Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine, located in the north-central part of the country on the Dnieper. The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974. Kiev is an important industrial, scientific and cultural center of Eastern Europe, it is home to many high-tech industries, higher education institutions, world-famous historical landmarks. The city has an extensive infrastructure and developed system of public transport, including the Kiev Metro; the city's name is said to derive from the name of one of its four legendary founders. During its history, one of the oldest cities in Eastern Europe, passed through several stages of great prominence and relative obscurity; the city existed as a commercial centre as early as the 5th century. A Slavic settlement on the great trade route between Scandinavia and Constantinople, Kiev was a tributary of the Khazars, until its capture by the Varangians in the mid-9th century. Under Varangian rule, the city became a capital of the first East Slavic state.
Destroyed during the Mongol invasions in 1240, the city lost most of its influence for the centuries to come. It was a provincial capital of marginal importance in the outskirts of the territories controlled by its powerful neighbours; the city prospered again during the Russian Empire's Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century. In 1917, after the Ukrainian National Republic declared independence from the Russian Empire, Kiev became its capital. From 1921 onwards Kiev was a city of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, proclaimed by the Red Army, from 1934, Kiev was its capital. During World War II, the city again suffered significant damage, but recovered in the post-war years, remaining the third largest city of the Soviet Union. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and Ukrainian independence in 1991, Kiev remained the capital of Ukraine and experienced a steady migration influx of ethnic Ukrainians from other regions of the country. During the country's transformation to a market economy and electoral democracy, Kiev has continued to be Ukraine's largest and richest city.
Kiev's armament-dependent industrial output fell after the Soviet collapse, adversely affecting science and technology. But new sectors of the economy such as services and finance facilitated Kiev's growth in salaries and investment, as well as providing continuous funding for the development of housing and urban infrastructure. Kiev emerged as the most pro-Western region of Ukraine where parties advocating tighter integration with the European Union dominate during elections. Kiev is the traditional and most used English name for the city; the Ukrainian government however uses Kyiv as the mandatory romanization where legislative and official acts are translated into English. As a prominent city with a long history, its English name was subject to gradual evolution; the early English spelling was derived from Old East Slavic form Kyjevŭ. The name is associated with that of the legendary eponymous founder of the city. Early English sources use various names, including Kiou, Kiew, Kiovia. On one of the oldest English maps of the region, Moscoviae et Tartariae published by Ortelius the name of the city is spelled Kiou.
On the 1650 map by Guillaume de Beauplan, the name of the city is Kiiow, the region was named Kÿowia. In the book Travels, by Joseph Marshall, the city is referred to as Kiovia; the form Kiev is based on Russian orthography and pronunciation, during a time when Kiev was in the Russian Empire. In English, Kiev was used in print as early as in 1804 in the John Cary's "New map of Europe, from the latest authorities" in "Cary's new universal atlas" published in London; the English travelogue titled New Russia: Journey from Riga to the Crimea by way of Kiev, by Mary Holderness was published in 1823. By 1883, the Oxford English Dictionary included Kiev in a quotation. Kyiv is the romanized version of the name of the city used in modern Ukrainian. Following independence in 1991, the Ukrainian government introduced the national rules for transliteration of geographic names from Ukrainian into English. According to the rules, the Ukrainian Київ transliterates into Kyiv; this has established the use of the spelling Kyiv in all official documents issued by the governmental authorities since October 1995.
