Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million. It encompasses one of the largest metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom and comprises ten metropolitan boroughs: Bolton, Oldham, Stockport, Trafford and the cities of Manchester and Salford. Greater Manchester was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972. Greater Manchester spans 493 square miles, which covers the territory of the Greater Manchester Built-up Area, the second most populous urban area in the UK, it is landlocked and borders Cheshire, West Yorkshire and Merseyside. There is a mix of high-density urban areas, semi-rural and rural locations in Greater Manchester, but land use is urban—the product of concentric urbanisation and industrialisation which occurred during the 19th century when the region flourished as the global centre of the cotton industry, it has a focused central business district, formed by Manchester city centre and the adjoining parts of Salford and Trafford, but Greater Manchester is a polycentric county with ten metropolitan districts, each of which has at least one major town centre and outlying suburbs.
Greater Manchester is governed by the Greater Manchester Combined Authority, which consists of political leaders from each of the ten metropolitan borough councils, plus a directly elected mayor, with responsibility for economic development and transport. Andy Burnham is the inaugural Mayor of Greater Manchester, elected in 2017. For the 12 years following 1974 the county had a two-tier system of local government; the county council was abolished in 1986, so its districts became unitary authority areas. However, the metropolitan county continued to exist in law and as a geographic frame of reference, as a ceremonial county, with a Lord Lieutenant and a High Sheriff. Several county-wide services were co-ordinated through the Association of Greater Manchester Authorities between 1985 and 2011. Before the creation of the metropolitan county, the name SELNEC was used for the area, from the initials of "South East Lancashire North East Cheshire". Greater Manchester is an amalgamation of 70 former local government districts from the former administrative counties of Lancashire, the West Riding of Yorkshire and eight independent county boroughs.
Since deindustrialisation in the mid-20th century, Greater Manchester has emerged as an exporter of media and digital content and dance music, association football. Although the modern county of Greater Manchester was not created until 1974, the history of its constituent settlements goes back centuries. There is evidence of Iron Age habitation at Mellor, Celtic activity in a settlement named Chochion, believed to have been an area of Wigan settled by the Brigantes. Stretford was part of the land believed to have been occupied by the Celtic Brigantes tribe, lay on their border with the Cornovii on the southern side of the River Mersey; the remains of 1st-century forts at Castlefield in Manchester, Castleshaw Roman fort in Saddleworth, are evidence of Roman occupation. Much of the region was omitted from the Domesday Book of 1086. During the Middle Ages, much of what became Greater Manchester lay within the hundred of Salfordshire – an ancient division of the county of Lancashire. Salfordshire encompassed several parishes and townships, some of which, like Rochdale, were important market towns and centres of England's woollen trade.
The development of what became Greater Manchester is attributed to a shared tradition of domestic flannel and fustian cloth production, which encouraged a system of cross-regional trade. In the late-18th century, the Industrial Revolution transformed the local domestic system. Infrastructure such as rows of terraced housing and roads were constructed to house labour, transport goods, produce cotton goods on an industrial scale for a global market; the townships in and around Manchester began expanding "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century as part of a process of unplanned urbanisation brought on by a boom in industrial textile production and processing. This population increase resulted in the "vigorous concentric growth" of a conurbation between Manchester and an arc of surrounding mill towns, formed from a steady accretion of houses and transport infrastructure. Places such as Bury and Bolton played a central economic role nationally, by the end of the 19th century had become some of the most important and productive cotton-producing towns in the world.
However, it was Manchester, the most populous settlement, a major city, the world's largest marketplace for cotton goods, the natural centre of its region. By 1835 "Manchester was without challenge the first and greatest industrial city in the world". In the 1910s, local government reforms to administer this conurbation as a single entity were proposed. In the 18th century, German traders had coined the name Manchesterthum to cover the region in and around Manchester. However, the English term "Greater Mancheste
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi
North West Ambulance Service
The North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust is the ambulance service for North West England. It is one of 10 Ambulance Trusts providing England with Emergency medical services, is part of the National Health Service, receiving direct government funding for its role. NWAS was formed on 1 July 2006, it was created by the merge of 4 previous services as part of Health Minister Lord Warner's plans to combine ambulance services. Based in Bolton, the new Trust provides services to 7 million people in Greater Manchester, Merseyside, Lancashire and the North Western fringes of the High Peak district of Derbyshire in an area of some 5,500 square miles. There is no charge to patients for use of the service, under the Patient's charter, every person in the United Kingdom has the right to the attendance of an ambulance in an emergency. NWAS provides emergency ambulance response via the 999 system, as well as operating the NHS 111 advice service for North West England, they operate non-emergency patient transport services, in 2013/2014 carried out 1.2 million such journeys.
