DC Comics, Inc. is an American comic book publisher. It is the publishing unit of DC Entertainment, a subsidiary of Warner Bros. since 1967. DC Comics is one of the largest and oldest American comic book companies, produces material featuring numerous culturally iconic heroic characters including: Superman, Wonder Woman, The Flash, Green Lantern,Aquaman,Martian Manhunter, Green Arrow, Hawkman and Supergirl. Most of their material takes place in the fictional DC Universe, which features teams such as the Justice League, the Justice Society of America, the Suicide Squad, the Teen Titans, well-known villains such as The Joker, Lex Luthor, Darkseid, Brainiac, Black Adam, Ra's al Ghul and Deathstroke; the company has published non-DC Universe-related material, including Watchmen, V for Vendetta, many titles under their alternative imprint Vertigo. The initials "DC" came from the company's popular series Detective Comics, which featured Batman's debut and subsequently became part of the company's name.
In Manhattan at 432 Fourth Avenue, the DC Comics offices have been located at 480 and 575 Lexington Avenue. DC had its headquarters at 1700 Broadway, Midtown Manhattan, New York City, but it was announced in October 2013 that DC Entertainment would relocate its headquarters from New York to Burbank, California in April 2015. Random House distributes DC Comics' books to the bookstore market, while Diamond Comic Distributors supplies the comics shop specialty market. DC Comics and its longtime major competitor Marvel Comics together shared 70% of the American comic book market in 2017. Entrepreneur Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson founded National Allied Publications in autumn 1934; the company debuted with the tabloid-sized New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine #1 with a cover date of February 1935. The company's second title, New Comics #1, appeared in a size close to what would become comic books' standard during the period fans and historians call the Golden Age of Comic Books, with larger dimensions than today's.
That title evolved into Adventure Comics, which continued through issue #503 in 1983, becoming one of the longest-running comic-book series. In 2009 DC revived Adventure Comics with its original numbering. In 1935, Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, the future creators of Superman, created Doctor Occult, the earliest DC Comics character to still be in the DC Universe. Wheeler-Nicholson's third and final title, Detective Comics, advertised with a cover illustration dated December 1936 premiered three months late with a March 1937 cover date; the themed anthology series would become a sensation with the introduction of Batman in issue #27. By however, Wheeler-Nicholson had gone. In 1937, in debt to printing-plant owner and magazine distributor Harry Donenfeld—who published pulp magazines and operated as a principal in the magazine distributorship Independent News—Wheeler-Nicholson had to take Donenfeld on as a partner in order to publish Detective Comics #1. Detective Comics, Inc. was formed, with Wheeler-Nicholson and Jack S. Liebowitz, Donenfeld's accountant, listed as owners.
Major Wheeler-Nicholson remained for a year, but cash-flow problems continued, he was forced out. Shortly afterwards, Detective Comics, Inc. purchased the remains of National Allied known as Nicholson Publishing, at a bankruptcy auction. Detective Comics, Inc. soon launched a fourth title, Action Comics, the premiere of which introduced Superman. Action Comics #1, the first comic book to feature the new character archetype—soon known as "superheroes"—proved a sales hit; the company introduced such other popular characters as the Sandman and Batman. On February 22, 2010, a copy of Action Comics #1 sold at an auction from an anonymous seller to an anonymous buyer for $1 million, besting the $317,000 record for a comic book set by a different copy, in lesser condition, the previous year. National Allied Publications soon merged with Detective Comics, Inc. forming National Comics Publications on September 30, 1946. National Comics Publications absorbed an affiliated concern, Max Gaines' and Liebowitz' All-American Publications.
In the same year Gaines let Liebowitz buy him out, kept only Picture Stories from the Bible as the foundation of his own new company, EC Comics. At that point, "Liebowitz promptly orchestrated the merger of All-American and Detective Comics into National Comics... Next he took charge of organizing National Comics, Independent News, their affiliated firms into a single corporate entity, National Periodical Publications". National Periodical Publications became publicly traded on the stock market in 1961. Despite the official names "National Comics" and "National Periodical Publications", the company began branding itself as "Superman-DC" as early as 1940, the company became known colloquially as DC Comics for years before the official adoption of that name in 1977; the company began to move aggressively against what it saw as copyright-violating imitations from other companies, such as Fox Comics' Wonder Man, which Fox started as a copy of Superman. This extended to DC suing Fawcett Comics over Captain Marvel, at the time comics' top-selling character.