The spelling is used by the United Nations, European Union, all English-speaking foreign diplomatic missions, several international organizations, Encarta encyclopedia, by some media in Ukraine. In October 2006, the United States Board on Geographic Names unanimously voted to change its standard transliteration to Kyiv, effective for the entire U. S. government, although'Kiev' remains the BGN conventional name for this city. The alternate romanizations Kyyiv and Kyjiv are in use in English-language atlases. Many major English-language news sources like the BBC, The New York Times continue to prefer Kiev, but others have adopted Kyiv in their style guides, including The Economist and The Guardian. Kiev, one of the oldest cities of Eastern Europe, played a pivotal role in the development of the medieval East Slavic civilization as well as in the modern Ukrainian nation. Scholars debate as to period of the foundation of the city: some date the founding to the late 9th century, other historians
Aichi Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūbu region. The region of Aichi is known as the Tōkai region; the capital is Nagoya. It is the focus of the Chūkyō metropolitan area; the region was divided into the two provinces of Owari and Mikawa. After the Meiji Restoration and Mikawa were united into a single entity. In 1871, after the abolition of the han system, with the exception of the Chita Peninsula, was established as Nagoya Prefecture, while Mikawa combined with the Chita Peninsula and formed Nukata Prefecture. Nagoya Prefecture was renamed to Aichi Prefecture in April 1872, was united with Nukata Prefecture on November 27 of the same year; the government of Aichi Prefecture is located in the Aichi Prefectural Government Office in Nagoya, the old capital of Owari. The Aichi Prefectural Police and its predecessor organisations have been responsible for law enforcement in the prefecture since 1871; the Expo 2005 World Exposition was held in Nagakute. In the third volume of the Man'yōshū there is a poem by Takechi Kurohito that reads: "The cry of the crane, calling to Sakurada.
Ayuchi is the original form of the name Aichi, the Fujimae tidal flat is all that remains of the earlier Ayuchi-gata. It is now a protected area. For a time, an Aichi Station existed on the Kansai Line between Nagoya and Hatta stations, but its role was overtaken by Sasashima-Live Station on the Aonami Line and Komeno Station on the Kintetsu Nagoya Line. Located near the center of the Japanese main island of Honshu, Aichi Prefecture faces the Ise and Mikawa Bays to the south and borders Shizuoka Prefecture to the east, Nagano Prefecture to the northeast, Gifu Prefecture to the north, Mie Prefecture to the west, it measures 106 km east to west and 94 km south to north and forms a major portion of the Nōbi Plain. With an area of 5,153.81 km2 it accounts for 1.36% of the total surface area of Japan. The highest spot is Chausuyama at 1,415 m above sea level; the western part of the prefecture is dominated by Nagoya, Japan's third largest city, its suburbs, while the eastern part is less densely populated but still contains several major industrial centers.
Due to its robust economy, for the period from October 2005 to October 2006, Aichi was the fastest growing prefecture in terms of population, beating Tokyo, at 7.4 per cent. As of April 1, 2012, 17% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks, namely the Aichi Kōgen, Hida-Kisogawa, Mikawa Wan, Tenryū-Okumikawa Quasi-National Parks along with seven Prefectural Natural Parks. Thirty-eight cities are located in Aichi Prefecture; these are the towns and villages in each district: Companies headquartered in Aichi include the following. Companies such as Fuji Heavy Industries, Mitsubishi Motors, Sony, Suzuki and Volkswagen Group operate plants or branch offices in Aichi; as of 2001, Aichi Prefecture's population was 49.97 % female. 139,540 residents are of foreign nationality. JR Central Tokaido Shinkansen ■Tokaido Line ■Chūō Main Line ■Kansai Line ■Taketoyo Line ■Iida Line Meitetsu NH Nagoya Line IY Inuyama Line KM Komaki Line TA Centrair Line TA Tokoname Line ST Seto Line TK Toyokawa Line GN Gamagori Line TT Toyota Line KC Chita Line MU MY Mikawa Line TB Bisai Line CH Chikko Line TB Tsushima Line Kintetsu E Nagoya Line Aonami Line Nagoya Municipal Subway Higashiyama Line Meijo Line Tsurumai Line Sakura-dori Line Meiko Line Kamiiida Line Toyohashi Railroad Aichi Loop Line Nagoya Guideway Bus Linimo Toyohashi Railroad Expressways and toll roads National highways Chubu Centrair International Airport Nagoya Airfield Nagoya Port – International Container hub and ferry route to Sendai and Tomakomai, Hokkaido Mikawa Port – automobile and car parts export and part of inport base Kinuura Port – Handa and Hekinan National universities Aichi University of Education Graduate University for Advanced Studies - Okazaki Campus Nagoya Institute of Technology Nagoya University Toyohashi University of Technology Public universities Aichi Prefectural University Aichi Prefectural University of the Arts Nagoya City University Private universities The sports teams listed below are based in Aichi.
