World history or global history is a field of historical study that emerged centuries ago, with leaders such as Voltaire, Karl Marx and Arnold J. Toynbee; the field became much more active in terms of university teaching, text books, scholarly journals, academic associations in the late 20th century. It examines history from a global perspective, it is not to be confused with comparative history, like world history, deals with the history of multiple cultures and nations, but does not do so on a global scale. World history looks for common patterns. World historians use a thematic approach, with two major focal points: difference. Jerry H. Bentley has observed that'the term world history has never been a clear signifier with a stable referent', that usage of the term overlaps with universal history, comparative history, global history, big history, macro history, transnational history, among others; the advent of world history as a distinct academic field of study can be traced to the 1960s, but the pace quickened in the 1980s.
A key step was the creation of the World History Association and graduate programs at a handful of universities. Over the next decades scholarly publications and academic organizations, graduate programs in World History proliferated. World History has displaced Western Civilization in the required curriculum of American high schools and universities, is supported by new textbooks with a world history approach. World History attempts to recognize and address two structures that have profoundly shaped professional history-writing: A tendency to use current nation-states to the set the boundaries and agendas of studies of the past. A deep legacy of Eurocentric assumptions, thus World History tends to study networks and systems that cross traditional boundaries of historical study like linguistic and national borders. World History is concerned to explore social dynamics that have led to large-scale changes in human society, such as industrialization and the spread of capitalism, to analyse how large-scale changes like these have affected different parts of the world.
Like other branches of history-writing in the second half of the twentieth century, World History has a scope far beyond historians' traditional focus on politics and diplomacy, taking in a panoply of subjects like gender history, social history, cultural history, environmental history. The H-World discussion list serves as a network of communication among practitioners of world history, with discussions among scholars, syllabi and book reviews; the International Society for the Comparative Study of Civilizations approaches world history from the standpoint of comparative civilizations. Founded at a conference in 1961 in Salzburg, attended by Othmar Anderlie, Pitirim Sorokin, Arnold J. Toynbee, this is an international association of scholars that publishes a journal, Comparative Civilization Review, hosts an annual meeting in cities around the world; the Journal of World History has been published quarterly by the World History Association since 1990. The Journal of Global History is a scholarly journal established in 2006 and is published by Cambridge University Press.
World History Association - Established in the 1980s, the WHA is predominantly an American phenomenon. The study of world history, as distinct from national history, has existed in many world cultures. However, early forms of world history were not global, were limited to only the regions known by the historian. In Ancient China, Chinese world history, that of China and the surrounding people of East Asia, was based on the dynastic cycle articulated by Sima Qian in circa 100 BC. Sima Qian's model is based on the Mandate of Heaven. Rulers rise when they united China are overthrown when a ruling dynasty became corrupt; each new dynasty begins virtuous and strong, but decays, provoking the transfer of Heaven's mandate to a new ruler. The test of virtue in a new dynasty is success in being obeyed by China and neighboring barbarians. After 2000 years Sima Qian's model still dominates scholarship, although the dynastic cycle is no longer used for modern Chinese history. In Ancient Greece, Herodotus, as founder of Greek historiography, presents insightful and lively discussions of the customs and history of Mediterranean peoples the Egyptians.
However, his great rival Thucydides promptly discarded Herodotus's all-embracing approach to history, offering instead a more precise focused monograph, dealing not with vast empires over the centuries but with 27 years of war between Athens and Sparta. In Rome, the vast, patriotic history of Rome by Livy approximated Herodotean inclusiveness. Rashīd al-Dīn Fadhl-allāh Hamadānī, was a Persian physician of Jewish origin, polymathic writer and historian, who wrote an enormous Islamic history, the Jami al-Tawarikh, in the Persian language considered a landmark in intercultural historiography and a key document on the Ilkhanids, his encyclopedic knowledge of a wide range of cultures from Mongolia to China to the Steppes of Central Eurasia to Persia, the Arabic-speaking lands, Europe, provide the most direct access to information on the late Mongol era. His descriptions highlight the manner in which the Mongol Empire and its emphasis on trade re
Escapement is a 1958 black and white British science fiction film. It was based on the sci-fi novel Escapement by Charles Eric Maine. Original working titles included the Electronic Fiend; the film was released in England in 1958, but was only shown in the US in 1960 on a double feature with either 13 Ghosts or the Japanese sci-fi classic Battle in Outer Space. Inquiring into the mysterious death of a Hollywood star, insurance investigator Jeff Keenan uncovers an exclusive psychiatric clinic on the French Riviera. Here, patients who want to escape the stresses of life are hypnotized laid out in morgue-like drawers and left to dream for several weeks, it turns out that Dr. Zakon, the clinic's ex-Nazi owner, is using a "dream machine" to alter the sleepers' dreams, to impose his will on theirs. Jeff Keenan - Rod Cameron Ruth Vance - Mary Murphy Doctor Maxwell - Meredith Edwards Paul Zakon - Peter Illing Doctor Hoff - Carl Jaffe Laura Maxwell - Kay Callard Blore - Carl Duering Verna Berteaux - Roberta Huby Commissaire - Felix Felton Brad Somers - Larry Cross Signore Kallini - Carlo Borelli Claude Denver - John McCarthy French Doctor - Jacques Cey French Farmer - Armande Guinle Receptionist - Malou Pantera Receptionist - Pat Clavin Wayne - Alan Gifford Producer Richard Gordon said there were major problems with the film's special effects.
