Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Worpswede is a municipality in the district of Osterholz, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated in the Teufelsmoor, northeast of Bremen; the small town itself is located near the Weyerberg hill. It has been the home to a lively artistic community since the end of the 19th century, with over 130 artists and craftsmen working there, its origin goes back to the Bronze Age. The first time it was mentioned however was in 1218, it belonged to the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen. In 1630 it was occupied by Sweden for a short period of time. In 1648 the Prince-Archbishopric was transformed into the Duchy of Bremen, first ruled in personal union by the Swedish and from 1715 on by the Hanoverian Crown. However, it took another 120 years until the colonization of the Teufelsmoor was started by Jürgen Christian Findorff by drainage of the bog. In 1823 the Duchy was abolished and its territory became part of the Stade Region. Moor commissioner Jürgen Christian Findorff carried out the construction of Lutheran Church of Zion, following the plans of Johann Paul Heumann, Hanoveran court architect of King and Elector George II Augustus of Great Britain and Hanover.
The church was built between 1757 and 1759 during the wearisome Seven Years' War, which had its American version as the Anglo-French and Indian War. George II, being as summus episcopus the supreme governor of the Hanoveran Lutheran church, provided financial support for the construction of the Church of Zion; the hall church is oriented. Its else rather modest interior is beautified by a typical Protestant Kanzelaltar, combining pulpit and altar table, created in Rococo forms, it bears the Tetragrammaton יהוה in a top medaillon and to the left of the pulpit the king’s ornamented initials GR. There are heads of cherubim by Clara Westhoff and floral ornaments by Paula Becker at the pendentives and the columns, connecting to the ceiling. After in 1900 both artists still students, had rung the church bells for fun, understood as a fire alarm, they were fined, they could not pay and were allowed to perform instead by way of offering these decorative elements to the church. Lofts span between the columns.
The church tower with its spire in baroque forms had been added at the eastern end of the actual church building only in 1798. The Church of Zion is located on the Weyerberg, with its tower it is a landmark used as subject of paintings by the artists; the cemetery is a churchyard, thus it spreads around the church building. It was designed after plans of Findorff and attracts many visitors because of its elevated location on Weyerberg and due to the graves preserved there. Among them those of 80 known painters, authors and artisans, such as Fritz Mackensen and Paula Modersohn-Becker. Worpswede is famous nationwide for its long tradition as an artists' colony. Nowadays, about 130 artists and craftsmen and women live there permanently; as an example, the owner of the small "Café Vernissage" displays her paintings in the Café. In 1884 Mimi Stolte, the daughter of a shopkeeper in Worpswede, met Fritz Mackensen, a young student of arts, while she was staying with her aunt in Düsseldorf. Since he was destitute, she invited him to Worpswede to spend the holidays with her family.
In 1889 he settled in Worpswede, accompanied by other painters such as Hans am Ende and Otto Modersohn, followed by others such as Fritz Overbeck, Carl Vinnen, Paula Becker. Other artists came, for example the writers and poets Gerhard Hauptmann, Thomas Mann, Rainer Maria Rilke, married to the sculptor Clara Westhoff. Fritz Mackensen remained a good friend of Mimi Stolte's family to the end of his life. A memorial tablet created by Mackensen can be seen in front of the Kaufhaus Stolte. In 1895 Heinrich Vogeler joined the first artists around Fritz Mackensen, he was not only a painter but a draftsman and architect. Since the growing industrialization made it necessary to find new ways of transporting goods and all sorts of materials, the idea came up to build a railway through the Teufelsmoor-area. So Vogeler was charged with the building of railway stations along the route. In 1910 the railway station at Worpswede was opened, it is the only railway station on the Osterholz-Scharmbeck - Bremervörde route still kept in its original "shape".
Nowadays it is used as a restaurant. In 1895 Vogeler bought a cottage and planted many birch trees around it, which gave the house its new name: Barkenhoff, it became the cultural centre of the artistic scene of Worpswede. Vogeler's participation in World War I, in which Hans am Ende was killed, made Vogeler contemplate about life; as a result he became a pacifist after the war had joined the Communist Party of Germany. It was at that time that his wife Martha divorced. From that point on, he wanted to work from an ideological perspective, he left his former way of painting romantic scenes and started to make proletarian content the center of his work. In 1931 he emigrated to the Soviet Union and was deported in 1941 by Soviet authorities to Kazakhstan, where he died in 1942. Meanwhile, the Barkenhoff became a children's home, it was restored and has re-opened as a Heinrich Vogeler Museum in 2004. After their divorce, Vogeler's wife Martha built up her own childhood dream with the "Haus im Schluh".
