Madrid is the capital city of the Kingdom of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has a population of almost 3.2 million with an area population of approximately 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union after London and Berlin, the municipality itself covers an area of 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the centre of both the country and the Community of Madrid, this community is bordered by the communities of Castile and León. As the capital city of Spain, seat of government, and residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political, the current mayor is Manuela Carmena from Ahora Madrid. Madrid is home to two football clubs, Real Madrid and Atlético de Madrid. Madrid is the 17th most liveable city in the according to Monocle magazine. Madrid organises fairs such as FITUR, ARCO, SIMO TCI, while Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets.
Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city, the first documented reference of the city originates in Andalusan times as the Arabic مجريط Majrīṭ, which was retained in Medieval Spanish as Magerit. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins, according to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named Metragirta or Mantua Carpetana. The most ancient recorded name of the city Magerit comes from the name of a built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD. Nevertheless, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river, the name of this first village was Matrice. In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the changed to Mayrit, from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra. The modern Madrid evolved from the Mozarabic Matrit, which is still in the Madrilenian gentilic, after the disintegration of the Caliphate of Córdoba, Madrid was integrated in the Taifa of Toledo.
With the surrender of Toledo to Alfonso VI of León and Castile, the city was conquered by Christians in 1085, Christians replaced Muslims in the occupation of the centre of the city, while Muslims and Jews settled in the suburbs. The city was thriving and was given the title of Villa, since 1188, Madrid won the right to be a city with representation in the courts of Castile. In 1202, King Alfonso VIII of Castile gave Madrid its first charter to regulate the municipal council, which was expanded in 1222 by Ferdinand III of Castile
Isidore the Laborer
Isidore the Farm Labourer, known as Isidore the Farmer, was a Spanish farmworker known for his piety toward the poor and animals. He is the Catholic patron saint of farmers and of Madrid and his feast day is celebrated on 15 May. The Spanish word labrador means someone who works the cow, not a worker in general and his real name was Isidro de Merlo y Quintana. Isidore was born in Madrid, in about the year 1070, of poor but very devout parents, Isidore spent his life as a hired hand in the service of the wealthy Madrilenian landowner Juan de Vargas on a farm in the citys vicinity. He shared what he had, even his meals, with the poor, Juan de Vargas would make him bailiff of his entire estate of Lower Caramanca. It was said that he stood two meters tall and Maria had one son. On one occasion, their son fell into a well and, at the prayers of his parents. In thanksgiving Isidore and Maria vowed sexual abstinence and lived in separate houses and their son died in his youth. Isidore died on May 15,1130, at his close to Madrid although the only official source places his death in the year 1172.
In the morning going to work, Isidore would usually attend Mass at one of the churches in Madrid. One day, his farm workers complained to their master that Isidore was always late for work in the morning. Upon investigation, so runs the legend, the master found Isidore at prayer whilst an angel was doing the ploughing for him. On another occasion, his master saw an angel ploughing on either side of him, Isidore is said to have brought back to life his masters deceased daughter, and to have caused a fountain of fresh water to burst from the dry earth to quench his masters thirst. One snowy day, when going to the mill with corn to be ground, taking pity on the poor animals, he poured half of his sack of precious corn upon the ground for the birds, despite the mocking of witnesses. When he reached the mill, the bag was full, and the corn, Isidores wife, always kept a pot of stew on the fireplace in their humble home as Isidore would often bring home anyone who was hungry. One day he brought home more hungry people than usual, after she served many of them, Maria told him that there simply was no more stew in the pot.
