University of Auckland
The University of Auckland is the largest university in New Zealand, located in the country's largest city, Auckland. It is the highest-ranked university in the country, being ranked 85th worldwide in the 2018/19 QS World University Rankings. Established in 1883 as a constituent college of the University of New Zealand, the university is made up of eight faculties, it has more than 40,000 students, more than 30,000 "equivalent full-time" students. The University of Auckland began as a constituent college of the University of New Zealand, founded on 23 May 1883 as Auckland University College. Stewardship of the University during its establishment period was the responsibility of John Chapman Andrew. Housed in a disused courthouse and jail, it started out with 95 students and 4 teaching staff: Frederick Douglas Brown, professor of chemistry. By 1901, student numbers had risen to 156. From 1905 onwards, an increasing number of students enrolled in commerce studies; the University conducted little research until the 1930s, when there was a spike in interest in academic research during the Depression.
At this point, the college's executive council issued several resolutions in favour of academic freedom after the controversial dismissal of John Beaglehole, which helped encourage the college's growth. In 1934, four new professors joined the college: Arthur Sewell, H. G. Forder, C. G. Cooper and James Rutherford; the combination of new talent, academic freedom saw Auckland University College flourish through to the 1950s. In 1950, the Elam School of Fine Arts was brought into the University of Auckland. Archie Fisher, appointed principal of the Elam School of Fine Arts was instrumental in having it brought in the University of Auckland; the University of New Zealand was dissolved in 1961 and the University of Auckland was empowered by the University of Auckland Act 1961. In 1966, lecturers Keith Sinclair and Bob Chapman established The University of Auckland Art Collection, beginning with the purchase of several paintings and drawings by Colin McCahon; the Collection is now managed by the Centre based at the Gus Fisher Gallery.
The Stage A of the Science building was opened by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother on 3 May. In 1975-81 Marie Clay and Patricia Bergquist, the first two female professors, were appointed. Queen Elizabeth II opened the new School of Medicine Building at Grafton on 24 March 1970; the Queen opened the Liggins Institute in 2002. The North Shore Campus, established in 2001, was located in the suburb of Takapuna, it offered the Bachelor of Information Management degree. At the end of 2006, the campus was closed, the degree relocated to the City campus. On 1 September 2004, the Auckland College of Education merged with the University's School of Education to form the Faculty of Education and Social Work; the faculty is based at the Epsom Campus of the former college, with an additional campus in Whangarei. Professor Stuart McCutcheon became Vice-Chancellor on 1 January 2005, he was the Vice-Chancellor of Victoria University of Wellington. He succeeded Dr John Hood, appointed Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford.
The University opened a new business school building in 2007, following the completion of the Information Commons. It has gained international accreditations for all its programmes and now completes the "Triple Crown". In May 2013 the University purchased a site for new 5.2-hectare campus on a former Lion Breweries site adjacent to the major business area in Newmarket. It will provide the University with a site for expansion over the next 50 years, with Engineering occupying the first of the new faculties in 2015. In April 2016, Vice-Chancellor Stuart McCutcheon announced that University of Auckland would be selling off its Epsom and Tamaki campuses in order to consolidate education and services at the City and Newmarket campuses; the Epsom Campus is the site of the University of Auckland's education faculty while the Tamaki campus hosts elements of the medical and science faculties as well as the School of Population Health. In mid–June 2018, McCutcheon announced that the University would be closing down and merging its specialist fine arts and music and dance libraries into the City Campus' General Library.
