City of London
The City of London is a city and county that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district of London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, but the agglomeration has since grown far beyond the City's borders; the City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it forms one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London, it is a separate county of England, being an enclave surrounded by Greater London. It is the smallest county in the United Kingdom; the City of London is referred to as the City and is colloquially known as the Square Mile, as it is 1.12 sq mi in area. Both of these terms are often used as metonyms for the United Kingdom's trading and financial services industries, which continue a notable history of being based in the City; the name London is now ordinarily used for a far wider area than just the City.
London most denotes the sprawling London metropolis, or the 32 London boroughs, in addition to the City of London itself. This wider usage of London is documented as far back as 1888; the local authority for the City, namely the City of London Corporation, is unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council, such as being the police authority. It is unusual in having responsibilities and ownerships beyond its boundaries; the Corporation is headed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London, an office separate from the Mayor of London. The Lord Mayor, as of November 2018, is Peter Estlin; the City is a major business and financial centre. Throughout the 19th century, the City was the world's primary business centre, it continues to be a major meeting point for businesses. London came top in the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index, published in 2008; the insurance industry is focused around Lloyd's building. A secondary financial district exists at Canary Wharf, 2.5 miles to the east.
The City work there. About three quarters of the jobs in the City of London are in the financial and associated business services sectors; the legal profession forms a major component of the northern and western sides of the City in the Temple and Chancery Lane areas where the Inns of Court are located, of which two—Inner Temple and Middle Temple—fall within the City of London boundary. Known as "Londinium", the Roman legions established a settlement on the current site of the City of London around 43 AD, its bridge over the River Thames turned the city into a road nexus and major port, serving as a major commercial centre in Roman Britain until its abandonment during the 5th century. Archaeologist Leslie Wallace notes that, because extensive archaeological excavation has not revealed any signs of a significant pre-Roman presence, "arguments for a purely Roman foundation of London are now common and uncontroversial."At its height, the Roman city had a population of 45,000–60,000 inhabitants.
Londinium was an ethnically diverse city, with inhabitants from across the Roman Empire, including natives of Britannia, continental Europe, the Middle East, North Africa. The Romans built the London Wall some time between 190 and 225 AD; the boundaries of the Roman city were similar to those of the City of London today, though the City extends further west than Londonium's Ludgate, the Thames was undredged and thus wider than it is today, with Londonium's shoreline north of the City's present shoreline. The Romans built a bridge across the river, as early as 50 AD, near to today's London Bridge. By the time the London Wall was constructed, the City's fortunes were in decline, it faced problems of plague and fire; the Roman Empire entered a long period of instability and decline, including the Carausian Revolt in Britain. In the 3rd and 4th centuries, the city was under attack from Picts and Saxon raiders; the decline continued, both for Londinium and the Empire, in 410 AD the Romans withdrew from Britain.
Many of the Roman public buildings in Londinium by this time had fallen into decay and disuse, after the formal withdrawal the city became uninhabited. The centre of trade and population moved away from the walled Londinium to Lundenwic, a settlement to the west in the modern day Strand/Aldwych/Covent Garden area. During the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy, the London area came in turn under the Kingdoms of Essex and Wessex, though from the mid 8th century it was under the control or threat of the Vikings. Bede records that in 604 AD St Augustine consecrated Mellitus as the first bishop to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the East Saxons and their king, Sæberht. Sæberht's uncle and overlord, Æthelberht, king of Kent, built a church dedicated to St Paul in London, as the seat of the new bishop, it is assumed, although unproven, that this first Anglo-Saxon cathedral stood on the same site as the medieval and the present cathedrals. Alfred the Great, King of Wessex and arguably the first king of the "English", occupied and began the resettlement of the old Roman walled area, in 886, appointed his son-in-law Earl Æthelred of Mercia over it as part of their reconquest of the Viking occupied parts of Englan
Worshipful Company of Wax Chandlers
The Worshipful Company of Wax Chandlers is one of the oldest livery companies of the City of London, with one of the smallest memberships. The Wax Chandlers' Company, ranked 20th in the City Livery Company order of precedence, has an association with the Church of St Vedast alias Foster in nearby Foster Lane. Established before 1330 and before 1199, the company received further Byelaws and Ordinances from Lord Mayor John Stodeye in 1358. New Ordinances were issued in 1371 and the company was granted a Royal Charter in 1484 – one of only three known Royal Charters of King Richard III, the others being for the College of Arms and for the incorporation as a county borough of the city of Gloucester; the Company remains governed under its 1663 Royal Charter of King Charles II and corresponding Ordinances of 1664. Wax chandlers traded separately from Tallow Chandlers. In recent years, in February, the two companies have celebrated the Feast of Candlemas together; as with many City Livery Companies today, the Wax Chandlers' Company no longer operates as a trade association.
