Travelport Worldwide Ltd is a UK-headquartered tech company listed on the NYSE with an annual turnover of over $2.3bn in 2016. Its travel commerce platform provides distribution, technology and other solutions for the travel and tourism industry, it is one of the world’s three major global distribution system operators. Travelport is headquartered in Berkshire. On September 25, 2014, the company completed an initial public offering on the New York Stock Exchange and trades under the symbol “TVPT”. Travelport traces its origins back to 1971, but its most immediate predecessor, Travel Distribution Services, was founded in 2001 through the acquisition of Galileo International by TDS's parent, Cendant Corporation. Travelport was formed in August 2006, when Cendant sold Orbitz and Galileo to The Blackstone Group in a deal valued at $4.3 billion. Shortly after the Blackstone-led buyout, in December 2006, Travelport struck a deal to buy one of its rivals, for $1.4 billion. In May 2007 the company filed a registration statement with the U.
S. Securities and Exchange Commission to sell a portion of Orbitz Worldwide in an IPO; the IPO was priced on July 20, 2007, opening at $15.00 per share, closed on July 25, 2007. A month Travelport completed the Worldspan deal, integrating Worldspan with Galileo. By combining operations with Worldspan and streamlining overlapping functions that Travelport had inherited from a string of more than 20 earlier mergers under Cendant, Travelport cut its overhead by $390 million in three years and doubled its cash flow. On May 5, 2011, Travelport completed the $720m sale of its GTA business to Kuoni. In 2015, Travelport completed the acquisition of Mobile Travel Technologies Ltd. According to Michele McDonald of TNooz, "in 2017 Travelport was the first GDS to be awarded the IATA NDC Level 3 certification as an aggregator of travel content." Official website
Northwest Airlines Corp. was a major United States airline founded in 1926 and absorbed into Delta Air Lines, Inc. by a merger. The merger, approved on October 29, 2008, made Delta the largest airline in the world until the American Airlines-US Airways merger on December 9, 2013. Northwest continued to operate under its own name and brand until the integration of the carriers was completed on January 31, 2010. Northwest was headquartered in Eagan, Minnesota near Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport. After World War II it became dominant in the trans-Pacific market with a hub in Japan. After acquiring Republic Airlines in 1986, Northwest established major hubs at Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport and Memphis International Airport. In 1993 it began a strategic alliance with KLM and a jointly coordinated European hub at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol; the Detroit and Minneapolis operations were retained as Delta hubs. However, the Memphis operation peaked at more than 300 flights per day prior to the merger with Delta.
Prior to its merger with Delta, Northwest was the world's sixth largest airline in terms of domestic and international scheduled passenger miles flown and the US's sixth largest airline in terms of domestic passenger miles flown. In addition to operating one of the largest domestic route networks in the U. S. Northwest carried more passengers across the Pacific Ocean than any other U. S. carrier, carried more domestic air cargo than any other American passenger airline. Regional flights for Northwest were operated under the name Northwest Airlink by Mesaba Airlines, Pinnacle Airlines, Compass Airlines. Northwest Airlines was a minority owner of Midwest Airlines, holding a 40% stake in the company. Northwest Airlines' tagline was "Now you're flying smart." Its frequent-flyer program was called WorldPerks. Northwest Airlines was founded on September 1, 1926, by Colonel Lewis Brittin, under the name Northwest Airways, a reference to the historical name for the Midwestern United States that derived from the Northwest Territory.
Like other early airlines, Northwest's focus was not in hauling passengers, but in flying mail for the U. S. Post Office Department; the airline was based in Detroit, Michigan. The fledgling airline established a mail route between Minneapolis and Chicago, using open-cockpit biplanes such as the Curtiss Oriole and the Waco JYM. From 1928 the enclosed cabin six-passenger Hamilton H-45 and H-47 were used. Northwest Airlines began carrying passengers in 1927. In 1929, a group headed by Richard Lilly, a businessperson from St. Paul, purchased the airline. In 1933 Northwest airlines was selected to fly the "Northern Transcontinental Route" to Seattle, Washington, it adopted the name Northwest Airlines the following year after the Air Mail scandal. Northwest Airways, Inc. changed its name to Northwest Airlines, Inc. and the airline was incorporated under its new name in the State of Minnesota. In 1939 Northwest had five daily flights from Chicago to Minneapolis. Northwest served Winnipeg and Portland, Oregon by spurs from its transcontinental route.