It still belongs to the descendants of Martha and Heinrich Vogeler. As during the time of Martha herself, it contains a museum, a boarding-house, a weav
Seven Years' War
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763. It involved every European great power of the time and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa and the Philippines; the conflict split Europe into two coalitions, led by the Kingdom of Great Britain on one side and the Kingdom of France, the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Spain, the Swedish Empire on the other. Meanwhile, in India, some regional polities within the fragmented Mughal Empire, with the support of the French, tried to crush a British attempt to conquer Bengal; the war's extent has led some historians to describe it as World War Zero, similar in scale to other world wars. Although Anglo-French skirmishes over their American colonies had begun with what became the French and Indian War in 1754, the large-scale conflict that drew in most of the European powers was centered on Austria's desire to recover Silesia from the Prussians. Seeing the opportunity to curtail Britain's and Prussia's ever-growing might and Austria put aside their ancient rivalry to form a grand coalition of their own, bringing most of the other European powers to their side.
Faced with this sudden turn of events, Britain aligned itself with Prussia, in a series of political manoeuvres known as the Diplomatic Revolution. However, French efforts ended in failure when the Anglo-Prussian coalition prevailed, Britain's rise as among the world's predominant powers destroyed France's supremacy in Europe, thus altering the European balance of power. Conflict between Great Britain and France broke out in 1754–1756 when the British attacked disputed French positions in North America. Hostilities were heightened when a British unit led by a 22 year old Lt. Colonel George Washington ambushed a small French force at the Battle of Jumonville Glen on 28 May 1754; the conflict exploded across the colonial boundaries and extended to the seizure of hundreds of French merchant ships at sea. Meanwhile, rising power Prussia was struggling with Austria for dominance within and outside the Holy Roman Empire in central Europe. In 1756, the major powers "switched partners". Realising that war was imminent, Prussia pre-emptively struck Saxony and overran it.
The result caused uproar across Europe. Because of Austria's alliance with France to recapture Silesia, lost in the War of the Austrian Succession, Prussia formed an alliance with Britain. Reluctantly, by following the imperial diet, which declared war on Prussia on 17 January 1757, most of the states of the empire joined Austria's cause; the Anglo-Prussian alliance was joined by smaller German states. Sweden, seeking to regain Pomerania joined the coalition, seeing its chance when all the major powers of Europe opposed Prussia. Spain, bound by the Pacte de Famille, intervened on behalf of France and together they launched an utterly unsuccessful invasion of Portugal in 1762; the Russian Empire was aligned with Austria, fearing Prussia's ambition on the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, but switched sides upon the succession of Tsar Peter III in 1762. Many middle and small powers in Europe, as in the previous wars, tried to steer clear away from the escalating conflict though they had interests in the conflict or with the belligerents.
Denmark–Norway, for instance, was close to being dragged into the war on France's side when Peter III became Russian emperor and switched sides. The Dutch Republic, a long-time British ally, kept its neutrality intact, fearing the odds against Britain and Prussia fighting the great powers of Europe, tried to prevent Britain's domination in India. Naples-Sicily, Savoy, although sided with the Franco-Spanish alliance, declined to join the coalition under fear of British naval power; the taxation needed for war caused the Russian people considerable hardship, being added to the taxation of salt and alcohol begun by Empress Elizabeth in 1759 to complete her addition to the Winter Palace. Like Sweden, Russia concluded a separate peace with Prussia; the war ended with the Treaty of Paris between France and Great Britain and the Treaty of Hubertusburg between Saxony and Prussia, in 1763. The war was successful for Great Britain, which gained the bulk of New France in North America, Spanish Florida, some individual Caribbean islands in the West Indies, the colony of Senegal on the West African coast, superiority over the French trading outposts on the Indian subcontinent.