Since 2016, the PTS in Cheshire and Wirral has instead been carried out by West Midlands Ambulance Service. NWAS utilise a mixed fleet of emergency ambulances based on the Mercedes-Benz Sprinter or Fiat Ducato, the former consisting of a demountable box body on a chassis, the latter a van conversion; the Trust uses Skoda Octavia estates as the main Rapid response car although since 2017 begun using BMW i3 electric cars and use Renault Masters for Intermediate, Urgent care and Patient Transport vehicles. In Central Manchester, some paramedics respond on specially converted bicycles; the Trust operates from 104 ambulance stations across the North West. The most northerly station is at Carlisle, the furthest south is at Crewe, it maintains three Emergency Operations Centres for the handling of 999 calls and dispatch of emergency ambulances. Parkway Anfield Preston In 2017, NWAS signed an agreement to purchase a new EOC and area office for £2.9m at Liverpool International Business Park next to Liverpool John Lennon Airport As of 2019, this building has been converted and services are being moved from the Anfield site.
Over recent years, the Trust has combined many of their older ambulance stations into purpose-built facilities shared with other emergency services, including Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue, Lancashire Fire and Rescue and Greater Manchester Police. NWAS was the first ambulance trust to be inspected by the Care Quality Commission, in August 2014; the Commission found the trust provided safe and effective services which were well-led and with a clear focus on quality but it was criticised for taking too many callers to hospital and for sending ambulances when other responses would have been more appropriate. The Trust was subsequently inspected in 2018 and was found to have improved with a rating of "Good" Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom Healthcare in Greater Manchester North West Air Ambulance List of NHS trusts NWAS Website
Listed buildings in Worthington, Greater Manchester
Worthington is a civil parish in the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan, Greater Manchester, England. It contains three listed buildings. Of these, two are listed at Grade II*, the middle grade, the other is at Grade II, the lowest grade; the parish is rural with no significant settlement, the listed buildings are all houses
North West England
North West England, one of nine official regions of England, consists of the five counties of Cheshire, Greater Manchester and Merseyside. The North West had a population of 7,052,000 in 2011, it is the third-most populated region in the United Kingdom after the South Greater London. The largest settlements are Manchester, Warrington and Blackpool. North West England is bounded to the west by the Irish Sea; the region extends from the Scottish Borders in the north to the West Midlands region in the south. To its southwest is North Wales. Amongst the better known of the North West's physiographical features are the Lake District and the Cheshire Plain; the highest point in North West England is Cumbria, at a height of 3,209 feet. Windermere is the largest natural lake in England. Broad Crag Tarn on Broad Crag is England's highest lake. Wast Water is England's deepest lake, being 74m deep. A mix of rural and urban landscape, two large conurbations, centred on Liverpool and Manchester, occupy much of the south of the region.
The north of the region, comprising Cumbria and northern Lancashire, is rural, as is the far south which encompasses parts of the Cheshire Plain and Peak District. The region includes parts of three National parks and three areas of Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the official region consists of the following subdivisions: *metropolitan county After abolition of the Greater Manchester and Merseyside County Councils in 1986, power was transferred to the Metropolitan Boroughs making them Unitary Authorities. In April 2011, Greater Manchester gained a top-tier administrative body in the form of the Greater Manchester Combined Authority, which means the 10 Greater Manchester Boroughs are once again second-tier authorities. Source: Office for National Statistics Mid Year Population Estimates North West England's population accounts for just over 13% of England's overall population. 37.86% of the North West's population resides in Greater Manchester, 21.39% in Lancashire, 20.30% in Merseyside, 14.76% in Cheshire and 7.41% live in the largest county by area, Cumbria.