Its role has evolved into being a civic, ceremonial and charitable institution. Like other livery companies, it takes an active role in supporting the corporate governance of the City of London and the Lord Mayor; the Company's current'theme' is sustainability, which it supports and promotes through, for example, a lecture series. Examples of its charitable giving are its affiliation with Armed Forces units, the donation of candles to St Paul's Cathedral, support to those in need throughout the City and Greater London, patronage of the National Honey Show and the British Beekeeping Association; the Company has maintained a Hall on the same site since 1501. The Wax Chandlers' current premises, their sixth, were rebuilt in 1954 after damage during World War II. Refurbished, the Hall is popular for hire on corporate or social occasions. Wax Chandlers' Hall can sometimes be viewed by the general public during the annual London Open House Weekend or by prior arrangement; the Company owns other property on Fleet Street in London.
The Wax Chandlers' membership comprises Freemen. The Company is governed by Wardens and a Court of Assistants. Election Court each June determines appointments to senior office, with ceremonial installation on or around the Feast of the Transfiguration, in the first week of August; the Company has supplied five Lord Mayors of London since the 18th Century, including two in the 21st: Sir Gavyn Arthur and Dame Fiona Woolf DBE. The Company is administered by the Clerk and day-to-day management of the Hall is overseen by the Beadle; the Company's current membership includes: The Rt Rev & Rt Hon The Lord Williams of Oystermouth Dame Fiona Woolf DBE The Company received a Grant of Arms from Sir Thomas Holme, Clarenceux King of Arms, on 3 February 1485, the year following the College of Arms' foundation. There were minor changes, but not to the escutcheon or crest, in 1530 and 1536; the Company’s extant armorial bearings, as confirmed in the Visitation of London in 1630, are blazoned: Shield: Azure on a Chevron Argent three Roses Gules seeded Or between three Mortars royal Or.
Crest: On a wreath Or and Gules a Maiden vested in a Surcoat of Cloth of Or furred with Ermine, kneeling among divers Flowers Proper and making thereof a Garland. Mantling: Azure doubled Ermine. Supporters: On either side a Unicorn Argent gorged with a Garland of various Flowers Proper, the Horn wreathed Or and Gules. Corporation Guild The Wax Chandlers' Company Six Gresham Street Website www.liverycompanies.com
Worshipful Company of Glaziers and Painters of Glass
The Worshipful Company of Glaziers and Painters of Glass is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London. The Guild of Glaziers, or makers of Glass, the Company's forerunner, existed as early as 1328, it received a Royal Charter of incorporation in 1638. It is no longer a trade association of glass craftsmen, instead existing, along with a majority of Livery Companies, as a charitable body; the original Glaziers Hall was burnt down during the Great Fire of London in 1666. The current Hall was acquired and refurbished in 1977, it is located on the south side of London Bridge on Montague Close in the London Borough of Southwark and has views over the River Thames towards the City of London. The Company ranks fifty-third in the order of precedence for Livery Companies, its motto is Lucem Tuam Da Nobis Deo, Latin for O God. The charitable activities of the Glaziers’ Company are but not focused on stained glass, are managed by the Glaziers' Foundation, a registered Charity, No 1143700; the Foundation has four committees that were self-standing charities: the Glaziers' Trust, the London Stained Glass Repository, the Charity for Relief in Need and the Cutter Trust.