Northwest Airlines common stock began to be publicly traded in 1941. In 1931 Northwest sponsored Charles and Anne Lindbergh on a pioneering test flight to Japan via Alaska, scouting what would become known as the Northwest Airlines' Great Circle route that could save 2,000 miles on a New York to Tokyo flight. Northwest developed this route during World War II, when it flew soldiers and supplies from the Northwestern United States to Alaska; the airline's experience with the sub-arctic climate led the U. S. government to designate Northwest as the main airline over the North Pacific following the war. In spring of 1947 Northwest began stationing employees at Haneda Airport in Tokyo, flying them from the United States via Alaska on its Great Circle route. On July 15, 1947 Northwest was the first airline to begin direct service between the United States and Japan, using a Douglas DC-4 airliner named The Manila; the flight to Japan originated at Wold-Chamberlain Field in Minneapolis and stopped at Blatchford Field in Edmonton, Elmendorf AFB in Anchorage, Shemya AAF in the western Aleutian Islands.
The flight continued from Tokyo to Lunghwa Airport in Shanghai and to Nichols Field at Manila. A flight between Tokyo and Seoul began on October 20, 1947, Naha Airport in Okinawa began to be a stop on the Tokyo to Manila route on November 16, 1947. Northwest service to Shanghai was suspended in May 1949 because of the civil war in China, with the Republic of China nearly ready to collapse, its government evacuated to the island of Formosa. Northwest Airlines added Songshan Airport in Taipei, the new capital city of the Republic of China, as a stop on the Tokyo-Okinawa-Manila route on June 3, 1950, with ongoing interchange service to Hong Kong operated by Hong Kong Airways. With transpacific flights established, Northwest began branding as Northwest Orient Airlines, although its registered corporate name remained "Northwest Airlines." NWA continuously upgraded equipment on the transpacific routes. On June 22, 1949, Northwest received its first double-decker Boeing 377 "Stratocruiser", enabling more comfortable accommodations and faster transpacific flights.
The Stratocruiser began flying from the West Coast to Honolulu in 1950 and to Tokyo via Alaska on
A codeshare agreement known as codeshare, is a business arrangement, common in the aviation industry, in which two or more airlines publish and market a flight under their own airline designator and flight number as part of their published timetable or schedule. A flight is operated by one airline while seats are sold for the flight by all cooperating airlines using their own designator and flight number; the term "code" refers to the identifier used in flight schedule the two-character IATA airline designator code and flight number. Thus, XX123, might be sold by airline YY as YY456 and by ZZ as ZZ9876. Airlines YY and ZZ are in this case called "Marketing airlines". Most of the major airlines today have code sharing partnerships with other airlines, code sharing is a key feature of the major airline alliances. Code-sharing agreements are a part of the commercial agreements between airlines in the same airline alliances. In 1967, Richard A. Henson joined with US Airways predecessor Allegheny Airlines in the nation's first codeshare relationship.
The term "code sharing" or "codeshare" was coined in 1989 by Qantas and American Airlines, in 1990 the two firms provided their first codeshare flights between an array of Australian cities and U. S. domestic cities. Code sharing has become widespread in the airline industry since that time in the wake of the formation of large airline "alliances." These alliances have extensive codesharing and networked frequent flyer programs. Under a code sharing agreement, the airline that administrates the flight is called the operating carrier abbreviated OPE CXR though the IATA SSIM term "Administrating carrier" is more precise; the reason for this is that a third carrier may be involved in the case that the airline planning to operate the flight needs to hire a subcontractor to operate the flight on their behalf In this case, the airline carrying the passenger should be designated the operating carrier, since it is the one carrying the passengers/cargo. When a flight is sold under several designators and flight numbers as described above, the one published by the "Administrating carrier" is called a "prime flight".