Faced with declining sales and the prospect of bankruptcy if it lost, Fawcett capitulated in 1953 and ceased publishing comics. Years Fawcett sold the rights for Captain Marvel to DC—which in 1972 revived Captain Marvel in the new title Shazam
A comic book or comicbook called comic magazine or comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes. Panels are accompanied by brief descriptive prose and written narrative dialog contained in word balloons emblematic of the comics art form. Although comics has some origins in 18th century Japan, comic books were first popularized in the United States and the United Kingdom during the 1930s; the first modern comic book, Famous Funnies, was released in the U. S. in 1933 and was a reprinting of earlier newspaper humor comic strips, which had established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. The term comic book derives from American comic books once being a compilation of comic strips of a humorous tone; the largest comic book market is Japan. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion, with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books/magazines in Japan. The comic book market in the United States and Canada was valued at $1.09 billion in 2016.
As of 2017, the largest comic book publisher in the United States is manga distributor Viz Media, followed by DC Comics and Marvel Comics. Another major comic book market is France, where Franco-Belgian comics and Japanese manga each represent 40% of the market, followed by American comics at 10% market share. Comic books are reliant on their appearance. Authors focus on the frame of the page, size and panel positions; these characteristic aspects of comic books are necessary in conveying the content and messages of the author. The key elements of comic books include panels, balloons and characters. Balloons are convex spatial containers of information that are related to a character using a tail element; the tail has an origin, path and pointed direction. Key tasks in the creation of comic books are writing and coloring. Comics as a print medium have existed in America since the printing of The Adventures of Mr. Obadiah Oldbuck in 1842 in hardcover, making it the first known American prototype comic book.
Proto-comics periodicals began appearing early in the 20th century, with historians citing Dell Publishing's 36-page Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics as the first true American comic book. The introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman in 1938 turned comic books into a major industry and ushered the Golden Age of Comics; the Golden Age originated the archetype of the superhero. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power. Historians divide the timeline of the American comic book into eras; the Golden Age of Comic Books began in the 1930s. The Silver Age of comic books is considered to date from the first successful revival of the then-dormant superhero form, with the debut of the Flash in Showcase #4; the Silver Age lasted through the late 1960s or early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four and Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man.
The demarcation between the Silver Age and the following era, the Bronze Age of Comic Books, is less well-defined, with the Bronze Age running from the early 1970s through the mid-1980s. The Modern Age of Comic Books runs from the mid-1980s to the present day. A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent, which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books. In response to attention from the government and from the media, the U. S. comic book industry set up the Comics Magazine Association of America. The CMAA instilled the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the self-censorship Comics Code that year, which required all comic books to go through a process of approval, it was not until the 1970s that comic books could be published without passing through the inspection of the CMAA. The Code was made formally defunct in November 2011.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comix. Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time. Many had an uninhibited irreverent style. Underground comics were never sold at newsstands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order. Frank Stack's The Adventures of Jesus, published under the name Foolbert Sturgeon, has been credited as the first underground comic; the rise of comic book specialty stores in the late 1970s created/paralleled a dedicated market for "independent" or "alternative comics" in the U. S; the first such comics included the anthology series Star Reach, published by comic book writer Mike Friedrich from 1974 to 1979, Harvey Pekar's American Splendor, which continued sporadic publication into the 21st century and which Shari Springer Berman an
Queen Bee (comics)
Queen Bee is the name of six different DC Comics supervillains. The leader of the hiveworld Korll, Zazzala lives only for the interstellar expansion of her species. Zazzala first appeared in Justice League of America #23, she clashed with the original Justice League several times during the 1960s and 1970s, but disappeared for several decades. Zazzala reappeared in # 34, when Lex Luthor contacts her to join his Injustice Gang, she agrees, freeing The General from his asteroid prison in exchange for a percentage of Earth's population to become her drones. She participates in other battles against the League, her main effort is concentrated upon the city of New York. She forces many of the citizens to craft an'egg matrix' out of local supplies as a way to secure more mind-control, she attempts to brainwash Green Lantern and Steel to serve her using'hypno-pollen', but both heroes are able to fight it off. Using the Queen Bee's inability to see the color red, which many of the superheroes had in their costumes, Wonder Woman and Big Barda keep the Queen's forces occupied while Steel and Plastic Man get the drop on the Queen, Plastic Man covering Steel to render him invisible to the bees.
