The Magic Goes Away
The Magic Goes Away is a fantasy short story written by Larry Niven in 1976, expanded to a novella of the same name, published in 1978. While these works were not the first in the "Magic Universe" or "Warlock" series, they marked a turning point after the 1973 oil crisis and Niven's subsequent transformation of the series into an allegory for a modern-day energy crisis; the setting was used as a backdrop for a series of full-length novels, The Burning City and its sequel, Burning Tower, which were co-written with Jerry Pournelle. This is a list of publications based on the setting of The Magic Goes Away; the Warlock, whose actual name is both unknown and unpronounceable, is a powerful sorcerer in excess of 200 years of age. He observes that when he stays in one place too long, his powers dwindle and will return only when he leaves that place. Experimentation leads him to create an apparatus consisting of a metal disc enchanted to spin perpetually; the enchantment consumes all the mana in the vicinity, causing a localized failure in all magic.
The Warlock realizes that magic is fueled by a non-renewable resource, which would cause great concern among the magicians, as it was through their magic that nations enforced their wills both internally and abroad. The widespread diminishing of magical power in The Magic Goes Away triggered a quest on the part of the most powerful of the magicians of the time to harness a new source of magic, resulting in the events described in the book, it was discovered that mana was carried to Earth and the other bodies of the solar system on the solar wind, replenishing mana over time. However, at some point in the "recent" past a god created an invisible shield between Earth and Sun that intercepted the solar mana and caused the eventual decline of magic on Earth. Traditional fantasy creatures inhabit Niven's Magic universe, but devolve to normal animals when deprived of mana. For example, a unicorn becomes a simple horse; the Warlock – One of the world's foremost magicians. He devised a simple experiment to explain why a magician's power would fade over time, a device called the Warlock's Wheel.
Clubfoot – The Warlock's apprentice. A Native American named after a deformity of his foot that he could have cured long ago but it would have cost him half his power. Wavyhill – The first Necromancer. Exploiting the mana inherent in murder, he invented necromancy, his name comes from his practice of building his houses under magically supported overhangs. Orolandes – A Greek soldier, survivor of the sinking of Atlantis. Mirandee – A powerful witch Warlock's lover; the World Worm – Its spine composes all the world's mountain chains, the Andes, Rockies, etc. It consumes its own tail, along with anything. Richard A. Lupoff reviewed the 1978 novella unfavorably, saying that although the story "bristles with amusing devices," the writing itself was unsatisfactory: "Niven doesn't make any of it real for me. Flat, sterile narrative prose." In her afterword to the novella, Sandra Miesel identified a number of influences on the setting: "The Wheels of If", The Incomplete Enchanter, The Blue Star, Operation Chaos, Too Many Magicians, The Dragon and the George, as well as Niven's earlier works, "All the Myriad Ways" and the Svetz series.
There are several references to the works of H. P. Lovecraft, such as the reference of a mad magician named Alhazred and an amorphous god called the Crawling Chaos; the Magic Goes Away was adapted as a graphic novel, the sixth in the DC Science Fiction Graphic Novel series, by Paul Kupperberg and Jan Duursema in 1986. These card games use a card called'Nevinyrral': The collectible card game Magic: The Gathering has a card called Nevinyrral's Disk, a reference to the Warlock's Wheel; this card has the effect of removing the effects of players' spells from play, while leaving their lands intact. The collectible card game Netrunner has a card called Nevinyrral, a reference to the writer Larry Niven; this card has the effect of giving the Corporate player an extra action each turn, but if this card goes away the Corporate player loses. The short story: The Magic Goes Away title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database The novel: The Magic Goes Away title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
Protector is a 1973 science fiction novel by American writer Larry Niven, set in his Known Space universe. It was nominated for the Hugo in 1974, placed fourth in the annual Locus poll for that year; the work fleshes out a species called the Pak introduced in a 1967 story called "The Adults", which forms the first half of the novel. The Pak appear in several of Niven's works, including the volumes of the Ringworld series and the novel Destroyer of Worlds which serves as a semi-sequel to Protector; the novel comprises two phases in the same space. Its central conceit is that Humans evolved from the juvenile stage of the Pak, a species with a distinct adult form that have immense strength and intelligence and care only about younger Pak of their bloodline. A key plot point is that transition to the protector stage is mediated by consumption of the root of a particular plant called Tree-of-Life, which cannot be cultivated on Earth; the first half of the book follows the path of a Pak named Phssthpok who has travelled from the Pak homeworld in search of a colony of Pak in the distant system of Sol.