Under a code sharing agreement, participating airlines can present a common flight number for several reasons, including: Connecting flights: This provides clearer routing for the customer, allowing a customer to book travel from point A to C through point B under one carrier's code, instead of a customer booking from point A to B under one code, from point B to C under another code. This is not only a superficial addition as cooperating airlines strive to synchronize their schedules. Flights from both airlines that fly the same route: this provides an apparent increase in the frequency of service on the route by one airline. Perceived service to unserviced markets: this provides a method for carriers who do not operate their own aircraft on a given route to gain exposure in the market through display of their flight numbers; when an airline sacrifices its capacity to other airlines as a code share partner, its operational cost will be reduced to zero. There are several types of code sharing arrangements: Block space codeshare: A commercial airline purchases a fixed number of seats from the administrating carrier.
A fixed price is paid, the seats are kept away from the administrating carrier's inventory. The marketing airline decides on its own. Free flow codeshare: The airlines' inventory and reservation systems communicate in real-time by messaging IATA AIRIMP/PADIS messaging. A booking class mapping is defined between the airlines. No seats are locked to any of the airlines, any airline can sell any number of seats. Capped free flow: Basically the same as above, but a capping are defined for each of the marketing airlines participating in the codeshare with the administrating carrier. Much competition in the airline industry revolves around ticket sales strategies. Criticism has been leveled against code sharing by consumer organizations and national departments of trade since it is claimed it is confusing and not transparent to passengers. There are code sharing arrangements between airlines and railway companies, formally known as air-rail alliances, marketed as "Rail & Fly" due to the popularity of the Deutsche Bahn codeshare with many airlines.
They involve some integration of both types of transport, e.g. in finding the fastest connection and allowing the transfer between plane and train using a single ticket. This allows passengers to book a whole journey at the same time for a discounted price compared to separate tickets. Change of gauge Interlining Snyder, Brett. "This isn't the airline I signed up for." CNN. July 11, 2011. Article on prospect of codesharing between North American rail and airline connections
Amadeus IT Group
Amadeus IT Group is a major Spanish IT provider for the global travel and tourism industry. The company is structured around two areas: its global distribution system and its IT Solutions business area. Acting as an international network, Amadeus provides search, booking and other processing services in real-time to travel providers and travel agencies through its Amadeus CRS distribution business area. Through its IT Solutions business area, it offers travel companies software systems which automate processes such as reservations, inventory management and departure control; the group, which processed 850 million billable travel transactions in 2010, services customers including airlines, tour operators, car rental and railway companies and cruise lines, travel agencies and individual travellers directly. The parent company of Amadeus IT Group, holding over 99.7% of the firm, is Amadeus IT Holding S. A, it is listed on the Spanish stock exchanges as of 29 April 2010 and trades under the symbol AMS.
For the year ended 31 December 2012, the company reported revenues of €2.910 billion and EBITDA of €1.108 billion. Amadeus has central sites in Madrid, Sophia Antipolis, London, UK, Netherlands, Erding and Bangalore, India as well as regional offices in Boston, Buenos Aires, Miami, Istanbul and Sydney. At market level, Amadeus maintains customer operations through 173 local Amadeus Commercial Organisations covering 195 countries; the Amadeus group employs 14,200 employees worldwide, listed in Forbes' list of "The World's Largest Public Companies" as No. 985. Amadeus was created as a neutral global distribution system by Air France, Lufthansa and SAS in 1987 in order to connect providers' content with travel agencies and consumers in real time; the creation of Amadeus was intended to offer a European alternative to Sabre, an American GDS. The first Amadeus system was built from core reservation system code coming from System One, an American GDS that competed with Sabre but went bankrupt, a copy of the Air France pricing engine.