According to 2009 Office for National Statistics estimates, 91.6% of people in the region describe themselves as'White': 88.4% White British, 1.0% White Irish and 2.2% White Other. During the Industrial Revolution hundreds of thousands of Welsh people migrated to the North West of England to work in the coal mines. Parts with notably high populations with Welsh ancestry as a result of this include Liverpool, Widnes, Wallasey, Ashton-in-Makerfield and Birkenhead; the Mixed Race population makes up 1.3% of the region's population. There are 323,800 South Asians, making up 4.7% of the population, 1.1% Black Britons. 0.6% of the population are Chinese and 0.5% of people belong to another ethnic group. North West England is a diverse region, with Manchester and Liverpool amongst the most diverse cities in Europe. 19.4% of Blackburn with Darwen's population are Muslim, the third-highest among all local authorities in the United Kingdom and the highest outside London. Areas such as Moss Side in Greater Manchester are home to a 30%+ Black British population.
In contrast, the town of St. Helens in Merseyside, unusually for a city area, has a low percentage of ethnic minorities with 98% identifying as White British; the City of Liverpool, over 800 years old, is one of the few places in Britain where ethnic minority populations can be traced back over dozens of generations: being the closest major city in England to Ireland, it is home to a significant ethnic Irish population, with the city being home to one of the first Afro-Caribbean communities in the UK, as well as the oldest Chinatown in Europe. Summarised There are around 400,000 people living in the North West of any Asian ethnicity Around 125,000 people from the North West are of full or partial Sub-African and/or Caribbean descent The single largest non-white ethnic group in the North West are Pakistanis, numbering at least 144,400 The list below is not how many people belong to each ethnic group; the fifteen most common countries of birth in 2001 for North West citizens were as follows England – 6,169,753 Scotland – 109,163 Wales – 73,850 Ireland – 56,887 Pakistan – 46,529 Northern Ireland – 34,879 India – 34,600 Germany – 19,931 China and Hong Kong – 15,491 Bangladesh – 13,746 South Africa – 7,740 United States – 7,037 Jamaica – 6,661 Italy – 6,325 Australia – 5,880 Poland – The table below is based on the 2011 UK Census.
One in five of the population in the North West is Catholic, a result of large-scale Irish emigration in the nineteenth century as well as the high number of English recusants in Lancashire. For top-tier authorities, Manchester has the highest teenage pregnancy rate in the region. For council districts, Burnley has the highest rate followed by Hyndburn, both in Lancashire. Of the nine regions of the England, the North West has the fourth-highest GVA per capita—the highest outside southern England. Despite this the region has above average multiple deprivation with wealth concentrated on affluent areas like rural Cheshire, rural Lancashire, south Cumbria; as measured by the Indices of deprivation 2007, the
River Douglas (Lancashire)
The River Douglas known as the River Asland or Astland, is a river that flows through Lancashire and Greater Manchester in the north-west of England. It is a tributary of the River Ribble and has itself several tributaries, the major ones being the River Tawd and the River Yarrow. In 1720 an act of Parliament was passed allowing Thomas Steers and William Squire to make the Douglas navigable to small ships between Wigan and its mouth. Amid financial irregularities, the Douglas Navigation was not completed until 1742, by 1783, it had been superseded by the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, it reverted to being a river, although the remains of several locks can still be seen between Parbold and Gathurst. The Rufford Branch of the canal joins the river at Tarleton; the river rises on Winter Hill on the West Pennine Moors, flows for 35 miles through several towns and onto the Ribble estuary past Tarleton, the last 10 miles or so being tidal. In 1892 the Douglas was diverted in Wigan to allow the construction of Wigan Central railway station.