Central LeagueChunichi Dragons J. LeagueNagoya Grampus JFLFC Maruyasu OkazakiTokai Regional LeagueFC Kariya L. LeagueNGU Loveledge Nagoya B. LeagueSAN-EN NeoPhoenix（Toyohashi and Hamamatsu） SeaHorses Mikawa（Kariya） Nagoya Diamond Dolphins（Nagoya） Toyotsu Fighting Eagles Nagoya（Nagoya） Aisin AW Areions Anjo（Anjō） V. LeagueToyoda Gosei Trefuerza JTEKT Stings（Kariya） Denso Airybees Toyota Auto Body Queenseis Top LeagueToyota Verblitz Toyota Industries Shuttles（Kariya） F. LeagueNagoya Oceans（Nagoya） X-LeagueNagoya Cyclones（Nagoya） Kirix Toyota Bull Fighters Aichi Golden Wings AFLNagoya Redbacks Australian Football Club（Nagoya） Notable sites in Aichi include the Meiji Mura open-air architectural museum in Inuyama, which preserves historic buildings from Japan's Meiji and Taishō periods, including the reconstructed lobby of Frank Lloyd Wright's old Imperial Hotel. Other popular sites in Aichi include the tour of the Toyota car factory in the city by the same name, the monkey park in Inuyama, the castles in Nagoya, Okazaki and Inuyama.
Aichi Prefecture has many wonderful beaches. For example, Hi
Joensuu is a city and municipality in North Karelia. It was founded in 1848; the population of Joensuu is 76,543, the economic region of Joensuu has a population of 115,000. As is typical of cities in Eastern Finland, Joensuu is monolingually Finnish. Joensuu is a lively student city with a subsidiary of the University of Eastern Finland, which has over 15,000 enrolled students, a further 4,000 students at the Karelia University of Applied Sciences; the largest employers are the municipal City of Joensuu, North Karelian Hospital District Federation of Municipalities and Punamusta. The European Forest Institute, the University and many other institutes and export enterprises such as Abloy and John Deere give Joensuu an international flavour; the city of Joensuu, founded by the Czar Nicholas I of Russia in 1848, is the regional centre and the capital of North Karelia. During the 19th century Joensuu was a city of commerce; when in 1860 the city received dispensation rights to initiate commerce, former restrictions against industry were removed and the local sawmills began to prosper and expand.
Water traffic was improved by the building and opening of the Saimaa Canal in 1856. A lively commerce between the regions of North Karelia, St. Petersburg and Central Europe was enabled. At the end of the 19th century Joensuu was one of the largest harbour cities in Finland. Throughout the centuries Karelian traders have plied the Pielisjoki River; the river has always been the lively heart of the city. Canals – completed by 1870 – increased the river traffic. Thousands of steamboats and logging boats sailed along the river during the golden age of river traffic; the Pielisjoki River has been an important log raft route, providing wood for the sawmills and for the entire lumber industry. During the last few decades, the modest agrarian town has developed into a vital centre of the province. Success in regional annexations, the establishment of the province of Karelia and investments in education have been the most decisive actions in this development; the municipality of Pielisensuu was consolidated with Joensuu in 1954.
At the beginning of 2005, the municipalities of Kiihtelysvaara and Tuupovaara were consolidated with Joensuu. At the beginning of 2009 the municipalities of Eno and Pyhäselkä were consolidated with Joensuu. After the most recent consolidations, there are 73,000 inhabitants in the Joensuu municipal area; the University of Joensuu has, in twenty-five years, expanded to eight faculties. The university is one of the mainstays for the vitality of the city and so for all North Karelia. Diversified international cooperation in science and commerce benefits the whole region; the proximity of the eastern border has been an important factor in the history of the city. The Republic of Karelia is once again a significant area for cooperation with nearby regions in Russia. Export companies in Joensuu continue the pre-revolutionary traditions in foreign trade. Joensuu offers varied cultural activities. A series of events – Ilosaarirock festival, Joensuu Music Winter, Festival of Visual Culture Viscult, Gospel festivals – and the unspoilt environment increase the attractiveness of the city.