Upon his arrival, he captures a Belter named Jack Brennan, infected by Phssthpok's store of tree-of-life root and is transformed into a protector. They land on Mars where Brennan kills Phssthpok and is rescued by two Humans, Nick Sohl and Lucas Garner, who had set out to meet the alien; the first half of the novel ends with Brennan telling his story to the Humans before he heads for the outer reaches of the solar system. The second half of the book follows the path of a Human named Roy Truesdale, abducted with no memory of the event. While searching for his abductor, he befriends a Belter named Alice Jordan who helps him figure out that the man he has sought is none other than Jack Brennan. Truesdale and Jordan find Brennan in the outer solar system on a fabricated world of Brennan's design called Kobold. Brennan discovers that a Pak invasion fleet is headed towards human space and takes Truesdale to a Human outpost colony called Home in an effort to divert attention away from Earth. During their journey they battle with scout ships from the Pak fleet.
Brennan and Truesdale arrive at Home only to have Truesdale realize that Brennan plans to convert the colony into a defensive Human Protector army. Truesdale kills Brennan and lands on Home, but is himself infected with a mutated strain of the Tree-of-Life virus that spreads to a number of other colonists, thus carrying out Brennan's plan despite Truesdale's initial attempts to thwart it. Upon his conversion to protector form, Truesdale comes to view Brennan's plan as necessary and completes it by breaking out of hospital confinement and infecting the entire population of Home; the modified virus either kills or converts the remaining inhabitants, resulting in an army of childless protectors. The new protectors think that they must act to save the rest of Humanity, start preparing for battle with the Pak invasion fleet; as an aside, it is mentioned that during his sojourn in the outer solar system Brennan had engineered a genocide on Mars, sending a large ice asteroid to crash into the planet in order to raise the water content of its atmosphere.
Water is lethal to the Martians' metabolism, thus this wiped out the species. This incident serves to underscore the Pak Protectors' inherent xenophobia and utter ruthlessness in pursuing their ultimate goal of protecting their descendants; the events which impelled Brennan to this action are those narrated in How the Heroes Die and At the Bottom of a Hole, two short 1966 stories which Niven published in Galaxy Science Fiction and collected in Inconstant Moon. As depicted in these stories, there were two incidents in which Martians killed some humans who landed on their world, after which humans just left Mars alone. In the mind of the Protector Brennan - committed to defending humans and having no consideration whatever for others -, sufficient reason to exterminate the entire species. A species called Pak lives on a planet near the Milky Way core; the species has three main stages of development: Child, Protector. A Pak is born, matures into a Breeder, at which point he or she may bear children.
Breeders are not intelligent. Around 40 years of age, the root of the Tree-of-Life plant begins to smell delicious to all Breeders, they eat it and metamorphose into the Protector stage via a virus that lives in the plant. A Protector's joints expand to give his muscles a greater moment arm, his skin wrinkles into a tough armor, his nails turn into retractile claws. A second heart develops near the groin, the mouth fuses into a beak, all sexual characteristics disappear; the most important change is. A Protector has no motivation other than the preservation of his bloodline, to that end the Pak homeworld is never free from war, since all Protectors are trying to ensure their progeny's survival at the expense of everyone else. If a Protector has no children left, he no longer feels the urge to eat and dies unless he can adopt the entire Pak race and work towards their benefit. Two and a half million years ago, a group of Protectors hollowed out an asteroid, turned it into a ship, set sail for the galactic arms.
They settled on Earth, but discovered that the Tree-of-Life root would not grow, meaning that no Breeders would turn into Protectors, the Protectors would die without the root. The Protectors spent their time building a laser
Ballantine Books is a major book publisher located in the United States, founded in 1952 by Ian Ballantine with his wife, Betty Ballantine. It was acquired by Random House in 1973, which in turn was acquired by Bertelsmann in 1998 and remains part of that company today. Ballantine's logo is a pair of mirrored letter Bs back to back; the firm's early editors were Bernard Shir-Cliff. Following Fawcett Publications' controversial 1950 introduction of Gold Medal paperback originals rather than reprints, Lion Books and Ace decided to publish originals. In 1952, Ian Ballantine, a founder of Bantam Books, announced that he would "offer trade publishers a plan for simultaneous publishing of original titles in two editions, a hardcover'regular' edition for bookstore sale, a paper-cover,'newsstand' size, low-priced edition for mass market sale."When the first Ballantine Book, Cameron Hawley's Executive Suite was published in 1952, the publishing industry saw that the simultaneous hardcover and paperback editions were obvious successes.