The Douglas is derived from the Brittonic elements dūβ-, meaning "black", *glẹ:ss, "stream, watercourse". This etymology is shared by like-named rivers in The Old North, such as the Douglas Water in Scotland; the River Dougles rises as a series of springs on Rivington Moor, close to the 1,440-foot contour and near to the summit of Winter Hill. They are called Douglas Springs, the River Yarrow, one of its major tributaries, rises at more springs less than a mile to the north-west. Nearby are Anglezarke Reservoir, Upper Rivington Reservoir, Lower Rivington Reservoir, three reservoirs that form part of the Rivington Chain, a network of reservoirs built to meet the drinking water needs of Liverpool; these disrupt the natural drainage patterns of both rivers. The Douglas descends dropping below the 430-foot contour before it empties into the bottom end of Lower Rivington Reservoir, just to the north of Horwich. Below the dam, flow in the river is maintained by compensation water released from the reservoir, marks the county boundary between Greater Manchester and Lancashire.
It is crossed by the M61 motorway near Rivington services, turns to the north-west to reach the southern edge of Adlington. As it weaves its way in a south-westerly direction, it is crossed by the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, carried on a grade II listed aqueduct designed by John Rennie in the 1790s, it is constructed of rock-faced stone. Next, it enter Worthington Lakes, a series of three reservoirs built in the 1860s to provide drinking water for Wigan, now managed as a country park by United Utilities; the river ceases to form the country boundary just before the lakes, re-emerges from a tunnel below the reservoir dam, passing to the east of Standish. It continues southwards to Wigan, where it passes through a long culvert under the railway near Wigan North Western station, is crossed again by the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, heads north-west paralleled by the canal, it is crossed by the M6 motorway and the Manchester-Southport line near Gathurst station, passes by the village of Appley Bridge, at Parbold the canal crosses for the third time, as the river turns to the north and north-west.
The aqueduct was designed by John Longbotham, has a semi-elliptical arch, dates from 1791-2. The river drops below the 33-foot contour at Parbold, continues across open countryside where it is joined by the River Tawd, flowing north from Skelmersdale, becoming tidal before it reaches the village of Rufford. White Bridge at Rufford is a grade II listed structure with three spans, constructed of squared sandstone, it carries the B5246 Station Road over the river, dates from the time of the construction of the Douglas Navigation, between 1720 and 1742. Below the bridge, the channel is rather straighter; until 1805, the river was joined by the Rufford Branch of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal at Sollom Lock, but the lock was abandoned and a new one built further downstream at Tarleton. In order to do this, a new channel was created for the river further to the east, the original channel was reused by the canal. On the new section, Great Hanging Bridge is similar to White bridge, both in date and in its three arches, it carries the A581 road.
Below it, the river is joined by the River Yarrow, which has taken a more direct route from its source to this point. At Tarleton, another three-span bridge carries the A59 road over the river, it is built from rock-faced sandstone blocks, the keystone on the southern side indiciates it was constructed in 1821. The north side is of red sandstone, with indications that it might once have been part of a narrower bridge. After its junction with the canal at Tarleton Lock, the final 4 miles of the river to its junction with the River Ribble, here known as the River Asland, is used by boat traffic transferring from the Leeds and Liverpool Canal to the Lancaster Canal since the opening of the Ribble Link in 2002; the reservoirs of the Rivington Chain capture and store run-off from Winter Hill and Rivington Moor, much of, used to provide a public water supply to areas of Lancashire and Greater Manchester. However, as a result of the original statutes that allowed them to be built, the water company is required to maintain some flow in the river below the reservoirs, this compensation flow provides a steady baseline flow in the river throughout the year.
It is only exceeded if the reservoirs become full. On the upper reaches of the Douglas, the river bed is steep, the river level can change as a result of rainfall; as the river progresses to the west, the gradient lessens, level changes occur more slowly. There
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. The dye is applied in an aqueous solution, may require a mordant to improve the fastness of the dye on the fiber. Both dyes and pigments are colored. Dyes are soluble in water whereas pigments are insoluble; some dyes can be rendered insoluble with the addition of salt to produce a lake pigment. The majority of natural dyes are derived from plant sources: roots, bark and wood, lichens. Most dyes are synthetic, i.e. are man-made from petrochemicals. Other than pigmentation, they have a range of applications including organic dye lasers, optical media and camera sensors. Textile dyeing dates back to the Neolithic period. Throughout history, people have dyed their textiles using common, locally available materials. Scarce dyestuffs that produced brilliant and permanent colors such as the natural invertebrate dyes Tyrian purple and crimson kermes were prized luxury items in the ancient and medieval world.