The Native American tribes were excluded from the settlement. In Europe, the war began disastrously for Prussia, but with a combination of good luck and successful strategy, King Frederick the Great managed to retrieve the Prussian position and retain the status quo ante bellum. Prussia emerged as a new European great power. Although Austria failed to retrieve the territory of Silesia from Prussia, its military prowess was noted by the other powers; the involvement of Portugal and Sweden did not return them to their former status as great powers. France was deprived of many of it
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries and interests remain distinct. A real union, by contrast, would involve the constituent states being to some extent interlinked, such as by sharing some limited governmental institutions. In a federation and a unitary state, a central government spanning all member states exists, with the degree of self-governance distinguishing the two; the ruler in a personal union does not need to be a hereditary monarch. The term was coined by German jurist Johann Stephan Pütter, introducing it into Elementa iuris publici germanici of 1760. Personal unions can arise for several reasons, they can be codified or non-codified, in which case they can be broken. The Commonwealth realms are independent states; because presidents of republics are ordinarily chosen from within the citizens of the state in question, the concept of personal union has never crossed over from monarchies into republics, with the rare exception of the President of France being a co-prince of Andorra.
In 1860 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius was elected as the president of Transvaal and Orange Free State and he tried to unify the two countries but his mission failed and led to the Transvaal Civil War. Though France is now a republic with a president and not a monarchy, it has been in personal union with the neighboring nominal monarchy of Andorra since 1278. Personal union with Lands of the Bohemian Crown. Personal union with Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen. Personal union with Austrian Netherlands. Personal union with Spanish Empire. Personal union with Kingdom of Naples, Kingdom of Sardinia, Kingdom of Sicily, Duchy of Parma and Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia Personal union with Kingdom of Slavonia, Kingdom of Serbia, Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, Duchy of Bukovina, New Galicia, Kingdom of Dalmatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Personal union with Poland 1003–1004 Personal union with Poland 1300–1306 and Hungary 1301–1305 Personal union with Luxembourg 1313–1378 and 1383–1388 Personal union with Hungary 1419–1439 and 1490–1526 Personal union with Austria and Hungary 1526–1918 Personal union with the Principality of Ansbach from 1415–1440 and 1470–1486.
Personal union with the Duchy of Prussia from 1618, when Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia, died without male heirs and his son-in-law John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg, became ruler of both countries. Brandenburg and Prussia maintained separate governments and seats of power in Berlin and Königsberg until 1701, when Frederick I consolidated them into one government. Personal union with Portugal, under Maria I of Portugal and John VI of Portugal, from 16 December 1815 to 7 September 1822. Maria was the Queen of Portugal and the Algarves from 1777 to 1815, when Brazil, a Portuguese colony, was ranked Kingdom inside the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, she was succeeded by her older son and Regent in her name since 1792, who become King John VI. He reigned over Brazil until the dissolution of the United Kingdom with the Independence of Brazil. Personal union with Portugal, under Pedro I of Brazil, from 10 March to 28 May 1826. Pedro was the Prince Royal of Portugal and the Algarves when he declared the independence of Brazil in 1822, becoming its first emperor.
When his father died, Pedro became King of Portugal, but abdicated the Portuguese throne 79 days in favour of his older child Princess Maria da Glória. Personal union with Belgium from 1885 to 1908, when the Congo Free State became a Belgian colony; the only sovereign during this period was Leopold II, who continued as king of Belgium until his death a year in 1909. Personal union with the Kingdom of Hungary 1102–1918 In 1102, after a period of succession crisis following the death of King Demetrius Zvonimir, the Kingdom of Croatia entered a union with the Kingdom of Hungary in 1102; the crown passed into the hands of the Árpád dynasty with the crowning of King Coloman of Hungary with the Croatian crown as "King of Croatia and Dalmatia" in Biograd. Institutions of separate Croatian statehood were maintained through the ban. In addition, the Croatian nobles retained their titles; some of the terms of Coloman's coronation are summarized in Pacta Conventa by which the Croatian nobles agreed to recognise Coloman as king.