In addition, the University would cut 100 support jobs. The Vice-Chancellor claimed that these cutbacks would save between NZ$3 million and $4 million dollars a year; this announcement triggered criticism and several protests from students. Students objected to the closure of the Elam Fine Arts Library on the grounds that it would make it harder to access study materials; some dissenters circulated a petition protesting the Vice-Chancellor's restructuring policies. Protests were held in April and June 2018. Unlike other New Zealand universities such as the University of Otago and Victoria University of Wellington, the University of Auckland has not yet divested from fossil fuels. In April 2017, more than 100 students from the Auckland University Medical Students Association marched demanding the removal of coal, o
Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education
Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey known as Tecnológico de Monterrey or as Tec, is a private and coeducational multi-campus university based in Monterrey, Mexico. Founded in 1943 by industrialists in the city of Monterrey, ITESM has since grown to include 31 campuses in 25 cities throughout the country, becoming the most recognized in Latin America. ITESM was the first university to be connected to the Internet in Latin America and the Spanish-speaking world, having the top-ranked business school in the region according to the Economist and being one of the leaders in patent applications among Mexican universities; the medical school offers the only MD-PhD program available in Mexico, in partnership with the Houston Methodist Hospital. The Institute was founded on 6 September 1943 by a group of local businessmen led by Eugenio Garza Sada, a moneyed heir of a brewing conglomerate, interested in creating an institution that could provide skilled personnel — both university graduates and technicians— to the booming Monterrey corporations of the 1940s.
The group was structured into a non-profit organization called Enseñanza e Investigación Superior A. C. and recruited several academicians led by León Ávalos y Vez, an MIT alumnus and director-general of the School of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering of the National Polytechnic Institute, who designed its first academic programs and served as its first director-general. In its early years the Institute operated at Abasolo 858 Oriente in a large, two-story house located a block and a half away from Zaragoza Square, behind the city's Metropolitan Cathedral; as these facilities soon proved to be insufficient, it started renting out adjacent buildings and by 1945 it became apparent that a university campus was necessary. For that reason, a master plan was commissioned to Enrique de la Mora and on 3 February 1947 what would be known as its Monterrey Campus was inaugurated by Mexican President Miguel Alemán Valdés; because the operations of the local companies were reliant on U. S. markets and technology.
In 1950 it became the first foreign university in history to be accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, one of the six regional accreditation agencies recognized by the United States Department of Education. Its foreign accreditation would end up being a decisive influence in its development, as it was forced to submit itself to external evaluation earlier than most Mexican universities and unlocked additional sources of revenue, such as tuition funds from foreign students interested in taking summer courses in Mexico for full-academic credit, its growth outside the city of Monterrey began in the late-1960s, when both its rector and head of academics lobbied for expansion. A first attempt, funded a few years earlier by several businessmen from Mexicali, Baja California, was staffed and organized by the Institute but faced opposition from the Board of Trustees once the federal government refused any additional subsidy and members of the Board cast doubt on its ability to get funds as an out-of-state university.
At the end the project was renamed Centro de Enseñanza Técnica y Superior and grew into a independent institution. Aside from the CETYS experiment and the 150 hectares bought in 1951 for the agricultural program's experimental facilities in nearby Apodaca, Nuevo León, no other expansion outside Monterrey was attempted until 1967, when a school of maritime studies was built in the port of Guaymas, Sonora. Shortly thereafter, premises were built in Obregón and courses began to be offered in Mexico City; those premises and the ones that followed called external units, were dependent on the Monterrey Campus until 1984, when they were restructured as semi-independent campuses and reorganized in regional rectorates. In 1987, when the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools demanded faculty members with master's degrees to lecture 100% of its undergraduate courses, the Institute invested in both distance learning and computer network technologies and training becoming, on 1 February 1989, the first university connected to the Internet in both Latin America and the Spanish-speaking world.
Such efforts contributed to the creation of its former Virtual University a few years and allowed it to become the first country-code top level domain registry in Mexico. There are thirty-one campuses of the Institute distributed in twenty-five Mexican cities; each campus is independent but shares a national academic curriculum. The flagship campus is located in Monterrey, where the system-wide rectorate is located. Most of them deliver both high school and undergraduate education, some offer postgraduate programs and only five deliver high school courses exclusively. Curricular and extension courses and seminars are available at most facilities; as of September 2017, campuses were divided into the following Mexican regions: North: Monterrey, Eugenio Garza Lagüera, Eugenio Garza Sada, Santa Catarina, Valle Alto, Chihuahua, Ciudad Juárez, Matamoros, Saltillo and Zacatecas. Central-South: Mexico City, Santa Fe, State of Mexico]], Prepa Tec Esmeralda, Cuernavaca, Metepec, Puebla and Veracruz Central.