Houghton Mifflin published the $3.00 hardcover at the same time Ballantine distributed its 35¢ paperback. By February 1953, Ballantine was preparing to print 100,000 more. Houghton Mifflin sold 22,000 hardback copies in its first printing. Ballantine's sales soon totaled 470,000 copies. Instead of hurting hardback sales as some predicted, the paperback edition instead gave the book more publicity. After the film rights were sold to MGM, Robert Wise directed the 1954 film, nominated for four Academy Awards. On the heels of that kind of sales and publicity, other Ballantine titles were seen in spinner racks across the country. Executive Suite was followed by Hal Ellson's The Golden Spike, Stanley Baron's All My Enemies, Luke Short's Saddle by Starlight, Ruth Park's The Witch's Thorn, Emile Danoen's Tides of Tide, Frank Bonham's Blood on the Land, Al Capp's The World of Li'l Abner and LaSelle Gilman's The Red Gate. During the early 1950s, Ballantine attracted attention as one of the leading publishers of paperback science fiction and fantasy, beginning with The Space Merchants.
The Frederik Pohl and C. M. Kornbluth novel had first appeared in Galaxy Science Fiction under the title Gravy Planet. Kauffman scored when he acquired and edited Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451. Ballantine's science fiction line included the unusual Star Science Fiction Stories. With cover paintings by Richard Powers, this innovative anthology series offered new fiction rather than reprints. Edited by Frederik Pohl, it attracted readers by combining the formats of both magazines and paperbacks. In the early 1960s, the company engaged in a well-known rivalry with Ace Books for the rights to reprint the works of J. R. R. Tolkien and Edgar Rice Burroughs in paperback form. Ballantine prevailed in the struggle for the Tolkien work, with their editions of Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings including a message on the back cover from Tolkien himself urging consumers to buy Ballantine's version and boycott "unauthorized editions". A separate Canadian edition of the books was published with different front cover art work.
Tolkien asked for permission to add the back cover message. Betty Ballantine recalled: "And we did put a little statement on the back covers saying that Ace was not paying royalties to Professor Tolkien, everybody who admired Lord of the Rings should only buy our paperback edition. Well, everybody got behind us. There was no publication that did not carry some kind of outraged article, and of course, the whole science fiction fraternity got behind the book. During the mid-1970s, Ballantine published the Star Trek Logs, a ten-volume series of Alan Dean Foster adaptations of the animated Star Trek. In 1968, Ballantine published a non-fiction book related to Star Trek, The Making of Star Trek by Stephen E. Whitfield and Gene Roddenberry. In 1976, Ballantine published the novelization of a forthcoming science fiction film, Star Wars: From the Adventures of Luke Skywalker by George Lucas; the book, like the film Star Wars released the following year, was an enormous success and sold out its initial print run.
In the first three months, Ballantine sold 3.5 million copies. After publishing The World of Li'l Abner, Ballantine introduced Shel Silverstein in 1956 with his Grab Your Socks! Collection of cartoons from Pacific Stars and Stripes. Ballantine published several collections of Jim Davis' comic strip Garfield; as an editor at Ballantine during the 1950s and 1960s, Bernard Shir-Cliff handled the Zacherley anthologies, the paperback of Hunter Thompson's Hell's Angels, Harvey Kurtzman's The Mad Reader and other early Mad paperbacks. He made four contributions to other magazines edited by Kurtzman. In 1956, Shir-Cliff edited a humor anthology, The Wild Reader, for Ballantine, including essays and satirical pieces by Robert Benchley, Art Buchwald, Tom Lehrer, John Lardner, Shepherd Mead, Ogden Nash, S. J. Perelman, Frank Sullivan, James Thurber and others; the 154-page paperback was illustrated with cartoons by Kelly Freas who did the front cover. Another contributor to both Ballantine and the Kurtzman magazines was the cartoonist-author Roger Price.
He did two humor books for Ballantine. I'm for Me First details Herman Clabbercutt's plan to launch a revolutionary political party known as the "I'm for M
Charles David George "Charlie" Stross is a British writer of science fiction, Lovecraftian horror, fantasy. Stross specialises in hard science space opera. Between 1994 and 2004, he was an active writer for the magazine Computer Shopper and was responsible for the monthly Linux column, he stopped writing for the magazine to devote more time to novels. However, he continues to publish freelance articles on the Internet. Stross was born in England, he showed an early interest in writing and wrote his first science fiction story at age 12. He graduated with a bachelor's degree in Pharmacy in 1986 and qualified as a pharmacist in 1987. In 1989, he enrolled at Bradford University for a post-graduate degree in computer science. In 1990, he went to work as programmer. In 2000, he began working as a writer full-time, as a technical writer at first, but became successful as a fiction writer. In the 1970s and 1980s, Stross published some role-playing game articles about Advanced Dungeons & Dragons in White Dwarf magazine.