These systems were running under IBM TPF and Unisys. At the beginning of Amadeus, the Amadeus systems were functionally dedicated to airline reservation and centered on the PNR, the passenger's travel file. Throughout the years, the PNR was opened up to additional travel industries. Although established as a private partnership, Amadeus went public in October 1999, becoming listed on the Paris and Madrid stock exchanges. Progressively and in line with industry evolution, Amadeus diversified its operations by focusing on information technologies to deliver services spanning beyond sales and reservation functionalities, centred on streamlining the operational and distribution requirements of its customer base. Since 2004, the company has invested €1 billion in R&D and Amadeus's technology has embraced open systems which provide clients with more flexibility and features, as well as other benefits; as of 2010, 85% of its addsoftware portfolio was open system based and it expects by the end of 2016 to have migrated away from mainframe-based TPF software.
In 2005, Amadeus was delisted from the Paris and Madrid stock exchanges when BC Partners and Cinven bought their stake from three of the four founding airlines and the rest of the capital floated from institutional and minority shareholders. The transition from distribution system to technology provider was reflected by the change in its corporate name in 2006, when the company name was changed to Amadeus IT Group. In 2009, Amadeus invested about €257 million in R&D. Amadeus is again listed on the Spanish Stock Exchanges as of 29 April 2010. Throughout the years, Amadeus acquired: SMART AB, a travel distribution company in Northern Europe Vacation.com, the largest US marketing network for leisure travel E-Travel, Inc. a supplier of hosted technology products for corporate travel Opodo, a European travel website which it sold on February 2011 for €450 million Airline Automation, a robotic PNR processing company, in 2006 TravelTainment, a leisure content provider Optims, a European hotel software company Onerail, a rail IT software supplier Newmarket International, an IT provider for hotels iTesso, a Property Management System provider for hotels UFIS, an airport IT provider i:FAO, a leading provider of end-to-end Corporate Travel IT solutions AirIT, a provider of information technology solutions to airports and groundhandlers Navitaire, a provider for rail and Low Cost Airlines Pyton, an online booking engine supplier travel audience GmbH, an online advertising firmIn September 2014, Air France sold a 3% stake in the firm for $438 million.
In November 2017, Amadeus invested in global mapping tech provider AVUXI. TravelClick, a Leading Hospitality Industry Solutions provider Amadeus has its own data centre in Erding, Germany. In 2010, the Erding complex processed ½ billion transactions per day, handled, on average, 9,000 user data queries per second, with a system response time of less than 3 milliseconds and an average system uptime of 99.99%. Amadeus' global operations comprise not only the main site in Erding, but two strategic operation centres in Miami, United States and Sydney and local competency centres in Germany, India, Colombia and the United Kingdom. On Jan 15, 2019, the hacker and activist Noam Rotem discovered a major vulnerability affecting nearly half of all airlines worldwide while booking a flight with Israeli
Orbitz.com is a travel fare aggregator website and travel metasearch engine. The website is owned by Inc. a subsidiary of Expedia Group. It is headquartered in the Citigroup Center, Illinois. Established through a partnership of major airlines, subsequently owned by various entities, Orbitz.com – the flagship brand of Orbitz Worldwide – has been in operation since 2001. Other Orbitz Worldwide online travel companies include CheapTickets in the Americas. Orbitz Worldwide owns and operates Orbitz for Business, a corporate travel company. Orbitz was the airline industry's response to the rise of online travel agencies such as Expedia and Travelocity, as well as a solution to lower airline distribution costs. Continental Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Northwest Airlines, United Airlines, subsequently joined by American Airlines, invested a combined $145 million to start the project in November 1999, it was code-named T2, some claimed meaning "Travelocity Terminator", but adopted the brand name Orbitz when it commenced corporate operations as DUNC, LLC in February 2000.