West: Colima, Irapuato, León, Navojoa, Northern Sonora, Obregón, Que
Chinese University of Hong Kong
The Chinese University of Hong Kong is a public research university in Shatin, Hong Kong formally established in 1963 by a charter granted by the Legislative Council of Hong Kong. It is the territory's second oldest university and was founded as a federation of three existing colleges – Chung Chi College, New Asia College and United College – the oldest of, founded in 1949. Today, CUHK is organized into nine constituent colleges and eight academic faculties, remains the only collegiate university in the territory; the university operates in both English and Chinese, although classes in most colleges are taught in English. Four Nobel laureates are associated with the university, it is the only tertiary institution in Hong Kong with recipients of the Nobel Prize, Turing Award, Fields Medal and Veblen Prize sitting as faculty in residence; the university was formed in 1963 as a federation of three existing colleges. The first of these, New Asia College, was established in 1949 by anti-Communist Confucian scholars from Mainland China amid the revolution there.
Among the founders were Ch'ien Mu, Tang Junyi, Tchang Pi-kai. Curriculum focused on Chinese heritage and social concerns; the early years of this school were tumultuous, with the campus relocating several times between rented premises around Kowloon. Academics there were self-exiled from the mainland and they struggled financially, with students sometimes sleeping on rooftops and teachers foregoing pay to sustain the college. Funds were raised and the school moved to a new campus in Kau Pui Lung, built with the support of the Ford Foundation, in 1956. Following the Communist revolution and the breakdown in relations between China and the United States at the 1950 outbreak of the Korean War, all Christian colleges and universities in the People's Republic of China were shut down. Chung Chi College was founded in 1951 by Protestant churches in Hong Kong to continue the theological education of mainland churches and schools; the 63 students of its first year operating were taught in various church and rented premises on Hong Kong Island.
The college moved to its present location in Ma Liu Shui in 1956. By 1962, a year before the founding of CUHK, Chung Chi had 531 students in 10 departments taught by a full-time faculty of 40, excluding tutors. United College was founded in 1956 with the merging of five private colleges in Guangdong province: Canton Overseas, Kwang Hsia, Wah Kiu, Wen Hua, Ping Jing College of Accountancy; the first school president was Dr F. I. Tseung; the original campus on Caine Road on Hong Kong Island accommodated over 600 students. These three colleges helped fill a void in the post-secondary education options available to Hong Kong Chinese students. Before 1949, such students could attend a university in the mainland, but with this option spoiled by the upheavals in China, students were unable to further their studies at a university unless their English proficiency was sufficient to enrol at the University of Hong Kong the only university in the territory. In 1957, New Asia College, Chung Chi College, United College came together to establish the Chinese Colleges Joint Council.
In June 1959, the Hong Kong government expressed its intent to establish a new university with a medium of instruction of Chinese. The same year the Post-Secondary Colleges Ordinance was announced to provide government funding and official recognition to New Asia, Chung Chi and United colleges in hopes that the money would "enable them to raise their standards to a level at which they might qualify for university status on a federal basis"; the ordinance was enacted on 19 May 1960. The Chinese University Preparatory Committee was established in June 1961 to advise the government on possible sites for the new university; the following May, the Fulton Commission was formed to assess the suitability of the three government-funded Post-Secondary Colleges to become constituent colleges of the new university. The commission, headed by Vice-Chancellor John Fulton of the newly established University of Sussex, visited Hong Kong over the summer and produced an interim report recommending the establishment of the federal university comprising the three colleges.