Plant-based dyes such as woad, indigo and madder were important trade goods in the economies of Asia and Europe. Across Asia and Africa, patterned fabrics were produced using resist dyeing techniques to control the absorption of color in piece-dyed cloth. Dyes from the New World such as cochineal and logwood were brought to Europe by the Spanish treasure fleets, the dyestuffs of Europe were carried by colonists to America. Dyed flax fibers have been found in the Republic of Georgia in a prehistoric cave dated to 36,000 BP. Archaeological evidence shows that in India and Phoenicia, dyeing has been carried out for over 5,000 years. Early dyes were obtained from animal, vegetable or mineral sources, with no to little processing. By far the greatest source of dyes has been from the plant kingdom, notably roots, bark and wood, only few of which are used on a commercial scale; the first synthetic dye, was discovered serendipitously by William Henry Perkin in 1856. The discovery of mauveine started a surge in organic chemistry in general.
Other aniline dyes followed, such as fuchsine and induline. Many thousands of synthetic dyes have since been prepared. Dyes are classified according to their chemical properties. Acid dyes are water-soluble anionic dyes that are applied to fibers such as silk, wool and modified acrylic fibers using neutral to acid dye baths. Attachment to the fiber is attributed, at least to salt formation between anionic groups in the dyes and cationic groups in the fiber. Acid dyes are not substantive to cellulosic fibers. Most synthetic food colors fall in this category. Examples of acid dye are Acid red 88, etc.. Basic dyes are water-soluble cationic dyes that are applied to acrylic fibers, but find some use for wool and silk. Acetic acid is added to the dye bath to help the uptake of the dye onto the fiber. Basic dyes are used in the coloration of paper. Direct or substantive dyeing is carried out in a neutral or alkaline dye bath, at or near boiling point, with the addition of either sodium chloride or sodium sulfate or sodium carbonate.
Direct dyes are used on cotton, leather, wool and nylon. They are used as pH indicators and as biological stains. Mordant dyes require a mordant, which improves the fastness of the dye against water and perspiration; the choice of mordant is important as different mordants can change the final color significantly. Most natural dyes are mordant dyes and there is therefore a large literature base describing dyeing techniques; the most important mordant dyes are chrome dyes, used for wool. The mordant potassium dichromate is applied as an after-treatment, it is important to note that many mordants those in the heavy metal category, can be hazardous to health and extreme care must be taken in using them. Vat dyes are insoluble in water and incapable of dyeing fibres directly. However, reduction in alkaline liquor produces the water-soluble alkali metal salt of the dye; this form is colorless, in which case it is referred to as a Leuco dye, has an affinity for the textile fibre. Subsequent oxidation reforms the original insoluble dye.
The color of denim is due to the original vat dye. Reactive dyes utilize a chromophore attached to a substituent, capable of directly reacting with the fiber substrate; the covalent bonds that attach reactive dye to natural fibers make them among the most permanent of dyes. "Cold" reactive dyes, such as Procion MX, Cibacron F, Drimarene K, are easy to use because the dye can be applied at room temperature. Reactive dyes are by far the best choice for dyeing cotton and other cellulose fibers at home or in the art studio. Disperse dyes were developed for the dyeing of cellulose acetate, are water-insoluble; the dyes are finely ground in the presence of a dispersing agent and sold as a paste, or spray-dried and sold as a powder. Their main use is to dye polyester, but they can be used to dye nylon, cellulose triacetate, acrylic fibers. In some cases, a dyeing temperature of 130 °C is required, a pressurized dyebath is used; the fine particle size gives a large surface area that aids dissolution to allow uptake by the fiber.
The dyeing rate can be influenced by the choice of dispersing agent used during the grinding. Azoic dyeing is a technique in which an insoluble Azo dye is produced directly