Although it is not an authentic document from 1102 and is a forgery from the 14th century, the contents of the Pacta Conventa correspond to the political situation of that time in Croatia. The precise terms of the union between the two realms became a matter of dispute in the 19th century; the nature of the relat
Vollersode is a municipality in the district of Osterholz, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It belonged to the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen. In 1648 the Prince-Archbishopric was transformed into the Duchy of Bremen, first ruled in personal union by the Swedish and from 1715 on by the Hanoverian Crown. In 1823 the Duchy was abolished and its territory became part of the Stade Region
Archbishopric of Bremen
The Archbishopric of Bremen, or Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen — not to be confused with the former Archdiocese of Bremen, the modern Archdiocese of Hamburg, founded in 1994 — was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire, which after its definitive secularization in 1648, became the hereditary Duchy of Bremen. The prince-archbishopric, under the secular rule of the archbishop, consisted of about a third of the diocesan territory; the city of Bremen was de facto and de jure not part of the prince-archbishopric. Most of the prince-archbishopric lay rather in the area to the north of the city of Bremen, between the Weser and Elbe rivers. More confusingly, parts of the prince-archbishopric belonged in religious respect to the neighbouring diocese of Verden, making up 10% of its diocesan territory. Verden itself had a double identity too—as the diocese of Verden and the Prince-Bishopric of Verden; each prince-bishopric had the status of an Imperial Estate, each of which were represented in the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire.
From 1500 on the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen belonged to the Saxon Circle, an administrative substructure of the Empire. The Prince-Bishopric of Verden, on the other hand, belonged to the Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle and sent its own representative to the Diet; when the two prince-bishoprics were ruled in personal union, in order to maintain the two seats in the Diet they were never formally united in a real union. The same is true for the collectively governed Duchies of Bremen and Verden which emerged in 1648 from the secularised two prince-bishoprics. In the different historical struggles for expansion of territory or privileges and the concerned and disfavoured entity's defence against such annexation or usurpation, plenty of documents have been forged or counterfeited or backdated, in order to corroborate one's arguments. "These forgeries have drawn a veil before the early history of the Hamburg-Bremen." The foundation of the diocese belongs to the period of the missionary activity of Willehad on the lower Weser.
It was erected 15 July, 787, at Worms, on Charlemagne's initiative, his jurisdiction being assigned to cover the Saxon territory on both sides of the Weser from the mouth of the Aller, northwards to the Elbe and westwards to the Hunte, the Frisian territory for a certain distance from the mouth of the Weser. Willehad fixed his headquarters at Bremen, though the formal constitution of the diocese took place only after the subjugation of the Saxons in 804 or 805, when Willehad's disciple, was consecrated bishop of Bremen, with the same territory; the diocese was conceivably at that time a suffragan of the archbishops of Cologne, this is at least how they corroborated their claim to supremacy over the Bremian see. When, after the death of Bishop Leuderich, the see was given to Ansgar, it lost its independence, from that time on was permanently united with the Archdiocese of Hamburg; the new combined see was regarded as the headquarters for missionary work in the Nordic countries, new sees to be erected were to be its suffragans, meaning subject to its jurisdiction.
Ansgar's successor, the "second apostle of the north," was troubled by onslaughts first by Normans and by Wends, by Cologne's renewed claims to supremacy. At Archbishop Adalgar's instigation Pope Sergius III confirmed the amalgamation of the Diocese of Bremen with the Archdiocese of Hamburg to form the Archdiocese of Hamburg and Bremen, colloquially called Hamburg-Bremen, by so doing he denied Cologne's claim as metropolia over Bremen. Sergius prohibited the chapter at Hamburg's Concathedral to found suffragan dioceses of its own. After the Obodrite destruction of Hamburg in 983 the Hamburg chapter was dispersed. So Archbishop Unwan appointed a new chapter with twelve canons, with three each taken from Bremen Cathedral chapter, the three colleges of Bücken and Ramelsloh. In 1139 Archbishop Adalbero had fled the invasion of Count Rudolph II of Stade and Count Palatine Frederick II of Saxony, who destroyed Bremen, established in Hamburg appointing new capitular canons there by 1140. Hamburg-Bremen's diocesan territory covered about today's following territories: The Bremian cities of Bremen and Bremerhaven, the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg, the Lower Saxon counties of Aurich, Diepholz, Nienburg, Oldenburg in Oldenburg, Rotenburg upon Wümme, Wesermarsch, the Lower Saxon urban counties Delmenhorst and Wilhelmshaven, the Schleswig-Holsteinian counties of Ditmarsh, Rendsburg-Eckernförde, Steinburg, Stormarn as well as the Schleswig-Holsteinian urban counties of Kiel and Neumünster.
The see of Hamburg-Bremen attained its greatest prosperity and had its deepest troubles under Archbishop Adalbert of Hamburg. He was after Hamburg-Bremen's upgrade to the rank of a Patriarchate of the North and failed completely. Hamburg stopped being used as part of the diocese's name; the next two archbishops and Humbert, were determined opponents of Pope Gregor