He insisted that she check the pot again, and she was able to spoon out enough stew to feed them all, on 2 April 1212, after torrential rains had exhumed cadavers from cemeteries in Madrid, his body was discovered in an apparent state of incorruptibility. He is said to have appeared to Alfonso VIII of Castile, throughout history, other members of the royal family would seek curative powers from the saint
Madrid Arena is an indoor arena located in the city of Madrid, in the fairgrounds in the Casa de Campo, just minutes from the city centre. The pavilion was sponsored by the company Telefónica for what was known as Telefónica Arena. The arena was built in 2002 as part of the facilities planned for the Madrid 2012 Olympic bid and it was expected to house basketball competitions. The first phase was about in 2002, expanded the following year and it is distributed on three floors. Its central court has three retractable bleachers, allowing the surface to change depending on the type of event. The pavilion features a Satellite Pavilion, with an area of 2,100 m²and it was the location of the Mutua Madrileña Masters Madrid mens tennis tournament until Caja Mágica was opened and it has a maximum seating capacity of 12,000 seats. It is owned by the City Hall of Madrid and is managed by Madrid Destino and it has a maximum capacity of 10,248 spectators for basketball and 12,000 for boxing and 30,000 m².
Its dome is 11,000 m² and is supported by a structure supported on 181 piles. It has a skylight that can be opened, letting in natural light, the facade is composed of a double curve of glass, very light and variable transparency. CB Estudiantes played its matches in the Madrid Arena from 2005 to 2010 and it has signed a five-year contract with an option for another five. It hosted all the games of the round of the Eurobasket 2007. On November 1,2012 a human stampede in a Halloween party resulted in five girls being crushed to death, the partys organizers were allowed to sell 9,000 tickets, but far more people entered. In the enquiry, judicial agents gathered more than 19,000 tickets, a few days it was announced that the Madrid Arena was not going to host the Handball World Championship as expected, due to its safety problems. In 2015 the Spanish writer Saúl Cepeda Lezcano, who worked for the main parties blamed for the tragedy, the book uncovers many illegal activities in nightlife and clubbing activities that had led to a similar disaster.
Line 6, Alto de Extremadura station
Ignatius of Loyola
Saint Ignatius of Loyola was a Spanish priest and theologian, who founded the religious order called the Society of Jesus and became its first Superior General. The Jesuit order served the Pope as missionaries, and they were bound by a vow of obedience to the sovereign pontiff in regard to the missions. They therefore emerged as an important political force during the time of the Counter-Reformation, Ignatius is remembered as a talented spiritual director. He recorded his method in a treatise called the Spiritual Exercises, a simple set of meditations, prayers. Ignatius was beatified in 1609, and canonized, receiving the title of Saint on March 12,1622 and his feast day is celebrated on July 31. He is the saint of the provinces of Gipuzkoa and Biscay as well as the Society of Jesus. Ignatius is a foremost patron saint of soldiers, Íñigo López de Loyola was born in the municipality of Azpeitia at the castle of Loyola in todays Gipuzkoa, Basque Country, Spain. He was baptized Íñigo, after St. Enecus Abbot of Oña and it is not clear when he began using the Latin name Ignatius instead of his baptismal name Íñigo.
It seems he did not intend to change his name, but rather adopted a name which he believed was a variant of his own, for use in France. Íñigo was the youngest of thirteen children and his mother died soon after his birth, and he was brought up by María de Garín, the local blacksmiths wife. Íñigo adopted the surname de Loyola in reference to the Basque village of Loyola where he was born, as a boy Íñigo became a page in the service of a relative, Juan Velázquez de Cuéllar, treasurer of the kingdom of Castile. As a young man Íñigo had a love for military exercises as well as a tremendous desire for fame. He framed his life around the stories of El Cid, the knights of Camelot, and the Song of Roland. He joined the army at seventeen, and according to one biographer, he strutted about with his cape slinging open to reveal his tight-fitting hose and boots, a sword and dagger at his waist. Upon encountering a Moor who denied the divinity of Jesus, he challenged him to a duel to the death and he dueled many other men as well.
