The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Pumping stations are facilities including pumps and equipment for pumping fluids from one place to another. They are used for a variety of infrastructure systems, such as the supply of water to canals, the drainage of low-lying land, the removal of sewage to processing sites. A pumping station is, by definition, an integral part of a pumped-storage hydroelectricity installation. In countries with canal systems, pumping stations are frequent; because of the way the system of canal locks work, water is lost from the upper part of a canal each time a vessel passes through. Most lock gates are not watertight, so some water leaks from the higher levels of the canal to those lower down; the water has to be replaced or the upper levels of the canal would not hold enough water to be navigable. Canals are fed by diverting water from streams and rivers into the upper parts of the canal, but if no suitable source is available, a pumping station can be used to maintain the water level. An excellent example of a canal pumping station is the Claverton Pumping Station on the Kennet and Avon Canal in southern England, United Kingdom.
This pumps water from the nearby River Avon to the canal using pumps driven by a waterwheel, powered by the river. Where no external water supply is available, back pumping systems may be employed. Water is extracted from the canal below the lowest lock of a flight and is pumped back to the top of the flight, ready for the next boat to pass through; such installations are small.. When low-lying areas of land are drained, the general method is to dig drainage ditches. However, if the area is below sea level it is necessary to pump the water upwards into water channels that drain into the sea; the Victorians understood this concept, in the United Kingdom they built pumping stations with water pumps, powered by steam engines to accomplish this task. In Lincolnshire, large areas of wetland at sea level, called The Fens, were turned into rich arable farmland by this method; the land is full of nutrients because of the accumulation of sedimentary mud that created the land initially. Elsewhere, pumping stations are used to remove water that has found its way into low-lying areas as a result of leakage or flooding.
In more recent times, a "package pumping station" provides an efficient and economic way of installing a drainage system. They are suitable for mechanical building services collection and pumping of liquids like surface water, wastewater or sewage from areas where drainage by gravity is not possible. A package pumping station is an integrated system, built in a housing manufactured from strong, impact-resistant materials such as precast concrete, polyethylene, or glass-reinforced plastic; the unit is supplied with internal pipework fitted, pre-assembled ready for installation into the ground, after which the submersible pumps and control equipment are fitted. Features may include controls for automatic operation. Traditional site constructed systems have the valve vault components installed in a separate structure. Having two structural components can lead to serious site problems such as uneven settling between components which results in stress on, failure of the pipes and connections between components.
The development of a packaged pump station system combined all components into a single housing which not only eliminates uneven settling issues, but pre-plumbing and outfitting each unit prior to installation can reduce the cost and time involved with civil work and site labor. Pumping stations in sewage collection systems are designed to handle raw sewage, fed from underground gravity pipelines. Sewage is fed into and stored in a pit known as a wet well; the well is equipped with electrical instrumentation to detect the level of sewage present. When the sewage level rises to a predetermined point, a pump will be started to lift the sewage upward through a pressurized pipe system called a sewer force main if the sewage is transported some significant distance; the pumping station may be called a lift station if the pump discharges into a nearby gravity manhole. From here the cycle starts all over again until the sewage reaches its point of destination—usually a treatment plant. By this method, pumping stations are used to move waste to higher elevations.
In the case of high sewage flows into the well additional pumps will be used. If this is insufficient, or in the case of failure of the pumping station, a backup in the sewer system can occur, leading to a sanitary sewer overflow—the discharge of raw sewage into the environment. Sewage pumping stations are designed so that one pump or one set of pumps will handle normal peak flow conditions. Redundancy is built into the system so that in the event that any one pump is out of service, the remaining pump or pumps will handle the designed flow; the storage volume of the wet well between the "pump on" and "pump off" settings is designed to minimize pump starts and stops, but is not so long a retention time as to allow the sewage in the wet well to go septic. Sewage pumps are always end-suction centrifugal pumps with open impellers and are specially designed with a large open passage so as to avoid clogging with debris or winding stringy debris onto the impeller. A four pole or six pole AC induction motor drives the pump.
Rather than provide large open passages, some pumps smaller sewage pumps macerate any solids within the
The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter, it is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. UNESCO has 11 associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy and teacher-training programs, international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world's cultural and natural heritage and to preserve human rights, attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide.
It is a member of the United Nations Development Group. UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture and information". Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication; the broad goals and objectives of the international community—as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals —underpin all UNESCO strategies and activities. UNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study feasibility; this new body, the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation was indeed created in 1922.
On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the onset of World War II interrupted the work of these predecessor organizations. After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education began meetings in London which continued from 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States and the USSR; this was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented.
The idea of UNESCO was developed by Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom, who had a great deal of influence in its development. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, a Preparatory Commission was established; the Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state. The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General; the Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity. This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the ICIC, in how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence.
As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, the dissolution of the USSR. Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists and other scientists in 1950 and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO saying that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems." South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela. UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, started in 1947; this project was followed by expert missions to other countries, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.