He said that he had a dispute with Anglo-Amalgamated, who did not want the movie to get an X certificate in England, whereas Gordon wanted more horror for the US. Leonard Maltin called it a "blah sci-fi programmer". Escapement on IMDb Escapement at TCMDB Escapement at BFI
Balthazar Alexis Henri Schauenburg, was a French general who served in the wars of the French Revolution and the Empire. He commanded the Army of the Moselle in 1793 during the War of the First Coalition. A nobleman, he joined the French Royal Army as a sous-lieutenant in 1764; the French Revolution led to rapid promotion and to arrest for the crime of being an aristocrat. Restored to command, he commanded Kehl in 1796 and invaded Switzerland in 1798, he served in Jean Victor Marie Moreau's army in 1800 and held commands in the interior under the First French Empire. He retired from the army in 1814 and died in 1831. Schawembourg is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe, on Column 23; the family of Schauenburg dates to the eleventh century, the union of Utha, daughter of Godfrey count of Calw, with Luitgarde of the house of Zähringen and Henry the Great, duke of Bavaria. By the late fourteenth century, the line of Winterbach had formed; the Alsatian line, founded with Rene in 1474, is linked with the house of Austria and the margraves of Baden, dating to the late fifteenth century.
During a campaign with the brothers of the margraves of Baden, he served well as their champion of battle, was rewarded with a chateau at Isenheim. His advantageous marriages to Agathe of Stauffenberg and Claire de Oersperg, the survival of his second child Nicholas, sealed his success. Nicholas not only became the grand master of the forests of Baden, he lived to the fantastic age of 91, produced energetic and successful children. After three more generations, this line of the family divided into three branches: Nicholas III, founded the branch of Oberkirch and Gaisbach. Balthazar Alexis Henri descended of the Schauenburg branch called the Jungholz. Schauenburg was the first son of Bathazar Schauenburg. Balthazar was captain in the Regiment of Nassau, chevalier of the Order of Saint Louis. Balthazar senior and his wife had two other children: Jean-Pierre, born 16 June 1753, was a captain of the regiment Alsace, served the Prince Deux Pont in Munich as his chamberlain; the third child, Francois Andre Balthazar, born on 1 December 1761, was a colonel of battalion, chevalier of Saint Louis, died 15 June 1833.
Balthazar Alexis Henri Schauenburg married Marie-Francoise-Sophie-Louise Albertine d' Tratzheim in 1783, they had the four children. The first, Maximilian-Joseph, was Marechal de camp, Commander of the Legion of honor, married to Caroline de Berkheim and Hortense de Lerme; the second child, François-Joseph, born 1785, was a captain of grenadiers and died in 1807 at the Battle of Heilsberg. The third child, Pierre-Rielle, was born 18 March 1793 in Saarlouis; as Baron of Schauenburg, he married Adele, daughter of Jean-Nicolas du Bosque and Salome de Marechal, had three children: Pierre-Joseph-Balthazar-Alexis, 21 June 1828, who became a magistrate. Their fourth child, Jean-Charles, was born 20 January 1797, became a cavalry officer, died in 1826. During his lifelong military career, he served first in Louis XV's royal army as a 14-year-old cadet in an Alsatian regiment. From 1770 to 1772, he served in the Corsican campaign. After the French Revolution, he adopted the principles of equality, his career advanced quickly.
Replacing Louis-Alexandre Berthier, he served as chief of staff to François Christophe de Kellermann at the Battle of Valmy in September 1792. He turned out to be a talented organizer. On 5 August 1793 he was appointed to lead the Army of the Moselle against his wishes, he claimed to be a good military instructor but not an army commander. The generals had seen many commanders-in-chief disgraced or executed, so few men wanted the assignment, yet during his appointment to the Army of the Moselle, he drilled raw recruits into a functioning military unit. As a nobleman, Schauenburg came under suspicion and Jean René Moreaux was named to replace him on 24 September 1793. However, Moreaux was ill from an old wound and Jacques Charles René Delauney took over as acting commander on 30 September. Delauney held the post until Lazare Hoche became the Army of Moselle's new leader on 31 October 1793. Schauenburg was imprisoned during the Reign of Terror until 27 July 1794. Schauenburg was appointed to the rank of inspector general of the infantry to the Army of the Rhine and Moselle and served during the Rhine Campaign of 1796.
He commanded one of the armies responsible for the invasion of the Swiss Confederation in January 1798. He exacted heavy war contributions in particular on the city of Bern, he commanded the Army of Helvetia from 8 March to 10 December 1798