Utilizing a Boom Tube, technology controlled by Barda, they teleport the Queen and her army back to Korll. Zazzala and her drones join Lex Luthor's new Secret Society of Super Villains; the Queen becomes the leader of the H. I. V. E. A multi-national criminal enterprise, she appears in the six-part Villains United limited series. A small team of villains, known as the Secret Six, attack her base as part of a war against the Society, her forces are defeated, the base's prisoner, Firestorm, is freed and Zazzala herself is badly wounded. One Year Later, Zazzala appears in JLA volume 4, #20 healed from her injuries, attempting to steal a matter transportation device that will appear to allow her to transport her troops to earth, she is captured by the Flash. Marcia Monroe was a spoiled young woman, daughter of a wealthy man, who enjoyed risking her life in absurd and pointless situations, her playgirl attitude created trouble for the police, who tried to save her from harm during her own stunts. One day, she was rescued by Batman, who brought her down to the ground and spanked her in public, making news in the headlines of the most notorious newspapers.
Shortly after this encounter, Marcia started following Batman on his crime-busting activities and provided unrequested help when Batman least expected it. Marcia revealed. Batman and Marcia became an inseparable couple; some time Batman saved a girl from being attacked with an arrow and soon he realized it was Marcia. She had returned to Gotham to ask Batman to return a valuable stolen gem which she had acquired from her father. Batman agreed to help her, but Marcia double-crossed Batman and provided evidence to the police incriminating Batman for the stealing of the gem, it was revealed that Marcia had joined the crime syndicate known as CYCLOPS under the codename of Queen Bee. She was the leader of the task force, in charge of releasing Eclipso from his human host, Bruce Gordon. With Eclipso's help, Queen Bee started a criminal spree and a campaign to get the criminal organizations of Gotham City under the control of CYCLOPS. However, when Eclipso threatened to murder Batman, Marcia saved the man she loved.
She revealed that she had been forced to join CYCLOPS in order to save her father. Marcia helped Batman find a way to escape from Eclipso's trap and before parting ways, she gave Batman the real stolen gem and promised to stall Eclipso for a moment until he managed to escape. Batman was able to clear his name and stopped Eclipso with Bruce Gordon's help, but Marcia vanished from his life once again and never returned. An unrelated Queen Bee was introduced in Justice League International #16, she was an ordinary human femme fatale, who gained control of the terrorist nation of Bialya by forging an alliance with its former ruler Colonel Rumaan Harjavti assassinating him. She solidified her power by brainwashing the Global Guardians into serving her, she has clashed several times with Justice League Europe. Justice League Europe found out that the Queen Bee was behind their recent troubles, that she had a Dominator named Doctor working for her, they came to an agreement. They demanded she sever relations with the Doctor.