The company began beta testing early the next year, Orbitz.com launched in June 2001. Before the site began operating, the company faced intense antitrust scrutiny because five of the six major airlines were collaborating on the project. Collectively, they controlled 80 percent of the US air travel market. Several consumer organizations, as well as Orbitz's primary competitors at the time spent significant amounts of money lobbying the United States Department of Transportation to block the project from the outset, some 23 state attorneys general voiced concerns due to the complaints of local competitors; when the DOT permitted the company to move ahead in April 2001, the competitive lobbying effort was switched to the Antitrust Division of the United States Department of Justice and the U. S. House Committee on Energy and Commerce. Among the concerns raised were these: above all, the so-called Most Favored Nation provision, by which the airlines agreed not to cut deals with competing sites under more favorable terms than with Orbitz the airlines' agreement to release certain discount fares only to Orbitz or other entities at Orbitz low distribution cost, at the expense of its online and offline competitors that Computer Reservation System fee discounts extended to partner airlines would undermine competitors and damage the fledgling online travel industry that the airlines would coordinate efforts secretly to reduce discounts Orbitz was breaking out the service fee from the ticket price, not making the total price clearIn July 2003, two years after the Orbitz launch, the Department of Justice ruled that Orbitz was not a cartel and did not pose a threat to competition.
Orbitz's rapid growth had not impeded its online competitors' businesses which had continued to grow apace, no evidence was found of price fixing. Additionally, changes in the marketplace had eroded both the advantages of the Most Favored Nation clause and the webfares that Orbitz had due to its low supplier cost; the efforts by its competitors to generate government scrutiny and the corresponding media attention only heightened consumer interest in Orbitz and the new ways it would allow travelers to shop. Nielsen's Net Ratings division reported in July 2001 that the Orbitz launch in June 2001 was the biggest e-commerce launch ever. In November 2003, Orbitz filed paperwork to sell shares at between $22 and $24 each in an initial public offering; the company went public on December 18, 2003 at a price per share of $26. After the IPO, the airlines held 70 % over 90 % of the voting power. On September 29, 2004, Orbitz was acquired for $1.25 billion by New York City-based Cendant Corporation. Cendant paid $27.50 per share.
In 2006, The Blackstone Group acquired Travelport, the travel distribution services business of Cendant, for $4.3 billion in cash. At the time, Travelport included the Orbitz travel reservation website used by consumers, the Galileo computer reservations system used by airlines and thousands of travel agents, Gulliver's Travels and Associates wholesale travel business, other travel related software brands and solutions. Travelport announced in May 2007 that it had filed a registration statement with the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission to sell a portion of Orbitz Worldwide in an initial public offering. Travelport said. Trading began on July 20, 2007, the IPO transaction closed on July 25, 2007. Travelport owned 48 percent of Orbitz Worldwide following the IPO. In February 2015, Expedia announced that it would acquire Orbitz for $1.2 billion in cash, to better compete with Priceline.com. The deal was announced a few days. Orbitz runs on a mixed Red Hat Linux and Solaris based platform and was an early adopter of Sun Microsystems' Jini platform in a clustered Java environment.
JBoss is used as application servers within their environment along with various other proprietary and open source software. Orbitz licenses ITA Software's Lisp-powered QPX software to power their site. Orbitz Worldwide brands have been migrated to a common technology platform, which enables the same platform to service multiple travel brands in multiple languages in different markets and currencies as well. Orbitz has released parts of its Complex Event Processing infrastructure as Open Source. Southwest Airlines filed a lawsuit against Orbitz for trademark infringement and false advertising in May 2001. Southwest, which had opposed the project from the outset, claimed Orbitz mis
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent; the mixing process of a solution happens at a scale where the effects of chemical polarity are involved, resulting in interactions that are specific to solvation. The solution assumes the phase of the solvent when the solvent is the larger fraction of the mixture, as is the case; the concentration of a solute in a solution is the mass of that solute expressed as a percentage of the mass of the whole solution. The term aqueous solution is. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances; the particles of solute in a solution cannot be seen by the naked eye. A solution does not allow beams of light to scatter. A solution is stable; the solute from a solution cannot be separated by filtration. It is composed of only one phase. Homogeneous means. Heterogeneous means; the properties of the mixture can be uniformly distributed through the volume but only in absence of diffusion phenomena or after their completion.