The Glaziers’ Trust has the largest budget and has three principal objects: assisting with the restoration and conservation of historic and important stained glass, supporting the education and training of glass artists and conservators and fostering public information and awareness. The board of the trust sits four times a year to consider applications for stained glass conservation and restoration grants. To maintain the highest professional standards it is a condition of grant that remedial work is carried out by an accredited glazier or glass conservator; the trust is unable to fund the cost of an entire restoration project and provides only partial funding. However, such is the depth of knowledge and experience on the board that its approval for a project if it results in only a modest award, is used by applicants to help raise funds from other organisations; the trust supports other organisations within the stained glass community such as the British Society of Master Glass Painters and the Stained Glass Museum in Ely, Cambridgeshire.
Both of these receive an annual grant to help them continue their work. The trust supports the much-respected publication, “Vidimus”, the only online journal devoted to stained glass. Through the Foundation’s Craft and Competitions Committee, the Trust funds several educational initiatives such as the Stevens Competition; this is a nationwide competition for architectural glass design and we believe it to be the only national competition of its kind. It attracts entries from young artists. Sponsors of the competition commission work from among the entries and the careers of many young artists have been launched by participation in the competition; the Award for Excellence and the Ashton Hill Awards provide opportunities for those wishing to pursue a practical career in stained glass. They provide the funds for placements in working studios where mentored and supervised work experience takes place; the Award for Excellence provides the Ashton Hill Awards 10 weeks. The Arthur and Helen Davis Travelling Scholarships provide opportunities for the study of glass outside the UK.
Recent awardees have studied in the United States, France and the Czech Republic. Continuing Professional Development Awards are available for practitioners wishing to broaden their skills either artistically or by attaining accredited conservator status; the London Stained Glass Repository rescues and relocates good quality stained glass, principally from redundant churches. In addition to building closure, glass may need to be rescued and protected from the threat of vandalism. Rescued glass is available free of charge for installation in any suitable building to which the public has access. Once vulnerable glass has been identified the Management Committee of the LSGR assesses its artistic merit, state of repair and general condition; when this work has been done negotiations for the release and storage of the glass begin. Once in store, the glass is photographed and all relevant information recorded. Only can a new home be sought with most of the glass going to religious buildings; the LSGR does not limit its activities to the UK, glass has been relocated in the United States, the Falkland Islands, Croatia.
Glass can be included in educational projects at home and abroad. The Company awards grants to churches and other public buildings for restoring and conserving stained glass; the Glaziers' and Painters of Glass' Company, official owners of Glaziers Hall The Glaziers' Hall website Glaziers' Hall Google Satellite view of Glaziers Hall
The term girdle, meaning "belt" refers to the liturgical attire that closes a cassock in many Christian denominations, including the Anglican Communion, Methodist Church and Lutheran Church. The girdle, in the 8th or 9th century, was said to resemble an ancient Levitical Jewish vestment, in that era, was not visible. In 800 AD, the girdle began to be worn by Christian deacons in the Eastern Church; the girdle, for men, symbolizes preparation and readiness to serve, for women, represents chastity and protection. For example, the hagiographical account of Saint George and the Dragon mentions the evildoer being tamed with the sign of the cross and a girdle handed to Saint George by a virgin. Since the 20th century, the word "girdle" has been used to define an undergarment made of elasticized fabric, worn by women, it is a form-fitting foundation garment that encircles the lower torso extending below the hips, worn to shape or for support. It may be worn for medical reasons. In sports or medical treatment, a girdle may be worn as a compression garment.
This form of women's foundation wear replaced the corset in popularity, was in turn to a large extent surpassed by the pantyhose in the 1960s. The men among the Greeks and Romans wore the girdle upon the loins, it served them to confine the tunic, hold the purse, instead of pockets, which were unknown; the Strophium, Taenia, or Mitra occurs in many figures. In the small bronze Pallas of the Villa Albani, in figures on the Hamilton Vases, are three cordons with a knot, detached from two ends of the girdle, fixed under the bosom; this girdle forms under the breast a knot of ribbon, sometimes in the form of a rose, as occur on the two handsomest daughters of Niobe. Upon the youngest the ends of the girdle pass over the shoulders, upon the back, as they do upon four Caryatides found at Monte Portio; this part of the dress the ancients called, at least in the time of Isidore, Succinctorium or Bracile. The girdle was omitted by both sexes in mourning; when the tunic was long, would otherwise be entangled by the feet, it was drawn over the girdle in such a way as to conceal the latter underneath its folds.