The Fulton Commission report was tabled in the Legislative Council in June 1963, the Chinese University of Hong Kong Ordinance was passed in September of that year. The school was inaugurated in a ceremony at City Hall on 17 October 1963, officiated by the founding chancellor, Sir Robert Brown Black; the next year Dr. Li Choh-ming was appointed the first Vice-Chancellor of the university; the university comprised the Faculty of Arts, Faculty of Science and Faculty of Social Science. Construction began at the site of the new campus in the Ma Liu Shui area, where Chung Chi College was established, for new facilities to house central administration and the relocated New Asia and United colleges. Construction on the new campus continued throughout the 1960s to a development plan produced by W. Szeto and Partners. Above the valley occupied by Chung Chi College, on two plateaux formed by granite quarrying for the Plover Cove dam, the quarters for the other two colleges would flank the Central campus housing administration and shared facilities.
Some of the most iconic buildings on campus, like the University Library, were built in this period along the monumental axis of the University Mall in the subdued concrete aesthetic for which the school is known. The School of Education, which would become a faculty, was founded in 1965; the Graduate School, the first in Hong Kong, was founded in 1966 and the first batch of master's degrees were awarded the following year. In the early 1970s, New Asia and United Co
Maastricht University is a public university in Maastricht, Netherlands. Founded in 1976, it is the second youngest of the thirteen Dutch universities. In 2013, nearly 16,000 students studied at Maastricht University, 47% of whom were foreign students, with over 3,200 employees. About half of the bachelor's programmes are offered in English, while the other half is taught wholly or in Dutch. Most of the master's and doctoral programmes are in English. In 2013, Maastricht University was the second Dutch university to be rewarded the ‘Distinctive Quality Feature for Internationalisation’ by the Accreditation Organisation of the Netherlands and Flanders. Besides traditional programmes, Maastricht University has an honours liberal arts college: University College Maastricht and a Maastricht Science Programme in the same liberal arts tradition; the satellite University College Venlo opened in 2015. Maastricht University ranks as one of Europe's leading universities. Amongst others, Maastricht University's master's programme in International Business is ranked 25, being in the top 25 of the best business programmes in the world according to the Financial Times.
The Times Higher Education World Ranking quotes Maastricht University as one of the best young universities in the world. Maastricht University was established in 1976. Faced with a shortage of medical professionals, the Dutch government decided in the late 1960s that a new public institution of higher education was needed in order to expand the country's medical training facilities. Political leaders in the province of Limburg, most notably Sjeng Tans, the chairman of the Labour Party and former member of the Limburg provincial council and Maastricht city council lobbied for the new medical school to be established in Maastricht; this academic institution would be vital to sustain the intellectual life of the city, indeed the whole province. Moreover, it was argued that the establishment of a university in Maastricht could contribute to the government's restructuring efforts in this part of the Netherlands, experiencing economic challenges following the collapse of the Limburg coal mining industry.
The newly established school chose not to await official recognition but to start its educational programme in September 1974, adopting an innovative approach to academic education in the form of problem-based learning. About 50 students enrolled in the first academic year. By the end of 1975, the Dutch Parliament passed the statute needed for the institution to acquire national educational funds and to be able to award academic degrees; the new university, named Rijksuniversiteit Limburg, was established on the 9th of January 1976, when Queen Juliana of the Netherlands signed the university's founding charter at a ceremony in the Basilica of Saint Servatius. Sjeng Tans became the university's first president. Soon after its establishment, the university gained political support to increase its funding and to expand into other academic fields; the Faculty of Law was created in 1981, followed by the Faculty of Economics in 1984. In 1994, the Faculty of Arts and Culture and one year the Faculty of Psychology were established.
The Faculty of Humanities and Sciences started in 2005, containing a variety of organisational units, such as the Department of Knowledge Engineering and the Maastricht Graduate School of Governance. Together with the Faculty of Health and Life Sciences Maastricht University has six faculties; the university was renamed Universiteit Maastricht in 1996 and added its English-language name in 2008. As of 2010, Maastricht University consists of six faculties offering 17 bachelor programmes, 56 master programmes and several Ph. D. programmes. Maastricht University is located in buildings in two separate locations in Maastricht; the arts and social science departments are housed in a number of historic buildings in the city center, while psychology, the medical and life sciences are based in the modern Randwyck campus on the outskirts of the city. The university's arts and social sciences faculties are located in Maastricht's city centre, west of the river Meuse. Most of the university's inner city properties have official monumental status.