Some of his creatures, such as the death knight, githyanki and slaad were published in the Fiend Folio monster compendium. His first published short story, "The Boys", appeared in Interzone in 1987. A collection of his short stories, Toast: And Other Rusted Futures, was released in 2002, his first novel, Singularity Sky, was published by Ace Books in 2003 and was nominated for the Hugo Award. His novella "The Concrete Jungle" won the Hugo award for its category in 2005, his novel Accelerando won the 2006 Locus Award for best science fiction novel, was a finalist for the John W. Campbell Memorial Award for Best Science Fiction Novel, was on the final ballot for the Hugo Award in the best novel category. Glasshouse won the 2007 Prometheus Award and was on the final ballot for the Hugo Award in the best novel category, his novella "Missile Gap" won the 2007 Locus Award for best novella, most he was awarded the Edward E. Smith Memorial Award or Skylark at Boskone 2008, his novel The Atrocity Archives focused on a British intelligence agency investigating Mythos-like horrors.
I hadn't heard of Delta Green when I wrote The Atrocity Archive... I'll leave it at that except to say that Delta Green has come dangerously close to making me pick up the dice again.""Rogue Farm," his 2003 short story, was adapted into an eponymous animated film that debuted in August 2004. Stross was one of the Guests of Honour at Orbital 2008, the British National Science Fiction convention, in March 2008, he was the Author Guest of Honour at the Maryland Regional Science Fiction Convention in May 2009. He was Author Guest of Honour at Fantasticon in August 2009, he was the Guest of Honor at Boskone 48 in Feb 2011. Cubicle 7 used their Basic Role-Playing license to create The Laundry, based on Stross' writings, wherein agents must deal with the outer gods and British bureaucracy at the same time. In September 2012, Stross released The Rapture of the Nerds, a novel written in collaboration with Cory Doctorow; the two have together been involved in the Creative Commons licensing and copyright movement.
In December 2017 he gave a talk at 34C3. Accelerando won the 2006 Locus Award for Best Science Fiction Novel. "Missile Gap" won the 2007 Locus Award for best novella. "The Concrete Jungle" won the Hugo Award for best novella in 2005. The Apocalypse Codex won the 2013 Locus Award for Best Fantasy Novel. Stross's work has been nominated for a number of other awards, including the John W. Campbell Memorial Award, Arthur C. Clarke Award, the Hugo Award for Best Novel, as well as the Japanese Seiun Award; the Family Trade The Hidden Family The Clan Corporate The Merchants' War The Revolution Business The Trade of Queens Empire Games Dark State Invisible Sun The Atrocity Archives The Jennifer Morgue Down on the Farm Overtime The Fuller Memorandum The Apocalypse Codex Equoid The Rhesus Chart The Annihilation Score The Nightmare Stacks The Delirium Brief The Labyrinth Index Accelerando Halting State Rule 34 Official website – featuring a blog with guest contributions "Stross at Livejournal". Archived from the original on 3 December 2012.
Stross software releases – latest, 2000 Charles Stross at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Charles Stross at Library of Congress Authorities, with 24 catalogue records "Charles Stross:: Pen & Paper RPG Database". Archived from the original on 10 March 2005. Retrieved 24 November 2018
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System. In the Solar System, it is the fourth-largest planet by diameter, the third-most-massive planet, the densest giant planet. Neptune is 17 times the mass of Earth more massive than its near-twin Uranus. Neptune is denser and physically smaller than Uranus because its greater mass causes more gravitational compression of its atmosphere. Neptune orbits the Sun once every 164.8 years at an average distance of 30.1 AU. It is named after the Roman god of the sea and has the astronomical symbol ♆, a stylised version of the god Neptune's trident. Neptune is not visible to the unaided eye and is the only planet in the Solar System found by mathematical prediction rather than by empirical observation. Unexpected changes in the orbit of Uranus led Alexis Bouvard to deduce that its orbit was subject to gravitational perturbation by an unknown planet. Neptune was subsequently observed with a telescope on 23 September 1846 by Johann Galle within a degree of the position predicted by Urbain Le Verrier.