Joensuu is sometimes referred to as the Forest Capital of Europe because the European Forest Institute is based there. Other forestry research and educational facilities are based in Joensuu. Joensuu is a city of students; the University of Eastern Finland has one of its three main campuses in Joensuu and the University of Applied Sciences Karelia has two Joensuu campuses. Nearest airport with regular air service: Joensuu Airport, Liperi, 11 km Nearest inland port: Joensuu Districts: 26 Distances from Joensuu to other major cities in Finland: Joensuu has a railway station and a bus station, which offers intercity connections to Helsinki and local connections to several other places. Numbered bus service is available to all parts of Joensuu. Note, that if you want to catch a bus, you have to wave at the driver - the bus does not stop automatically. Joensuu has an airport, with flights to Helsinki. Joensuu is located along the Blue Highway, an international tourist route from Mo i Rana, Norway to Pudozh, Russia via Sweden.
The city is known for its basketball club Kataja, which plays in the Finnish first-tier league Korisliiga. Other championship level clubs of Joensuu include Josba, Mutalan Riento, the world leading orienteering club Kalevan Rasti and Joensuun Prihat; the ice hockey team Jokipojat plays in the Finnish second-tier league Mestis, their home arena is the Mehtimäki Ice Hall. The local football club Jippo plays in the Finnish second Division. Finnish baseball enjoys popularity as well and the local team, Joensuun Maila, plays in the top division Superpesis. Joensuu has produced many world class athletes, including Jukka Keskisalo, the European champion in 2006 at 3000m St. and Aki Parviainen, the world champion of Javelin throw in 1999. Joensuu is home to biathlete Kaisa Mäkäräinen, who won the overall World Cup title in the 2010–11 Biathlon World Cup season. 1983 WRC champion Hannu Mikkola and 2013 GRC champion and current World RX driver Toomas Heikkinen are from Joensuu. Joensuu has a subarctic continental climate as a result of its high latitude and inland position that causes cold nights in colder seasons and winter compared to other Nordic locations at a similar latitude.
Joensuu can be prone to strong heat during heat waves, with an all-time record of 37.2 °C on July 29, 2010, being the Finnish nationwide heat
Finland the Republic of Finland, is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, Russia to the east. Finland is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia; the capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Tampere and Turku. Finland's population is 5.52 million, the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union; the sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended 9000 BCE.
The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers; the first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture; the Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland and Karelia – as reflected in contemporary jewellery. From the late 13th century, Finland became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.
In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Kuusamo and some islands, but retaining their independence. Finland established an official policy of neutrality; the Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but in material, such as ships and machinery; this forced Finland to industrialise. It developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index, second in the Global Gender Gap Report, it ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.
The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two have the inscription finlonti; the third was found in Gotland. It dates back to the 13th century; the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, mentioned at first known time AD 98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word * gʰm-on "man" has been suggested; the word referred only to the province of Finland Proper, to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa or suoniemi, but these are now considered outdated; some have suggested common etymology with saame and Häme, but that theory is uncertain
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Olomouc is a city in Moravia, in the east of the Czech Republic. Located on the Morava River, the city is the ecclesiastical metropolis and was a historical capital city of Moravia, before having been sacked by the Swedish army during the Thirty Years' War. Today, it is the administrative centre of the Olomouc Region and the sixth largest city in the Czech Republic; the city has about 100,000 residents, its larger urban zone has a population of about 480,000 people. Olomouc is said to occupy the site of a Roman fort founded in the imperial period, the original name of which, would be changed to the present form. Although this account is not documented except as oral history, archaeological excavations close to the city have revealed the remains of a Roman military camp dating from the time of the Marcomannic Wars of the late 2nd century. During the 6th century, Slavs migrated into the area; as early as the 7th century, a centre of political power developed in the present-day quarter of Povel.