In 1509, at the age of 18, Íñigo took up arms for Antonio Manrique de Lara and his diplomacy and leadership qualities earned him the title servant of the court, which made him very useful to the Duke. Under the Dukes leadership, Íñigo participated in many battles without injury, but at the Battle of Pamplona in 1521 he was gravely injured when a French-Navarrese expedition force stormed the fortress of Pamplona on May 20,1521. A cannonball hit him in the legs, wounding his right leg, in the end these operations left one leg shorter than the other, Íñigo would limp for the rest of his life, and his military career was ended
PricewaterhouseCoopers is a multinational professional services network headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the second largest professional services firm in the world, vault Accounting 50 has ranked PwC as the most prestigious accounting firm in the world for seven consecutive years, as well as the top firm to work for in North America for three consecutive years. PwC is a network of firms in 157 countries,756 locations, as of 2015, 22% of the workforce worked in Asia, 26% in North America and Caribbean and 32% in Western Europe. The companys global revenues were $35.9 billion in FY2016, of which $15.2 billion was generated by its Assurance practice, $9.1 billion by its Tax practice, the firm was formed in 1998 by a merger between Coopers & Lybrand and Price Waterhouse. The trading name was shortened to PwC in September 2010 as part of a rebranding, as of 2016, PwC is the 5th-largest privately owned company in the United States. The firm was created in 1998 when Coopers & Lybrand merged with Price Waterhouse, both firms had histories dating back to the 19th century.
In 1854 William Cooper founded a practice in London, which became Cooper Brothers seven years when his three brothers joined. In 1898, Robert H. Montgomery, William M. Lybrand, Adam A. Ross Jr. and his brother T. Edward Ross formed Lybrand, Ross Brothers and Montgomery in the United States. In 1957 Cooper Brothers, Ross Bros & Montgomery, in 1973 the three member firms in the UK, US and Canada changed their names to Coopers & Lybrand. Then in 1980 Coopers & Lybrand expanded its expertise in insolvency substantially by acquiring Cork Gully, in 1990 in certain countries including the UK, Coopers & Lybrand merged with Deloitte Haskins & Sells to become Coopers & Lybrand Deloitte, in 1992 they reverted to Coopers & Lybrand. Samuel Lowell Price, an accountant, founded a practice in London in 1849. In 1865 Price went into partnership with William Hopkins Holyland and Edwin Waterhouse, Holyland left shortly afterwards to work alone in accountancy and the firm was known from 1874 as Price, Waterhouse & Co.
The original partnership agreement, signed by Price and Waterhouse could be found in Southwark Towers, by the late 19th century, Price Waterhouse had gained significant recognition as an accounting firm. As a result of growing trade between the United Kingdom and the United States, Price Waterhouse opened an office in New York in 1890, and the American firm itself soon expanded rapidly. It was said by those involved with the merger that at the end of the discussion, the partners at the table realized they had different views of business. In 1998, Price Waterhouse merged with Coopers & Lybrand to form PricewaterhouseCoopers, after the merger the firm had a large professional consulting branch, as did other major accountancy firms, generating much of its fees. Management Consulting Services was the fastest growing and often most profitable area of the practice, the major cause for growth in the 1990s was the implementation of complex integrated ERP systems for multi-national companies. PwC came under increasing pressure to avoid conflicts of interests by not providing some consulting services, particularly financial systems design and implementation, since it audited a large proportion of the worlds largest companies, this was beginning to limit its consulting market
Paseo de Recoletos
Paseo de Recoletos is a wide boulevard in central Madrid leading from Plaza de Cibeles to Plaza de Colón. From West to East it consists of, Two southward lanes The pedestrian walk A southward Bus lane Three southward lanes Three northward lanes A median strip lined with trees, Two nortward lanes A northward Bus lane. By the end of the 18th century architect José de Hermosilla was entrusted by King Charles III to urbanize the area of the old Bajo Abroñigal river and this gave birth to Paseo del Prado as well to Paseo de Recoletos. The name Recoletos was taken from an old convent of Augustinian Recollect friars built in 1592 in the area, the boulevard originally ended in the old Puerta de Recoletos, a baroque gate built under Ferdinand VI in 1756 and dismantled in 1863. During the Peninsular War this gate was fortified to fend off the Napoleonic troops, on 3 December 1808 Napoleon I personally directed the attacks against Madrid from the Fuente Castellana. The Batería de Veterinaria held off the troops that were trying to breach Recoletos Gate to surround the Alcalá Gate defenders, the French troops managed to break through El Retiro, outflanking the gates of Recoletos, Alcalá and Atocha, leading to Madrids capitulation the following day.