After they left, she killed the Doctor. The Queen had far-reaching influences, managing to put one of her own operatives in charge of the League via the United Nations; the Queen Bee was defeated by the JLE and the Guardians, who learned of her brainwashing plot. She was assassinated by Rumaan Harjavti's brother Sumaan, during the events of the JLA/JLE crossover Breakdowns. Queen Bee appeared in the 2000 Creature Commandos series. On the otherdimensional world of Terra Arcana, Zazzala's sister Tazzala joined Simon Magus's Terra Arcana Army with the ultimate goal of conquering Earth; the U. S. Army faction known as the Creature Commandos stopped. Tazzala herself was killed by Simon; the sister of the second Queen Bee, Beat
Leaning Tower of Pisa
The Leaning Tower of Pisa or the Tower of Pisa is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa, known worldwide for its nearly four-degree lean, the result of an unstable foundation. The tower is situated behind the Pisa Cathedral and is the third oldest structure in the city's Cathedral Square, after the cathedral and the Pisa Baptistry; the tower's tilt began during construction in the 12th century, due to soft ground on one side, unable to properly support the structure's weight. The tilt increased in the decades, it increased until the structure was stabilized by efforts in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The height of the tower is 55.86 metres from the ground on the low side and 56.67 metres on the high side. The width of the walls at the base is 2.44 m. Its weight is estimated at 14,500 metric tons; the tower has 294 steps. In 1990 the tower leaned at an angle of 5.5 degrees, but following remedial work between 1993 and 2001 this was reduced to 3.97 degrees, reducing the overhang by 45 cm at a cost of £200m.
It lost a further 4 cm of tilt in the two decades to 2018. There has been controversy about the real identity of the architect of the Leaning Tower of Pisa. For many years, the design was attributed to Guglielmo and Bonanno Pisano, a well-known 12th-century resident artist of Pisa, known for his bronze casting in the Pisa Duomo. Pisano left Pisa in 1185 for Monreale, only to come back and die in his home town. A piece of cast bearing his name was discovered at the foot of the tower in 1820, but this may be related to the bronze door in the façade of the cathedral, destroyed in 1595. A 2001 study seems to indicate Diotisalvi was the original architect, due to the time of construction and affinity with other Diotisalvi works, notably the bell tower of San Nicola and the Baptistery, both in Pisa. Construction of the tower occurred in three stages over 199 years. Work on the ground floor of the white marble campanile began on August 14, 1173 during a period of military success and prosperity; this ground floor is a blind arcade articulated by engaged columns with classical Corinthian capitals.
The tower began to sink after construction had progressed to the second floor in 1178. This was due to a mere three-metre foundation, set in weak, unstable subsoil, a design, flawed from the beginning. Construction was subsequently halted for a century, because the Republic of Pisa was continually engaged in battles with Genoa and Florence; this allowed time for the underlying soil to settle. Otherwise, the tower would certainly have toppled. In 1272, construction resumed under architect of the Camposanto. In an effort to compensate for the tilt, the engineers built upper floors with one side taller than the other; because of this, the tower is curved. Construction was halted again in 1284 when the Pisans were defeated by the Genoans in the Battle of Meloria; the seventh floor was completed in 1319. The bell-chamber was added in 1372, it was built by Tommaso di Andrea Pisano, who succeeded in harmonizing the Gothic elements of the bell-chamber with the Romanesque style of the tower. There are one for each note of the musical major scale.
The largest one was installed in 1655. After a phase of structural strengthening, the tower is undergoing gradual surface restoration, in order to repair visible damage corrosion and blackening; these are pronounced due to the tower's age and its exposure to wind and rain. On January 5, 1172, Donna Berta di Bernardo, a widow and resident of the house of dell'Opera di Santa Maria, bequeathed sixty soldi to the Opera Campanilis petrarum Sancte Marie; the sum was used toward the purchase of a few stones which still form the base of the bell tower. On August 9, 1173, the foundations of the tower were laid. Nearly four centuries Giorgio Vasari wrote: "Guglielmo, according to what is being said, in year 1174 with Bonanno as sculptor, laid the foundations of the bell tower of the cathedral in Pisa." On December 27, 1233, the worker Benenato, son of Gerardo Bottici, oversaw the continuation of the construction of the bell tower. On February 23, 1260, Guido Speziale, son of Giovanni, a worker on the cathedral Santa Maria Maggiore, was elected to oversee the building of the tower.