It is not uncommon to see two girdles of different widths worn together, one high up, the other low down, so as to form between the two in the tunic, a puckered interval. The tunic of the Greek males was always confined by a girdle. Girdles of iron, to prevent obesity, were worn by some of the Britons. From the Druidical eras the cure of diseases those of difficult parturition, were ascribed to wearing certain girdles. Among the Anglo-Saxons, it was used by both sexes. We find it richly embroidered, of white leather; the leather strap was chiefly worn by monks. As a Christian liturgical vestment, the girdle is a long, rope-like cord tied around the waist over the alb or cassock; the Parson's Handbook describes the girdle as being made "generally of white linen rope, may have a tassel at each end. About 12 ft. 6 in. Long is a convenient size if it is used double, one end being turned into a noose and the tasselled ends slipped through; the girdle, may be coloured." Christian monastics would hang religious texts, such as the Bible or Breviary, from their girdles and these became known as girdle books.
In addition, they would knot the ends of the girdle thrice, in order to represent the "vows of poverty and obedience." As such, within the Christian Church, the girdle, in some contexts, represents chastity and within the Hebrew Bible, "Proverbs 31 provides biblical reference to the ancient practice of girdle making by virtuous chaste women". In the New Testament, "Christ referred to the girdle as a symbol of preparation and readiness for service": Be dressed ready for service and keep your lamps burning, like servants waiting for their master to return from a wedding banquet, so that when he comes and knocks they can open the door for him, it will be good for those servants. I tell you, he will dress himself to serve, will have them recline at the table and will come and wait on them, it will be good for those servants whose master finds them ready if he comes in the middle of the night or toward daybreak. Saint Paul, in Ephesians 6:14 references the term, stating "Stand therefore, first fastening round you the girdle of truth and putting on the breastplate of uprightness", further buttressing the concept of the girdle as a symbol of readiness.
Many Christian clergy, such as Anglican priests and Methodist ministers, use the following prayer when wearing the girdle: Gird me, O Lord, with the girdle of purity, quench in me the fire of concupiscence that the grace of temperance and chastity may abide in me. By the 8th century AD, the girdle became established as a liturgical vestment "in the strict sense of the word." Although the general word "cincture" is sometimes used as a synonym for the girdle, liturgical manuals distinguish between the two, as the "girdle is a long cord or rope while the cincture is a wide sash. An alb is closed with a girdle, an Anglican-style double-breasted cassock is closed with a cincture, a Roman cassock is closed with either one." In the Vajrayana iconography of the Hevajra Tantra, the'girdle', one of the'Five Bone Ornaments' symbolizes Amoghasiddhi and the'accomplishing pristine awareness', one of the'Five Wisdoms'. The i
Worshipful Company of Saddlers
The Worshipful Company of Saddlers is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London. A Guild of Saddlers, the Company's predecessor, is thought to have been an Anglo-Saxon Craft Guild – it existed at some point in the eleventh century; the Guild became a Company when a Royal Charter of Incorporation was granted by King Edward III in 1363. The City granted the Company the right to regulate the trade of saddle-making. However, the powers of the Company, which has existed on the same site at Cheapside since 1160, were eroded over time. Nowadays the Company retains strong affiliations with the saddlery trade, sponsoring the Society of Master Saddlers and giving prizes for deserving young riders at equestrian events; the Company is an institution, charitable rather than a charitable institution and it supports many good causes and sponsors scholarships at Alleyn's School, has strong links with the Household Cavalry and the King's Troop R. H. A. as well as with other regiments and Livery Companies traditionally involved with leather or horses.