During the Civil War the statues and fountains along the Paseo de Recoletos and El Prado were hidden under protection sacks, the center part of the boulevard is a pedestrian walk, lined with gardens, statues and varied street furniture. The first and largest stretch of the boulevard has a row of eight ponds lined with white double doric columns, the ponds, which are lighted at night, are situated one slightly above the next one, forming tiny water falls in between. The first and last of these ponds have little jet fountains, the Terraza Recoletos and an Equatorial Sundial are nearby. The second and shortest stretch contains the Café Gijón, an historic literary café founded in 1888 with an outdoor terraza on the boulevard, on the fourth and last stretch is the Café El Espejo, another quaint café with an impressive glass pavilion influenced by Art Nouveau. It has a monument dedicated to Spanish author Juan Valera and one of his best known works, Pepita Jiménez, a statue of Ramón del Valle-Inclán and a drinking fountain.
Near the northern corner of the stretch is the entrance to an underground passage leading to the eastern median strip of the boulevard. This tunnel appears in Carlos Sauras film Taxi and this strip is divided into four stretches, the same as the pedestrian walk. The other three stretches are lined with trees and ornamental flowerbeds, and a path for pedestrians, the pedestrian walk is lined with stands several times a year, The Feria del Libro Antiguo y de Ocasión, held in April/May. The Feria de Artesanía, held during Christmas period, the Feria del Libro Viejo y Antiguo, held in Autumn. A Feria del Disco Antiguo y de Ocasión was held every Spring between 2000 and 2005 but the Town Hall denied permission in 2006. Paseo de Recoletos is used as a temporary exhibition place. This exhibition is completed with five pieces in Paseo del Prado by the same artist
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro, or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas. The metropolis is anchor to the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazils third-most populous state. Part of the city has designated as a World Heritage Site, named Rio de Janeiro. Founded in 1565 by the Portuguese, the city was initially the seat of the Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, later, in 1763, it became the capital of the State of Brazil, a state of the Portuguese Empire. Rio stayed the capital of the pluricontinental Lusitanian monarchy until 1822 and this is one of the few instances in history that the capital of a colonising country officially shifted to a city in one of its colonies. Rio de Janeiro has the second largest municipal GDP in the country, the home of many universities and institutes, it is the second-largest center of research and development in Brazil, accounting for 17% of national scientific output according to 2005 data.
The Maracanã Stadium held the finals of the 1950 and 2014 FIFA World Cups, the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, the city is divided into 33 administrative regions. Europeans first encountered Guanabara Bay on 1 January 1502, by a Portuguese expedition under explorer Gaspar de Lemos captain of a ship in Pedro Álvares Cabrals fleet, allegedly the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci participated as observer at the invitation of King Manuel I in the same expedition. The region of Rio was inhabited by the Tupi, Botocudo, in 1555, one of the islands of Guanabara Bay, now called Villegagnon Island, was occupied by 500 French colonists under the French admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon. Consequently, Villegagnon built Fort Coligny on the island when attempting to establish the France Antarctique colony, Rio de Janeiro was the name of Guanabara Bay. Until early in the 18th century, the city was threatened or invaded by several, mostly French and buccaneers, such as Jean-François Duclerc, on 27 January 1763, the colonial administration in Portuguese America was moved from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro.
The kingdoms capital was transferred to the city, thus, as there was no physical space or urban structure to accommodate hundreds of noblemen who arrived suddenly, many inhabitants were simply evicted from their homes. The first printed newspaper in Brazil, the Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro, from the colonial period until the first independent decades, Rio de Janeiro was a city of slaves. There was an influx of African slaves to Rio de Janeiro, in 1819. In 1840, the number of slaves reached 220,000 people, the Port of Rio de Janeiro was the largest port of slaves in America. As a political center of the country, Rio concentrated the political-partisan life of the Empire and it was the main stage of the abolitionist and republican movements in the last half of the 19th century. Rio continued as the capital of Brazil after 1889, when the monarchy was replaced by a republic, until the early years of the 20th century, the city was largely limited to the neighbourhood now known as the historic city centre, on the mouth of Guanabara Bay.