Its largest moon, was discovered shortly thereafter, though none of the planet's remaining known 13 moons were located telescopically until the 20th century. The planet's distance from Earth gives it a small apparent size, making it challenging to study with Earth-based telescopes. Neptune was visited by Voyager 2, when it flew by the planet on 25 August 1989; the advent of the Hubble Space Telescope and large ground-based telescopes with adaptive optics has allowed for additional detailed observations from afar. Like Jupiter and Saturn, Neptune's atmosphere is composed of hydrogen and helium, along with traces of hydrocarbons and nitrogen, though it contains a higher proportion of "ices" such as water and methane. However, similar to Uranus, its interior is composed of ices and rock. Traces of methane in the outermost regions in part account for the planet's blue appearance. In contrast to the hazy featureless atmosphere of Uranus, Neptune's atmosphere has active and visible weather patterns.
For example, at the time of the Voyager 2 flyby in 1989, the planet's southern hemisphere had a Great Dark Spot comparable to the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. These weather patterns are driven by the strongest sustained winds of any planet in the Solar System, with recorded wind speeds as high as 2,100 km/h; because of its great distance from the Sun, Neptune's outer atmosphere is one of the coldest places in the Solar System, with temperatures at its cloud tops approaching 55 K. Temperatures at the planet's centre are 5,400 K. Neptune has a faint and fragmented ring system, discovered in 1984 later confirmed by Voyager 2; some of the earliest recorded observations made through a telescope, Galileo's drawings on 28 December 1612 and 27 January 1613 contain plotted points that match up with what is now known to be the position of Neptune. On both occasions, Galileo seems to have mistaken Neptune for a fixed star when it appeared close—in conjunction—to Jupiter in the night sky. At his first observation in December 1612, Neptune was stationary in the sky because it had just turned retrograde that day.
This apparent backward motion is created. Because Neptune was only beginning its yearly retrograde cycle, the motion of the planet was far too slight to be detected with Galileo's small telescope. In July 2009, University of Melbourne physicist David Jamieson announced new evidence suggesting that Galileo was at least aware that the "star" he had observed had moved relative to the fixed stars. In 1821, Alexis Bouvard published astronomical tables of the orbit of Neptune's neighbour Uranus. Subsequent observations revealed substantial deviations from the tables, leading Bouvard to hypothesise that an unknown body was perturbing the orbit through gravitational interaction. In 1843, John Couch Adams began work on the orbit of Uranus using the data. Via Cambridge Observatory director James Challis, he requested extra data from Sir George Airy, the Astronomer Royal, who supplied it in February 1844. Adams produced several different estimates of a new planet. In 1845–46, Urbain Le Verrier, independently of Adams, developed his own calculations but aroused no enthusiasm in his compatriots.
In June 1846, upon seeing Le Verrier's first published estimate of the planet's longitude and its similarity to Adams's estimate, Airy persuaded Challis to search for the planet. Challis vainly scoured the sky throughout September. Meanwhile, Le Verrier by letter urged Berlin Observatory astronomer Johann Gottfried Galle to search with the observatory's refractor. Heinrich d'Arrest, a student at the observatory, suggested to Galle that they could compare a drawn chart of the sky in the region of Le Verrier's predicted location with the current sky to seek the displacement characteristic of a planet, as opposed to a fixed star. On the evening of 23 September 1846, the day Galle received the letter, he discovered Neptune within 1° of where Le Verrier had predicted it to be, about 12° from Adams' prediction. Challis realised that he had observed the planet twice, on 4 and 12 August, but did not recognise it as a planet because he lacked an up-to-date star map and was distracted by his concurrent work on comet observations.