As many of these buildings were facing abandonment at the time of their acquirement, the development of an urban university campus has contributed to the preservation and liveliness of Maastricht's historic city centre. The first building, obtained by the university was the former Jesuit monastery and seminary at Tongersestraat dating from the 1930s. Here, in 1974 the newly established medical school started. After the Faculty of Medicine moved to premises closer to the newly constructed university hospital, the Jesuit monastery became home to the Faculty of Economy, now the university's largest academic unit in terms of student numbers; the building was expanded in the 1990s to include the university restaurant and a large lecture hall designed by Dutch architect Jo Coenen. The Faculty of Law is housed in the building known as Oud Gouvernement in Bouillonstraat, completed in 1935 as the provincial government building, it was acquired by the UM in 1986 after the provincial government had moved to its new premises on the river Meuse in the southeastern part of the city.
Opposite lies Slijpe Court, a 17th-century mansion that in 2002 was refurbished to house the Department of Knowledge Engineering of the Faculty of Humanities and Science. The university's administrative headquarters is located at M
Hong Kong the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and abbreviated as HK, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth most densely populated region. Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island at the end of the First Opium War in 1842; the colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War, was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. The entire territory was transferred to China in 1997; as a special administrative region, Hong Kong's system of government is separate from that of mainland China and its people identify more as Hongkongers rather than Chinese. A sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.
It is the world's seventh-largest trading entity, its legal tender is the world's 13th-most traded currency. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality; the territory has the largest number of skyscrapers in most surrounding Victoria Harbour. Hong Kong ranks seventh on the UN Human Development Index, has the sixth-longest life expectancy in the world. Although over 90 per cent of its population uses public transportation, air pollution from neighbouring industrial areas of mainland China has resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates; the name of the territory, first spelled "He-Ong-Kong" in 1780 referred to a small inlet between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between local fishermen. Although the source of the romanised name is unknown, it is believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation hēung góng; the name translates as "fragrant harbour" or "incense harbour".
"Fragrant" may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's freshwater influx from the Pearl River or to the odor from incense factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export. Sir John Davis offered an alternative origin; the simplified name Hong Kong was used by 1810 written as a single word. Hongkong was common until 1926, when the government adopted the two-word name; some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. The region is first known to have been occupied by humans during the Neolithic period, about 6,000 years ago. Early Hong Kong settlers were a semi-coastal people who migrated from inland and brought knowledge of rice cultivation; the Qin dynasty incorporated the Hong Kong area into China for the first time in 214 BCE, after conquering the indigenous Baiyue. The region was consolidated under the Nanyue kingdom after the Qin collapse, recaptured by China after the Han conquest.
During the Mongol conquest, the Southern Song court was located in modern-day Kowloon City before its final defeat in the 1279 Battle of Yamen. By the end of the Yuan dynasty, seven large families had settled in the region and owned most of the land. Settlers from nearby provinces migrated to Kowloon throughout the Ming dynasty; the earliest European visitor was Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513. Portuguese merchants established a trading post called in Hong Kong waters, began regular trade with southern China. Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the 1520s, Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were reestablished by 1549. Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557. After the Qing conquest, maritime trade was banned under the Haijin policies; the Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in 1684. Qing authorities established the Canton System in 1757 to regulate trade more restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton.
Although European demand for Chinese commodities like tea and porcelain was high, Chinese interest in European manufactured goods was insignificant. To counter the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium to China. Faced with a drug crisis, Qing officials pursued ever-more-aggressive actions to halt the opium trade; the Daoguang Emperor rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium, ordering imperial commissioner Lin Zexu to eradicate the opium trade in 1839. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade, forcing a British military response and triggering the First Opium War; the Qing ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi. However, both countries did not ratify the agreement. After over a year of further hostilities, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded to the United Kingdom in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. Administrative infrastructure was built up by early 1842, but piracy and hostile Qing policies towards Hong Kong prevented the government from attracting merchants.
The Taiping Rebellion, when many wealthy Chinese fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colon
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l