-Marie, now known as Montreal, they ruled until 1840. The parish they founded was dedicated to the Holy Name of Mary, the parish church of Notre-Dame was built on the site in 1672.
François Baillairgé, an architect, designed the interior decoration and choir 1785-95. The church served as the first cathedral of the Diocese of Montreal from 1821 to 1822. By 1824 the congregation had outgrown the church, James O'Donnell, an Irish-American Anglican from New York City, was commissioned to design the new building. O'Donnell was a proponent of the Gothic Revival architectural movement, designed the church as such, he is the only person buried in the church's crypt. O'Donnell converted to Roman Catholicism on his deathbed due to the realization that he might not be allowed to be buried in his church; the main construction work took place between 1824 and 1829. The cornerstone was laid at Place d'Armes on September 1, 1824; the sanctuary was finished in 1830, the first tower in 1841, the second in 1843. On its completion, the church was the largest in North America, it remained the largest in North America for over fifty years. A new pipe organ was built in 1858 by Samuel Russell Warren.
The interior took much longer, Victor Bourgeau, who worked on Montreal's Mary, Queen of the World Cathedral, worked on it from 1872 to 1879. Stonemason John Redpath was a major participant in the construction of the Basilica; because of the splendour and grand scale of the church, a more intimate chapel, Chapelle du Sacré-Cœur, was built behind it, along with some offices and a sacristy. It was completed in 1888. In 1886 Casavant Frères began building a new 32-foot pipe organ at the church, completing it in 1891, it was notably the first organ with adjustable-combination pedals to be operated by electricity. Arson destroyed the Sacré-Cœur Chapel on December 8, 1978, it was rebuilt with the first two levels being reproduced from old drawings and photographs, with modern vaulting and reredos and an immense bronze altarpiece by Quebec sculptor Charles Daudelin. Notre-Dame Church was raised to the status of basilica by Pope John Paul II during a visit to the city on April 21, 1982; the Notre-Dame Roman Catholic Church was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1989.
On May 31, 2000, the provincial state funeral for former Montreal Canadiens superstar Maurice "Rocket" Richard was held in front of thousands, both inside and outside the Basilica. On October 3, 2000, Justin Trudeau gave his eulogy just steps from the High Altar during the state funeral of Pierre Trudeau, his father and Canada's 15th prime minister, it was the setting of Celine Dion's December 17, 1994, wedding to René Angélil and hosted the memorial service for Angelil on January 22, 2016. The basilica offers musical programming of organ performances, it is a tradition among many Montrealers to attend the annual performance of Handel's Messiah every December at Christmas. The basilica now charges. "Aura" a sound and light show created by Moment Factory and unveiling the richness of Notre-Dame Basilica’s heritage is offered in the evenings, Tuesday through Saturday at 6pm and 8pm and Sundays at 7pm and 9pm. Tickets are $24.50 for adults, $22.20 for seniors, $18.75 for students and $14.80 for children and young adults.
The approximate duration of the show is 45 minutes divided into two parts: a thematic route followed by a multimedia experience. The closest Metro station is Place-d'Armes, on the Orange Line. Jean Girard Guillaume Mechtler Jean-Chrysostome Brauneis II Leonard Eglauch Jean-Baptiste Labelle Alcibiade Béique Joseph-Daniel Dussault August Liessens Benoît Poirier Pierre Grandmaison Adam Charles Gustave Desmazures List of basilicas in Canada Montreal's other basilicas: Mary, Queen of the World Cathedral Saint Joseph's Oratory Saint Patrick's Basilica Rémillard, François. Old Montreal - A Walking Tour, Ministère des Affaires culturelles du Québec. Livesey, Herbert Bailey. Frommer's 2004 Montreal & Quebec City, Frommer's, 104. ISBN 0-7645-4124-2. "The Old Seminary and Notre-Dame Basilica". Old Montreal Web site. Retrieved 2008-03-21. Basilique Notre-Dame de Montréal Visite Interactive de la Basilique
The Biosphere is a museum dedicated to the environment. It is located at Parc Jean-Drapeau, on Saint Helen's Island in the former pavilion of the United States for the 1967 World Fair, Expo 67 in Montreal, Canada; the museum's geodesic dome was designed by Buckminster Fuller. The architect of this geodesic dome was Buckminster Fuller; the building formed an enclosed structure of steel and acrylic cells, 76 metres in diameter and 62 metres high. It is a Class 1, 32-frequency, double-layer dome, in which the inner and outer layers are connected by a latticework of struts. A complex system of shades was used to control its internal temperature; the sun-shading system was an attempt by the architect to reflect the same biological processes that the human body relies on to maintain its internal temperature. Fuller's original idea for the geodesic dome was to incorporate "pores" into the enclosed system, further likening it to the sensitivity of human skin, but the shading system failed to work properly and was disabled.
Architects from Golden Metak Productions designed the interior exhibition space. Visitors had access to four themed platforms divided into seven levels; the building included a 37-metre-long escalator, the longest built at the time. The Minirail monorail ran through the pavilion. In the afternoon of 20 May 1976, during structural renovations, a fire burned away the building's transparent acrylic bubble, but the hard steel truss structure remained; the site remained closed until 1990. In August 1990, Environment Canada purchased the site for $17.5 million to turn it into an interactive museum showcasing and exploring the water ecosystems of the Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence River regions. The museum was inaugurated in 1995 as a water museum, is a set of enclosed buildings designed by Éric Gauthier, inside the original steel skeleton; the Biosphère changed its name in 2007 to become an environment museum. It offers interactive activities and presents exhibitions about the major environmental issues related to water, climate change, air and sustainable development.
The structure was used prominently in the original Battlestar Galactica television series episode "Greetings from Earth". Scenes for Robert Altman's post-apocalyptic ice age film Quintet were shot on site as well; the Biosphere appears in the 2003 animated Jacob Two-Two TV episode "Jacob Two-Two and the Notorious Knit Knapper", in which it is used as the headquarters for a group of seniors who plan on knitting a giant tea cosy to cover Montreal. Voice of Fire Biosphere Thin-shell structure List of thin shell structures Biosphère museum website