Expansion of the city to the north and south was facilitated by the consolidation and electrification of Rios streetcar transit system after 1905, though many thought that it was just campaign rhetoric, Kubitschek managed to have Brasília built, at great cost, by 1960
World Youth Day 2008
The 23rd World Youth Day was a Catholic youth festival that started on 15 July and continued until 20 July 2008 in Sydney, Australia. It was the first World Youth Day held in Australia and the first World Youth Day in Oceania and this meeting was decided by Pope Benedict XVI, during the Cologne World Youth Day of 2005. The theme was You will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes on you, about 500,000 young people from 200 countries attended during the week, and more than 1,000,000 came for the weekend. They were joined by about 600 bishops and cardinals, as well as by 6,600 reporters. The festivals of WYD began on 1 July 2007, when a large 3. 8-meter-high wooden cross, the WYD Cross was entrusted to the youth of the world by Pope John Paul II in 1984 as a sign of peace and hope. The Pope told the people of the world to take it around the world as a symbol of Christs love for humanity. In 2004, Pope John Paul II commissioned the icon of the Virgin Mary to accompany the cross pilgrimage. It is a symbol intended to represent Marys maternal love for young people, from the announcement of the host World Youth Day, the cross and icon travel ceremonially around the world similar to the Olympic torch relay.
In the week preceding the event, many young Catholic pilgrims spent time in different parts of Australia and New Zealand. After their stay, they travelled to Sydney for the Opening Mass of the main event. The Pope arrived at Sydney on 13 July at Richmond Air Force Base in North Western Sydney on a special Alitalia flight, until 17 July he stayed in the Opus Dei centre, called Kenthurst Study Centre,30 km from Sydney. On 15 July, World Youth Day 2008 began with the Opening Mass, celebrated by George Cardinal Pell and this was followed by a concert. Each morning from 15 to 17 July, Catechists were held in approximately 300 locations, Pilgrims received teachings from a Bishop and celebrated Mass. In the afternoons, pilgrims journeyed into the city and attend the Youth Festival consisting of a series of art exhibitions, concerts and conferences. On 17 July 2008,500,000 attendees from around the world were present at Barangaroo to welcome Pope Benedict XVI on a day dubbed Super Thursday by the press.
The Pope actually arrived on 14 July, but only appeared in public for the first time on the 17th, the event involved the Pope travelling around Port Jackson in a boatacade where pilgrims lined the shores to see him. However, there were many disappointed spectators in places like the Botanic Gardens, the Sydney Childrens Choir and Gondwana Voices performed at the event. The Pope spoke extensively to the pilgrims and greeted them in five foreign languages, in order to let the pilgrims see him better the Pope was driven around Barangaroo through the crowds in his Popemobile
Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. As the worlds fifth-largest country by area and population, it is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to wildlife, a variety of ecological systems. This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, in 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a state governed under a constitutional monarchy. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, the country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup détat.