The substance present in the greatest amount is considered the solvent. Solvents can be liquids or solids. One or more components present in the solution other; the solution has the same physical state as the solvent. If the solvent is a gas, only gases are dissolved under a given set of conditions. An example of a gaseous solution is air. Since interactions between molecules play no role, dilute gases form rather trivial solutions. In part of the literature, they are not classified as solutions, but addressed as mixtures. If the solvent is a liquid almost all gases and solids can be dissolved. Here are some examples: Gas in liquid: Oxygen in water Carbon dioxide in water – a less simple example, because the solution is accompanied by a chemical reaction. Note that the visible bubbles in carbonated water are not the dissolved gas, but only an effervescence of carbon dioxide that has come out of solution. Liquid in liquid: The mixing of two or more substances of the same chemistry but different concentrations to form a constant.
Alcoholic beverages are solutions of ethanol in water. Solid in liquid: Sucrose in water Sodium chloride or any other salt in water, which forms an electrolyte: When dissolving, salt dissociates into ions. Solutions in water are common, are called aqueous solutions. Non-aqueous solutions are. Counter examples are provided by liquid mixtures that are not homogeneous: colloids, emulsions are not considered solutions. Body fluids are examples for complex liquid solutions. Many of these are electrolytes. Furthermore, they contain solute molecules like urea. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are essential components of blood chemistry, where significant changes in their concentrations may be a sign of severe illness or injury. If the solvent is a solid gases and solids can be dissolved. Gas in solids: Hydrogen dissolves rather well in metals in palladium. Liquid in solid: Mercury in gold, forming an amalgam Water in solid salt or sugar, forming moist solids Hexane in paraffin wax Solid in solid: Steel a solution of carbon atoms in a crystalline matrix of iron atoms Alloys like bronze and many others Polymers containing plasticizers The ability of one compound to dissolve in another compound is called solubility.
When a liquid can dissolve in another liquid the two liquids are miscible. Two substances that can never mix to form a solution are said to be immiscible. All solutions have a positive entropy of mixing; the interactions between different molecules or ions may be energetically favored or not. If interactions are unfavorable the free energy decreases with increasing solute concentration. At some point the energy loss outweighs the entropy gain, no more solute particles can be dissolved. However, the point at which a solution can become saturated can change with different environmental factors, such as temperature and contamination. For some solute-solvent combinations a supersaturated solution can be prepared by raising the solubility to dissolve more solute, lowering it; the greater the temperature of the solvent, the more of a given solid solute it can dissolve. However, most gases and some compounds exhibit solubilities that decrease with increased temperature; such behavior is a result of an exothermic enthalpy of solution.
Some surfactants exhibit this behaviour. The solubility of liquids in liquids is less temperature-sensitive than that of solids or gases; the physical properties of compounds such as melting point and boiling point change when other compounds are added. Together they are called colligative properties. There are several ways to quantify the amount of one compound dissolved in the other compounds collectively called concentration. Examples include molarity, volume fraction, mole fraction; the properties of ideal solutions can be calculated by the linear combination of the properties of
Trans World Airlines
Trans World Airlines was a major American airline that existed from 1930 until 2001. It was formed as Transcontinental & Western Air to operate a route from New York City to Los Angeles via St. Louis, Kansas City, other stops, with Ford Trimotors. With American and Eastern, it was one of the "Big Four" domestic airlines in the United States formed by the Spoils Conference of 1930. Howard Hughes acquired control of TWA in 1939, after World War II led the expansion of the airline to serve Europe, the Middle East, Asia, making TWA a second unofficial flag carrier of the United States after Pan Am. Hughes gave up control in the 1960s, the new management of TWA acquired Hilton International and Century 21 in an attempt to diversify the company's business; as the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 led to a wave of airline failures, start-ups, takeovers in the United States, TWA was spun off from its holding company in 1984. Carl Icahn acquired control of TWA and took the company private in a leveraged buyout in 1988.