In the wake of the discovery, there was much nationalistic rivalry between the French and the British over who deserved credit for the discovery. An international consen
Flatlander (short story collection)
Flatlander is a 1995 collection of stories by American writer Larry Niven, all set in Known Space. It is the definitive collection of all stories by Niven about ARM agent Gil Hamilton. Many of the stories revolve around the theme of involuntary organ transplantation; the book includes the stories Death by Ecstasy, The Defenseless Dead, ARM, The Patchwork Girl, The Woman in Del Rey Crater—the only unpublished story in the collection. The collection is a replacement for a 1976 collection called The Long ARM of Gil Hamilton which contained only the first three stories; the Patchwork Girl was published alone as a novel in 1986. The title derives from the in-universe term flatlander, referring to an Earth-living human, as opposed to those who do not live on planets; this is. Flatlander - an unrelated Known Space short story by Larry Niven The Incompleat Known Space Concordance
Editions of Dungeons & Dragons
Several different editions of the Dungeons & Dragons fantasy role-playing game have been produced since 1974. The current publisher of D&D, Wizards of the Coast, produces new materials only for the most current edition of the game. Many D&D fans, continue to play older versions of the game and some third-party companies continue to publish materials compatible with these older editions. After the original edition of D&D was introduced in 1974, the game was split into two branches in 1977: the rules-light system of Dungeons & Dragons and the more complex, rules-heavy system of Advanced Dungeons & Dragons; the standard game was expanded into a series of five box sets by the mid-1980s before being compiled and revised in 1991 as the Dungeons & Dragons Rules Cyclopedia. Meanwhile, the 2nd edition of AD&D was published in 1989. In 2000, the 3rd edition, called Dungeons & Dragons, debuted; the 4th edition was published in 2008. The 5th edition was released in 2014; the original D&D was published as a box set in 1974 and featured only a handful of the elements for which the game is known today: just three character classes.
The rules assumed that players owned and played the miniatures wargame Chainmail and used its measurement and combat systems. An optional combat system was included within the rules that developed into the sole combat system of versions of the game. In addition, the rules presumed ownership of Outdoor Survival, a board game by then-unaffiliated company Avalon Hill for outdoor exploration and adventure. D&D was a radically new gaming concept at the time, it was difficult for players without prior tabletop wargaming experience to grasp the vague rules; the release of the Greyhawk supplement removed the game's dependency on the Chainmail rules, made it much easier for new, non-wargaming players to grasp the concepts of play. It inadvertently aided the growth of competing game publishers, since just about anyone who grasped the concepts behind the game could write smoother and easier to use rules systems and sell them to the growing D&D fanbase. Supplements such as Greyhawk, Eldritch Wizardry and Gods, Demi-Gods & Heroes, published over the next two years expanded the rules, character classes and spells.
For example, the original Greyhawk supplement introduced the thief class, weapon damage varying by weapon. In addition, many additions and options were published in the magazines The Strategic Review and its successor, The Dragon. An updated version of D&D was released between 1979 as Advanced Dungeons & Dragons; the game rules were reorganized and re-codified across three hardcover rulebooks, compiled by Gary Gygax, incorporating the original D&D rules and many additions and revisions from supplements and magazine articles. The three core rulebooks were the Monster Manual, the Player's Handbook, the Dungeon Master's Guide. Major additions included classes from supplements like assassin, monk and thief, while bard and ranger, which had only appeared in magazine articles, were added to the core rulebooks. Supplements for AD&D included Deities & Demigods, Fiend Folio, Monster Manual II, Oriental Adventures and Unearthed Arcana, the latter of which compiled material published in Dragon magazine, others.
While AD&D was still in the works, TSR was approached by an outside writer and D&D enthusiast, John Eric Holmes, who offered to re-edit and rewrite the original rules into an introductory version of D&D. Although TSR was focused on AD&D at the time, the project was seen as a profitable enterprise and a way to direct new players to anticipate the release of the AD&D game, it was published in July 1977 as the Basic Set, collecting together and organizing the rules from the original D&D boxed set and Greyhawk supplement into a single booklet, which covered character levels 1 through 3, included dice and a beginner's module. The booklet featured a blue cover with artwork by David C. Sutherland III; the "blue booklet" explained the game's concepts and method of play in terms that made it accessible to new players not familiar with tabletop miniatures wargaming. Unusual features of this version included an alignment system of five alignments as opposed to the three or nine alignments of the other versions.
This Basic Set was popular and allowed many to discover and experience the D&D game for the first time. Although the Basic Set is not compatible with AD&D, as some rules were simplified to make the game easier for new players to learn, players were expected to continue play beyond third level by moving on to the AD&D version. Once AD&D had been released, the Basic Set saw a major revision in 1981 by Tom Moldvay, followed by the release of an Expert Set written by David Cook, to accompany the Basic Set, extending it to levels 4 through 14, for players who preferred the simplified introductory ruleset. With this revision, the Basic rules became their own game, distinct both from original D&D and AD&D; the revised Basic rules can be distinguished from the original ones by cover colors: the Basic booklet had a red cover, the Expert booklet a blue one. Between 1983 and 1985 this system was revised and expanded by Frank Mentzer as a series of five boxed sets, including the Basic Rules, Expert Rules, Companion Rules, Master Rules (black, supporting levels 26 through 3