An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, Brazils current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. The federation is composed of the union of the Federal District, the 26 states, Brazils economy is the worlds ninth-largest by nominal GDP and seventh-largest by GDP as of 2015. A member of the BRICS group, Brazil until 2010 had one of the worlds fastest growing economies, with its economic reforms giving the country new international recognition. Brazils national development bank plays an important role for the economic growth. Brazil is a member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States, CPLP. Brazil is a power in Latin America and a middle power in international affairs. One of the worlds major breadbaskets, Brazil has been the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years and it is likely that the word Brazil comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil commonly given the etymology red like an ember, formed from Latin brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a red dye, it was highly valued by the European cloth industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. The popular appellation eclipsed and eventually supplanted the official Portuguese name, early sailors sometimes called it the Land of Parrots. In the Guarani language, a language of Paraguay, Brazil is called Pindorama
It is one of the Spanish royal sites and functions as a monastery, royal palace, library, museum and hospital. It is situated 2.06 km up the valley from the town of El Escorial, El Escorial was, at once, a monastery and a Spanish royal palace. Originally a property of the Hieronymite monks, it is now a monastery of the Order of Saint Augustine and it is a boarding school. Philip engaged the Spanish architect, Juan Bautista de Toledo, to be his collaborator in the design of El Escorial, Philip appointed him architect-royal in 1559, and together they designed El Escorial as a monument to Spains role as a center of the Christian world. On 2 November 1984, UNESCO declared The Royal Seat of San Lorenzo of El Escorial a World Heritage Site and it is a popular tourist attraction, often visited by day-trippers from Madrid – more than 500,000 visitors come to El Escorial every year. El Escorial is situated at the foot of Mt. Abantos in the Sierra de Guadarrama, Quentin in Picardy against Henry II, king of France.
He intended the complex to serve as a necropolis for the interment of the remains of his parents, Charles I and Isabella of Portugal, himself, in addition, Philip envisioned El Escorial as a center for studies in aid of the Counter-Reformation cause. The buildings cornerstone was laid on 23 April 1563, the design and construction were overseen by Juan Bautista de Toledo, who did not live to see the completion of the project. With Toledos death in 1567, direction passed to his apprentice, Juan de Herrera, under whom the building was completed in 1584, to this day, la obra de El Escorial is a proverbial expression for a thing that takes a long time to finish. Since then, El Escorial has been the site for most of the Spanish kings of the last five centuries. Two Bourbon kings, Philip V and Ferdinand VI, as well as King Amadeus, are not buried in the monastery, the floor plan of the building is in the form of a gridiron. The traditional belief is that design was chosen in honor of St. Lawrence. St.
Lawrence’s feast day is 10 August, the date as the 1557 Battle of St. Quentin. In fact, the origin of the layout is quite controversial. The grill-like shape, which did not fully emerge until Herrera eliminated from the conception the six interior towers of the facade, was, by no means. In fact, palaces of this design were commonplace in the Byzantine. Statues of David and Solomon on either side of the entrance to the basilica of El Escorial lend further weight to the theory that this is the origin of the design. A more personal connection can be drawn between the David-warrior figure, representing Charles V, and his son, the stolid and solomonically prudent Philip II
Eucharistic adoration is a practice in the Roman Catholic, Anglo-Catholic and some Lutheran traditions, in which the Blessed Sacrament is exposed and adored by the faithful. As a devotion, Eucharistic adoration and meditation are more than merely looking at the Blessed Host, from a theological perspective, the adoration is a form of latria, based on the tenet of the real presence of Christ in the Blessed Host. Christian meditation performed in the presence of the Eucharist outside of Mass is called Eucharistic meditation and it has been practiced by such as Peter Julian Eymard, Jean Vianney and Thérèse of Lisieux. Authors such as the Venerable Concepcion Cabrera de Armida and Blessed Maria Candida of the Eucharist have produced large volumes of text based on their Eucharistic meditations, when the exposure and adoration of the Eucharist is constant, it is called Perpetual adoration. In a monastery or convent, it is done by the resident monks or nuns and, in a parish, in the opening prayer of the Perpetual chapel in St.
Peter Basilica, Pope John Paul II prayed for a perpetual adoration chapel in every parish in the world. Pope Benedict XVI instituted perpetual adoration for the laity in each of the five sectors of the diocese of Rome, Eucharistic adoration may be performed both when the Eucharist is exposed for viewing and when it is not. In Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament, the Eucharist is displayed in a monstrance, typically placed on an altar, at times with a focused on it. The exposition usually occurs in the context of a service of Benediction or similar service of devotions to the Blessed Sacrament, Exposition takes place in the context of perpetual adoration, where specific people attend the exposition for a certain period of time,24 hours a day. On 10 January 1969 Blessed Pope Paul VI issued a Letter to the Superior General, Father Roland Huot, S. S. S. Https, //www. ewtn. com/library/PAPALDOC/P6ADORE. HTM This concession is included in the revised Roman Ritual, Holy Communion, in many cases Eucharistic adoration is performed by each person for an uninterrupted hour known as the Holy Hour.