Around 810 the local Slavonic ruler was defeated by troops of Great Moravian rulers and the settlement in Olomouc-Povel was destroyed. A new centre, where the Great Moravian governor resided, developed at the gord at Předhradí, a quarter of the inner city; this settlement survived the defeat of the Great Moravia and became the capital of the province of Moravia. The bishopric of Olomouc was founded in 1063, it was re-founded because there are some unclear references to bishops of Moravia in the 10th century—if they were not only missionary bishops, but representatives of some remains of regular church organization it is likely that these bishops had seat right here. Centuries in 1777, it was raised to the rank of an archbishopric; the bishopric was moved from the church of St. Peter to the church of Saint Wenceslas in 1141 under bishop Jindřich Zdík; the bishop's palace was built in the Romanesque architectural style. The bishopric acquired large tracts of land in northern Moravia, was one of the richest in the area.
Olomouc became one of the most important settlements in Moravia and a seat of the Přemyslid government and one of the appanage princes. In 1306 King Wenceslas III stopped here on his way to Poland, he was going to fight Władysław I the Elbow-high to claim his rights to the Polish crown and was assassinated. With his death, the whole Přemyslid dynasty died out; the city was founded in the mid-13th century and became one of the most important trade and power centres in the region. In the Middle Ages, it was the biggest town in Moravia and competed with Brno for the position of capital. Olomouc lost after the Swedes took the city and held it for eight years. In 1235, the Mongols launched an invasion of Europe. After the Battle of Legnica in Poland, the Mongols carried their raids into Moravia, but were defensively defeated at the fortified town of Olomouc; the Mongols subsequently defeated Hungary. In 1454 the city expelled its Jewish population as part of a wave of anti-Semitism seen in Spain and Portugal.
The second half of the 15th century is considered the start of Olomouc's golden age. It hosted several royal meetings, Matthias Corvinus was elected here as King of Bohemia by the estates in 1469. In 1479 two kings of Bohemia concluded an agreement for splitting the country. Participating in the Protestant Reformation, Moravia became Protestant. During the Thirty Years' War, in 1640 Olomouc was occupied by the Swedes for eight years, they left the city in ruins, it became second to Brno. In 1740 the town was captured and held by the Prussians. Olomouc was fortified by Maria Theresa during the wars with Frederick the Great, who besieged the city unsuccessfully for seven weeks in 1758. In 1848 Olomouc was the scene of the emperor Ferdinand's abdication. Two years Austrian and German statesmen held a conference here called the Punctation of Olmütz. At the conference, they agreed to restore the German Confederation and Prussia accepted leadership by the Austrians. In 1746 the first learned society in the lands under control of the Austrian Habsburgs, the Societas eruditorum incognitorum in terris Austriacis, was founded in Olomouc to spread Enlightenment ideas.
Its monthly Monatliche Auszüge was the first scientific journal published in the Habsburg empire. Because of its ecclesiastical links to Austria, Salzburg in particular, the city was influenced by German culture since the Middle Ages. Demographics before censuses can only be interpreted from other documents; the town's ecclesiastical constitution, the meetings of the Diet and the locally printed hymnal, were recorded in the Czech language in the mid-16th and 17th centuries. The first treatise on music in Czech was published in Olomouc in the mid-16th century; the political and social changes that followed the Thirty Years' War increased the influence of courtly Habsburg and Austrian/German language culture. The "Germanification" of the town resulted from the cosmopolitan nature of the city. Despite these influences, the Czech language dominated in ecclesiastical publications throughout the 17th and 18th centuries; when the Austrian-born composer and musician Philip J. Rittler accepted
Miskolc (Hungarian pronunciation: is a city in northeastern Hungary, known for its heavy industry. With a population of 161,265 Miskolc is the fourth largest city in Hungary, it is the county capital of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén and the regional centre of Northern Hungary. The name derives from Slavic form of Michael. Miškovec → Miskolc with the same development as Lipovec → Lipólc, Lipóc; the name is associated with the Miskolc clan named after the vice versa. Earliest mentions are que nunc vocatur Miscoucy, de Myschouch, Ponyt de genere Myscouch, in Miscovcy; the city lies at the meeting point of different geographical regions – east from the Bükk mountains, in the valley of the river Sajó and the streams Hejő and Szinva. According to the 2001 Census the city has a total area of 236.68 km2. The ground level slopes gradually; the lowest areas are the banks of the river Sajó, with an altitude of 110–120 m. The area is made up of sedimentary rocks. Between the Avas hill and Diósgyőr lies the hilly area of the Lower Bükk consisting of sandstone, clay, layers of coal, from the tertiary period, volcanic rocks from the Miocene.