TWA became saddled with debt, sold its London routes, underwent Chapter 11 restructuring in 1992 and 1995, was further stressed by the explosion of TWA Flight 800 in 1996. In 2001, TWA was acquired by American Airlines. American laid off many former TWA employees in the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks and closed its St. Louis hub in 2003. TWA was headquartered at one time in Kansas City and planned to make Kansas City International Airport its main domestic and international hub, but abandoned this plan in the 1970s; the airline developed its largest hub at Lambert-St. Louis International Airport, its main transatlantic hub was the TWA Flight Center at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City, an architectural icon designed by Eero Saarinen, completed in 1962. TWA's corporate history dates from the July 16, 1930, the forced merger of Transcontinental Air Transport, Western Air Express, Maddux Air Lines and Pittsburgh Aviation Industries Corporation to form Transcontinental & Western Air on 1 Oct. 1930.
The companies merged at the urging of Postmaster General Walter Folger Brown, looking for bigger airlines to give airmail contracts to. The airline brought high-profile aviation pioneers who would give the airline the panache of being called "The Airman's Airline". TAT had the marquee expertise of Charles Lindbergh and was offering a 48-hour combination of plane and train trip across the United States. WAE had the expertise of Jack Frye. TWA became known as "The Lindbergh Line", with the "Shortest Route Coast to Coast". On October 25, 1930, the airline offered one of the first all-plane scheduled service from coast to coast; the route took 36 hours. In summer 1931, TWA moved its headquarters from New York to Missouri. On 31 March 1931, the airline suffered after the 1931 Transcontinental & Western Air Fokker F-10 crash near Matfield Green, Kansas; the crash killed all eight including University of Notre Dame football coach Knute Rockne. The cause of the crash was linked to the wooden wings; as a consequence, all of the airline's Fokker F.10s were grounded, destroyed.
TWA needed a replacement aircraft. TWA was forced to sponsor the development of a new airplane design. Specifications included the ability to fly the high altitude route between Winslow and Albuquerque, New Mexico with one engine inoperative. Other specifications included the capacity to carry 12 passengers, an 1080 mile range. On September 20, 1932, the development contract was signed with Douglas Aircraft Company and the DC-1 was delivered to TWA in December 1933, the sole example of its type; this was followed by the delivery of 32 Douglas DC-2s that started operations in May 1934 on its Columbus-Pittsburgh-Newark route. Most were phased out by 1937 as the DC-3 started service, but several DC-2s would be operational through the early years of World War II. Throughout 1934, Tommy Tomlinson set load and distance records with the DC-1. TWA used their Northrop Gamma as an "experimental Overweather Laboratory", in a desire to fly at altitudes above the weather. On 18 February 1934, Frye and Eastern Air Lines Eddie Rickenbacker, flew a DC-1 from Glendale, California, to Newark, New Jersey, setting a transcontinental record of 13 hours and 4 minutes.
On 17 April Frye was elected president. TWA started using the DC-3 on 1 June 1937; the fleet included 8 day versions. In 1934, following charges of favoritism in the contracts, the Air Mail scandal erupted, leading to the Air Mail Act of 1934, which dissolved the forced Transcontinental/Western merger and ordered the United States Army Air Service to deliver the mail. However, Transcontinental opted to retain the T&WA name. With the company facing financial hardship, Lehman Brothers and John D. Hertz took over ownership of the company; the Army fliers had a series of crashes, it was decided to privatize the delivery with the provision that no former companies could bid on the contracts. T&WA added the suffix "Inc." to its name. It was awarded 60% of its old contracts back in May 1934, won back the rest within a few years. On 29 January 1937, TWA contracted with Boeing for five Boeing 307 Stratoliners, which included a pressurized cabin. However, the TWA board refused to authorize the expenditure.
Frye approached another flying enthusiast, Howard Hughes, to buy stock in 1937. Hughes Tool Company purchased 99,293 shares at $8.25 a share, giving Hughes control, Noah Dietrich was placed on the board. Hughes