The inspiration for the Holy Hour is Matthew 26,40 when in the Garden of Gethsemane the night before his crucifixion, Jesus asks Peter, So, could you men not keep watch with me for one hour. Pope John Paul II spent many hours in silent Eucharistic adoration, since the Protestant Reformation, some Christian denominations have criticized Eucharistic adoration, even considering it a form of idolatry. Many Anglicans and Lutherans contend that it cannot be idolatry because Christ, while the keeping of the Blessed Sacrament outside of Mass seems to have been part of the Eucharistic Christian practice from the beginning, the practice of adoration began somewhat later. One of the first possible references to reserving the Blessed Sacrament for adoration is found in a life of St. Basil, Basil is said to have divided the Eucharistic bread into three parts when he celebrated the Divine Liturgy in the monastery. One part he consumed, the part he gave to the monks. This is befitting the Eastern custom of veiling those things deemed sacred from human eyes, the Franciscan archives credit Saint Francis of Assisi for starting Eucharistic Adoration in Italy.
This process spread from Umbria to other parts of Italy by the Franciscans, Francis had a deep devotion to the Eucharist and Saint Bonaventure commented that Francis would be swept in ecstasy after receiving Communion. For Francis, the adoration of the Eucharist amounted to seeing Christ, the theological basis for the adoration was prepared in the 11th century by Pope Gregory VII, who was instrumental in affirming the tenet that Christ is present in the Blessed Host
Rose of Lima
A lay member of the Dominican Order, she has been declared a saint by the Catholic Church, being the first person born in the Americas to be canonized as a saint. Her image is featured on the highest denomination banknote of Peru and she was born Isabel Flores de Oliva in the city of Lima, in the Viceroyalty of Peru, on April 20,1586. She was one of the children of Gaspar Flores, a harquebusier in the Imperial Spanish army, born in Baños de Montemayor, and his wife, María de Oliva y Herrera. Her nickname Rose comes from an incident in her babyhood, in 1597 she was confirmed by the Archbishop of Lima, Toribio de Mogrovejo, who was to be declared a saint. She formally took the name of Rose at that time, as a young girl—in emulation of the noted Dominican tertiary, St. Catherine of Siena—she began to fast three times a week and performed severe penances in secret. When she was admired for her beauty, Rose cut off her hair and smeared pepper on her face and she rejected all suitors against the objections of her friends and her family.
Despite the censure of her parents, she spent many hours contemplating the Blessed Sacrament, which she received daily and she was determined to take a vow of virginity, which was opposed by her parents, who wished her to marry. Finally, out of frustration, her father gave her a room to herself in the family home, after daily fasting, she took to permanently abstain from eating meat. She helped the sick and hungry around her community, bringing them to her room, Rose sold her fine needlework, and took flowers that she grew to market, to help her family. She made and sold lace and embroidery to care for the poor, she became a recluse, leaving her room only for her visits to church. She attracted the attention of the friars of the Dominican Order and she wanted to become a nun, but her father forbade it, so she instead entered the Third Order of St. Dominic while living in her parents home. In her twentieth year she donned the habit of a tertiary and she only allowed herself to sleep two hours a night at most, so that she had more hours to devote to prayer.
She donned a heavy crown made of silver, with spikes on the inside. For eleven years she lived this way, with intervals of ecstasy and it is said that she prophesied the date of her death. Her funeral was held in the cathedral, attended by all the authorities of Lima. Rose was beatified by Pope Clement IX on May 10,1667, and canonized on April 12,1671, by Pope Clement X, the first Catholic in the Americas to be declared a saint. Her shrine, alongside those of her friends, St. Martin de Porres and Saint John Macias, is located inside the convent of St. Dominic in Lima. The Roman Catholic Church says that many miracles followed her death, there were stories that she had cured a leper, Roses started falling from the sky