The Central Bükk, a sloping mountainous area with an altitude between 400 and 600 m, is situated between Diósgyőr and Lillafüred. The surface was formed by karstic erosions; the highest area, the 600 -- 900 m high Higher Bükk bore. This consists of sea sediments from the Paleozoic and Mesozoic, volcanic rocks like diabase and porphyry. Several caves can be found in the area; the city is known for lowest measured temperature in Hungary with −35 °C. Summers are sometimes warm and humid in Miskolc. Daytime temperatures of 20–30 °C or higher are commonplace. Snow and ice are dominant during the winter season. Miskolc receives about 120 centimetres of snowfall annually. Days below freezing and nights below −20 °C both occur in the winter; the area has been inhabited since ancient times – archaeological findings date back to the Paleolithic, proving human presence for over 70,000 years. Its first known dwellers were one of the Celt tribes; the area has been occupied by Hungarians since the "Conquest" in the late 9th century.
It was first mentioned by this name around 1210 AD. The Miskóc clan lost their power when King Charles I centralized his power by curbing the power of the oligarchs. Miskolc was elevated to the rank of oppidum in 1365 by King Louis I, he had the castle of the nearby town Diósgyőr transformed into a Gothic fortress. The city developed in a dynamic way, but during the Ottoman occupation of most of Hungary the development of Miskolc was brought to a standstill; the Turks burnt Miskolc in 1544 and the city had to pay heavy taxes until 1687. It was ruled by Ottomans after Battle of Mezőkeresztes in 1596 as part of Eyalet of Egir until 1687, it was during these years. By the end of the 17th century the population of the city was as large as that of Kassa, 13 guilds had been founded. During the war of independence against Habsburg rule in the early 18th century, Prince Francis II Rákóczi, the leader of the Hungarians put his headquarters in Miskolc; the imperial forces sacked and burnt the city in 1707.
Four years half of the population fell victim of a cholera epidemic. Miskolc recovered and another age of prosperity began again. In 1724, Miskolc was chosen to be the city. Many other significant buildings were built in the 18th and 19th centuries, including the city hall, schools such as Lévay József Református Gimnázium és Diákotthon, the synagogue, the theatre; the theatre is regarded as the first stone-built theatre of Hungary, although the first one was built in Kolozsvár. According to the first nationally held census the city had a population of 14,719, 2,414 houses; these years brought prosperity, but the cholera epidemic of 1873 and the flood of 1878 took many lives. Several buildings were destroyed by the flood, but bigger and grander buildings were built in their places. World War I did not affect the city directly, but many people died, either from warfare or from the cholera epidemic, it was occupied by Czechoslovak troops between 1919 after the First World War. After the Treaty of Trianon, Hungary lost Kassa and Miskolc became the sole regional center of northern Hungary.
This was one of the reasons for the enormous growth of the city during the 1940s. Early in World War II Hungary became an ally of Nazi Germany. Unhappy with the Hungarian government, the Germans troops occupied Hungary on March 19, 1944 and put the anti-semitic Arrow Cross Party in charge of the government. Jews in Miskolc and elsewhere were ordered to wear yellow stars on their clothing. Under the supervision of Nazi SS-Obersturmbannführer Adolf Eichmann, "deportations" from Miskolc began on June 11 or 12th, 1944. Over 14,000 Jewish adults and children were sent by cattle car to Auschwitz, where most were gassed on arrival. After the war