On April 12, 1264, the master builder Giovanni di Simone and 23 workers went to the mountains close to Pisa to cut marble. The cut stones were given to worker of St. Francesco. Giorgio Vasari indicated that Tommaso di Andrea Pisano was the designer of the belfry between 1360 and 1370. One possible known builder of Pisa Tower was Gerardo di Gerardo, his name appears as a witness to the above legacy of Berta di Bernardo as "Master Gerardo", as a worker whose name was Gerardo. A more probable builder was Diotisalvi, because of the construction period and the structure's affinities with other buildings in Pisa, but he signed his works, there is no signature by him in the bell tower. Giovanni di Simone was known to be involved in the completion of the tower, under the direction of Giovanni Pisano, who at the time was master builder of the Opera di Santa Maria Maggiore. Di Simone could be the same Giovanni Pisano. Galileo Galilei is said to have dropped two cannonballs of different masses from the tower to demonstrate that their speed of descent was independent of thei
Two-Face is a fictional supervillain appearing in comic books published by DC Comics as an adversary of the superhero Batman. The character was created by Bob Kane and Bill Finger and first appeared in Detective Comics #66; as one of Batman's most enduring enemies, Two-Face belongs to the collective of adversaries that make up Batman's rogues gallery. Once an upstanding Gotham City District Attorney, Harvey Dent is hideously scarred on the left side of his face after mob boss Sal Maroni throws acidic chemicals at him during a court trial, he subsequently goes insane and adopts the "Two-Face" persona, becoming a criminal obsessed with duality and the conflict between good and evil. In years, writers have portrayed Two-Face's obsession with chance and fate as the result of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, dissociative identity disorder, he obsessively makes all important decisions by flipping his former lucky charm, a two-headed coin, damaged on one side by the acid as well. The modern version is established as having once been a personal friend and ally of James Gordon and Batman.
The character has been featured in various media adaptations, such as feature films, television series and video games. Two-Face has been voiced by Richard Moll in the DC animated universe, Troy Baker in the Batman: Arkham series, Billy Dee Williams in The Lego Batman Movie, William Shatner in Batman vs. Two-Face, his live-action portrayals include Billy Dee Williams in Batman, Tommy Lee Jones in Batman Forever, Aaron Eckhart in The Dark Knight, Nicholas D'Agosto in the television series Gotham. In 2009, Two-Face was ranked #12 on IGN's list of the Top 100 Comic Book Villains of All Time. Two-Face first appears in Detective Comics #66 with the name Harvey "Apollo" Kent; the character only made three appearances in the 1940s, appeared twice in the 1950s. By this time, he was dropped in favor of more "kid friendly" villains, though he did appear in a 1968 issue, in which Batman declared him to be the criminal he most fears. In 1971, writer Dennis O'Neil brought Two-Face back, it was that he became one of Batman's arch-enemies.
In his autobiography, Batman creator Bob Kane claims to have been inspired by Robert Louis Stevenson's Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde the 1931 film version which he saw as a boy. Some inspiration was derived from the Pulp magazine character the Black Bat whose origin story included having acid splashed on his face. In the wake of Frank Miller's 1986 revision of Batman's origin, Andrew Helfer rewrote Two-Face's history to match; this origin, presented in Batman Annual #14, served to emphasize Dent's status as a tragic character, with a back story that included an abusive, alcoholic father, early struggles with bipolar disorder and paranoia. It was established, in Batman: Year One, that pre-accident Harvey Dent was one of Batman's earliest allies, he had clear ties to both Batman and Commissioner Gordon, making him an unsettling and personal foe for both men. The Pre-Crisis version of Two-Face is Gotham City's handsome young District Attorney. A mobster throws acid in his face during a trial.
Driven insane by his reflection, he renames himself Two-Face and goes on a crime spree, deciding with a flip of his lucky coin whether to break the law or perform acts of charity. Batman and Robin capture him, he is rehabilitated thanks to plastic surgery. Stories, depict him as returning to crime after being re-disfigured; the Post-Crisis version of Harvey Dent is depicted as having had an unhappy childhood. The abuse instills in Dent his lifelong struggle with free will and his eventual inability to make choices on his own, relying on the coin to make all of his decisions. Dent is diagnosed with bipolar disorder and paranoid schizophrenia at a young age, but manages to hide his illnesses and, thanks to an unyielding work ethic, rises up through the ranks of Gotham City's district attorney's office until, at age 26, he becomes the youngest DA in the city's history. Gordon suspected that Dent could be Batman but discarded this suspicion when he realized he lacked the financial resources of Batman.