The Company ranks twenty-fifth in the order of precedence of Livery Companies. Unusually, the Saddlers Company has two mottoes: Hold Fast, Sit Sure and Our Trust Is In God. In addition to admitting members as Freeman and Liveryman, the Saddlers' Company has the unique privilege of granting Yeoman status, its notable Yeomen include HRH The Princess Royal, Peter Walwyn, Richard Meade. The Saddlers' Company Saddlers' Hall
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late
A royal charter is a formal grant issued by a monarch under royal prerogative as letters patent. They have been used to promulgate public laws, the most famous example being the British Magna Carta of 1215, but since the 14th century have only been used in place of private acts to grant a right or power to an individual or a body corporate, they were, are still, used to establish significant organisations such as boroughs and learned societies. Charters should be distinguished from royal warrants of appointment, grants of arms and other forms of letters patent, such as those granting an organisation the right to use the word "royal" in their name or granting city status, which do not have legislative effect; the British monarchy has issued over 1,000 royal charters. Of these about 750 remain in existence; the earliest charter recorded by the UK government was granted to the University of Cambridge in England in 1231, although older charters are known to have existed including to the Worshipful Company of Weavers in England in 1150 and to the town of Tain in Scotland in 1066.
Charters continue to be issued by the British Crown, a recent example being that awarded to The Chartered Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors, in 2014. Charters have been used in Europe since medieval times to grant rights and privileges to towns and cities. During the 14th and 15th century the concept of incorporation of a municipality by royal charter evolved. Among the past and present groups formed by royal charter are the Company of Merchants of the Staple of England, the British East India Company, the Hudson's Bay Company, the Chartered Bank of India and China, the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company, the British South Africa Company, some of the former British colonies on the North American mainland, City livery companies, the Bank of England and the British Broadcasting Corporation. Between the 14th and 19th centuries, royal charters were used to create chartered companies – for-profit ventures with shareholders, used for exploration and colonisation. Early charters to such companies granted trade monopolies, but this power was restricted to parliament from the end of the 17th century.
Until the 19th century, royal charters were the only means other than an act of parliament by which a company could be incorporated. The use of royal charters to incorporate organisations gave rise to the concept of the "corporation by prescription"; this enabled corporations that had existed from time immemorial to be recognised as incorporated via the legal fiction of a "lost charter". Examples of corporations by prescription include Cambridge universities. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, of the 81 universities established in pre-Reformation Europe, 13 were established ex consuetudine without any form of charter, 33 by Papal bull alone, 20 by both Papal bull and imperial or royal charter, 15 by imperial or royal charter alone. Universities established by royal charter did not have the same international recognition – their degrees were only valid within that kingdom; the first university to be founded by charter was the University of Naples in 1224, founded by an imperial charter of Frederick II.
The first university founded by royal charter was the University of Coimbra in 1290, by King Denis of Portugal, which received Papal confirmation the same year. Other early universities founded by royal charter include the University of Perpignan and the University of Huesca, both by Peter IV of Aragon, the Jagiellonian University by Casimir III of Poland, the University of Vienna by Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, the University of Caen by Henry VI of England, the University of Girona and the University of Barcelona, both by Alfonso V of Aragon, the University of Valence by the Dauphin Louis, the University of Palma by Ferdinand II of Aragon; the University of Cambridge was confirmed by a Papal bull in 1317 or 1318, but despite repeated attempts, the University of Oxford never received such confirmation. The three pre-Reformation Scottish universities were all established by Papal bulls. Following the reformation, establishment of universities and colleges by royal charter became the norm; the University of Edinburgh was founded under the authority of a royal charter granted to the Edinburgh town council in 1582 by James VI as the "town's college".
Trinity College Dublin was established by a royal charter of Elizabeth I in 1593. Both of these charters were given in Latin; the Edinburgh charter gave permission for the town council "to build and to repair sufficient houses and places for the reception and teaching of professors of the schools of grammar, the humanities and languages, theology and law, or whichever liberal arts which we declare detract in no way from the aforesaid mortification" and granted them the right to appoint and remove professors. But, as concluded by Edinburgh's principal, Sir Alexander Grant, in his tercentenary history of the university, "Obviously this is no charter founding a university". Instead