Dent forges an alliance with police captain James Gordon and Batman to rid Gotham of organized crime. Mob boss Carmine Falcone bribes corrupt Assistant District Attorney Vernon Fields to provide his lieutenant Sal Maroni, whom Dent is trying for murder, with sulfuric acid. Dent reinvents himself as the gangster Two-Face, he scars one side of his father's coin, uses it to decide whether to commit a crime. Two-Face takes his revenge on Fields and Maroni, but is captured by Batman, leading to his incarceration in Arkham Asylum. During the Batman: Dark Victory story arc, the serial killer Hangman targets various cops who assisted in Harvey Dent's rise to the D. A.'s office. Two-Face gathers Gotham's criminals to assist in the destruction of the city's crime lords. After a climactic struggle in the Batcave, Two-Face is betrayed by the Joker, who shoots at Dent, causing him to fall into a chasm to his death. Batman admits in the aftermath that if Two-Face has survived, Harvey is gone forever. During a much period, Two-Face is revealed to have murdered the father of Jason Todd.
When attempting to apprehend
Alexander Joseph "Lex" Luthor is a fictional supervillain appearing in publications by the publisher DC Comics. The character was created by Joe Shuster. Lex Luthor first has since endured as the archenemy of Superman. Introduced as a mad scientist whose schemes Superman would foil, Lex's portrayal has evolved over the years and his characterisation has deepened. In contemporary stories, Lex is portrayed as a wealthy, power-mad American business magnate, ingenious engineer, philanthropist to the city of Metropolis, one of the most intelligent people in the world. A well-known public figure, he is the owner of a conglomerate called LexCorp, he is intent on ridding the world of the alien Superman, whom Lex Luthor views as an obstacle to his plans and as a threat to the existence of humanity. Given his high status as a supervillain, however, he has come into conflict with Batman and other superheroes in the DC Universe; the character has traditionally lacked superpowers or a dual identity and appears with a bald head.
He periodically wears his Warsuit, a high-tech battle suit giving him enhanced strength, advanced weaponry, other capabilities. The character was introduced as a diabolical recluse, but during the Modern Age, he was reimagined by writers as a devious, high-profile industrialist, who has crafted his public persona in order to avoid suspicion and arrest, he is well known for his philanthropy, donating vast sums of money to Metropolis over the years, funding parks and charities. The character was ranked 4th on IGN's list of the Top 100 Comic Book Villains of All Time and as the 8th Greatest Villain by Wizard on its 100 Greatest Villains of All Time list. Luthor is one of a few genre-crossing villains whose adventures take place "in a world in which the ordinary laws of nature are suspended". Scott James Wells, Sherman Howard, John Shea, Michael Rosenbaum, Jon Cryer have portrayed the character in Superman-themed television series, while Lyle Talbot, Gene Hackman, Kevin Spacey, Jesse Eisenberg have portrayed the character in major motion pictures.
Clancy Brown, Powers Boothe, James Marsters, Chris Noth, Anthony LaPaglia, Steven Blum, Fred Tatasciore, Jason Isaacs, Kevin Michael Richardson, Mark Rolston, John DiMaggio, James Woods and Rainn Wilson, others have provided the character's voice in animation adaptations. In his first appearance, Action Comics #23, Luthor is depicted as a diabolical genius and is referred to only by his surname, he resides in a flying city suspended by a dirigible and plots to provoke a war between two European nations. Lois Lane and Clark Kent investigate. Luthor battles Superman with a green ray but Luthor is defeated by Superman, Lois is rescued. Superman destroys Luthor's dirigible with him still on it, implying Luthor may have died, although stories ending with Luthor's apparent death are common in his earliest appearances. Luthor returns in Superman #4 and steals a weapon from the U. S. Army, capable of causing earthquakes. Superman battles and defeats Luthor, the earthquake device is destroyed by Superman.
The scientist who made the device commits suicide to prevent its reinvention. In a story in the same issue, Luthor is shown to have created a city on the sunken Lost Continent of Pacifo and to have recreated prehistoric monsters, which he plans to unleash upon the world. Superman thwarts his plans, Luthor appears to have been killed by the dinosaurs he created. Luthor returns in Superman #5 with a plan to place hypnotic gas in the offices of influential people, he intends to throw the nation into a depression with the help of corrupt financier Moseley, but the story ends with Superman defeating him. In these early stories, Luthor's schemes are centered around financial gain or megalomaniacal ambitions. Luthor's obsessive hatred of Superman came in the character's development. In Luthor's earliest appearances, he is shown as a middle-aged man with a full head of red hair. Less than a year however, an artistic mistake resulted in Luthor being depicted as bald in a newspaper strip; the original error is attributed to Leo Nowak, a studio artist who illustrated for the Superman dailies during this period.
One hypothesis is that Nowak mistook Luthor for the Ultra-Humanite, a frequent foe of Superman who, in his Golden Age incarnation, resembled a balding, elderly man. Other evidence suggests Luthor's design was confused with that of a stockier, bald henchman in Superman #4; the character's abrupt hair loss has been made reference to several times over the course of his history. When the concept of the DC Multiverse began to take hold, Luthor's red-haired incarnation was rewritten as Alexei Luthor, Lex's counterpart from the Earth-Two parallel universe. In 1960, writer Jerry Siegel altered Luthor's backstory to incorporate his hair loss into his origin. In 1944 Lex Luthor was the first character in a comic book to use an atomic bomb; the United States Department of War asked this story line be delayed from publication, which it was until 1946, to protect the secrecy of the Manhattan Project. The War Department asked for dailies of the Superman comic strip to be pulled in April 1945 which depicted Lex Luthor bombarding Superman with the radiation from a cyclotron.
Luthor vanished for a long time, coming back in Superboy #59 (Sept. 19
Norm Rapmund is an American comic book inker. Rapmund's career began with Image Comics' Brigade #1 in 1992, he worked on the series concurrently with Image titles Bloodstrike and Team Youngblood until 1994, when he moved from Brigade to Supreme. Rapmund worked on several series under the Image banner, in 1997 inked several issues of Alan Moore's Supreme: The New Adventures as well as issue #3 of Alan Moore's Judgment Day limited series. Work on a pair of 1997 Image/Marvel Comics crossover titles, Spider-Man/Badrock and Silver Surfer/Weapon Zero, led to more jobs with Marvel on Avengers, Iron Man, Fantastic Four. Rapmund began working on DC Comics titles, starting in April 1998 with Teen Titans #19. After the Titans series was canceled in September 1998, Rapmund inked various DC titles, including Superman, Young Justice, Action Comics, he worked on Aquaman vol. 5 from issue #50-75 Starting in September 2000, Rapmund inked issues of Marvel's Wolverine vol. 2 and X-Men, staying with these series after Aquaman ended in 2001.
His work on Wolverine ended with the issue #179 cover, Rapmund continued inking various Marvel and DC titles, as well as Image Comics' Masters of the Universe, a series which coincided with the 2002-2003 revival of the 1980s He-Man franchise. Transitioning to Marvel's Black Panther and Fantastic Four in late 2003, Rapmund worked on X-Treme X-Men in early 2004 as well as returning to the Teen Titans, whose latest series was being written by Geoff Johns; this was followed by a stint with Marvel's Rogue from 2004 to 2005 and various other Marvel and DC titles, culminating with DC's Supergirl and Infinite Crisis from 2005 to 2006. Among his next titles were the DC limited series 52 and Countdown to Final Crisis in 2007, with Rapmund now on contract with DC Comics. DC began a new Booster Gold series in October 2007, with art by Jurgens, Rapmund and co-writers Geoff Johns and Jeff Katz, he and Jurgens left the title to work on Time Masters: Vanishing Point. At the conclusion of that series, it was announced that he will return to Booster Gold, along with Dan Jurgens, in May 2011 with Issue #44.
Rapmund works on various other DC titles concurrently. He does Flash comic books. In 2016, Rapmund was nominated for the Inkwell Awards Most Adaptable award, receiving 20.2% of the final votes. Official website Norm Rapmund at the Grand Comics Database Norm Rapmund at the Comic Book DB