In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal. In 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, launched a global movement to provide basic education for a
Stavoren, is a town in Friesland, Netherlands, on the coast of the IJsselmeer about 5 km south of Hindeloopen, in the municipality of Súdwest-Fryslân. Stavoren had a population of 950 in January 2017, it is one of the stops on the Elfstedentocht, an ice skating contest which occurs when the winter temperatures provide safe conditions. A ferry for pedestrians and cyclists operates between Stavoren and Enkhuizen, with increased trips during summer months; the Friese Kustpad, a 131 kilometres long-distance trail to Lauwersoog, begins in Stavoren. The historical Stavoren was granted city rights between 1060 and 1067, making it the oldest city in Friesland, it is mentioned in early texts as the burial place of the early kings of Friesland, including the first Christian king Adgil II, a son of Redbad, the last pagan king who lived from about 670 to 719. Stavoren began to decline in the late Middle Ages after a sandbank formed outside the harbour, blocking ships from entering and exiting; the appearance of the sandbank is the topic of the Dutch Renaissance folk-tale of the Lady of Stavoren.
In 1657, the entire town was submerged in a great flood. Before 2011, the city was part of the Nijefurd municipality and before 1984 Stavoren was an independent municipality. Media related to Stavoren at Wikimedia Commons
Wouda pumping station
The D. F. Wouda Steam Pumping Station is a pumping station in the Netherlands, the largest still operational steam-powered pumping station in the world. On October 7, 1920 Queen Wilhelmina opened the pumping station, it was built to pump excess water out of a province in the north of the Netherlands. In 1967, after running on coal for 47 years, the boilers were converted to run on heavy fuel oil, it has a pumping capacity of 4,000 m³ per minute, 1,000,000 GPM, 1,440 MGD. The pumping station is used to supplement the existing pumping capacity of the J. L. Hooglandgemaal in Stavoren in case of exceptionally high water levels in Friesland. -4 tandem compound, reciprocating steam engines, with poppet valves: Single acting high pressure cylinder, 0.5 m diameter. Double acting low pressure cylinder, uni-flow exhaust, 0.85 m diameter. Stroke: 1.0 m500 Horsepower, 373 kilowatt-8 horizontal, double suction, centrifugal pumps: 500 m³ per minute, 125,000 GPM, 180 MGD: rotational speed: 95 to 115 rpm, impeller diameter 1.70 m.
Since 1998 the ir. D. F. Woudagemaal has been listed on the UNESCO World Heritage Site list; the station is open for tours are given regularly. The pumping station is located at Tacozijl just outside Lemmer Media related to Ir. D. F. Wouda-gemaal at Wikimedia Commons Official website Visit site in 360° panophotography
Friesland historically known as Frisia, is a province of the Netherlands located in the northern part of the country. It is situated west of Groningen, northwest of Drenthe and Overijssel, north of Flevoland, northeast of North Holland, south of the Wadden Sea. In 2015, the province had a population of 646,092 and a total area of 5,100 km2; the capital and seat of the provincial government is the city of Leeuwarden, a city with 91,817 inhabitants. Since 2017, Arno Brok is the King's Commissioner in the province. A coalition of the Labour Party, the Christian Democratic Appeal, the Frisian National Party forms the executive branch; the province is divided into 18 municipalities. The area of the province was once part of the ancient, larger region of Frisia; the official languages of Friesland are West Dutch. In 1996 the States of Friesland resolved that the official name of the province should follow the West Frisian spelling rather than the Dutch spelling, resulting in "Friesland" being replaced by "Fryslân".
In 2004 the Dutch government confirmed this resolution, putting in place a three-year scheme to oversee the name change and associated cultural programme. The province of Friesland is referred to as "Frisia" by, amongst others, Hanno Brand, head of the history and literature department at the Fryske Akademy since 2009. However, the English-language webpage of the Friesland Provincial Council refers to the province as "Fryslân"; the Frisii were among the migrating Germanic tribes that, following the breakup of Celtic Europe in the 4th century BC, settled along the North Sea. They came to control the area from present-day Bremen to Brugge, conquered many of the smaller offshore islands. What little is known of the Frisii is provided by a few Roman accounts, most of them military. Pliny the Elder said their lands were forest-covered with tall trees growing up to the edge of the lakes, they lived by raising cattle. In his Germania, Tacitus would describe all the Germanic peoples of the region as having elected kings with limited powers and influential military leaders who led by example rather than by authority.
The people lived in spread-out settlements. He noted the weakness of Germanic political hierarchies in reference to the Frisii, when he mentioned the names of two kings of the 1st century Frisii and added that they were kings "as far as the Germans are under kings". In the 1st century BC, the Frisii halted a Roman advance and thus managed to maintain their independence; some or all of the Frisii may have joined into the Frankish and Saxon peoples in late Roman times, but they would retain a separate identity in Roman eyes until at least 296, when they were forcibly resettled as laeti and thereafter disappear from recorded history. Their tentative existence in the 4th century is confirmed by archaeological discovery of a type of earthenware unique to 4th-century Frisia, called terp Tritzum, showing that an unknown number of Frisii were resettled in Flanders and Kent as laeti under the aforementioned Roman coercion; the lands of the Frisii were abandoned by c. 400 as a result of the conflicts of the Migration Period, climate deterioration, the flooding caused by a rise in the sea level.
The area lay empty for one or two centuries, when changing environmental and political conditions made the region habitable again. At that time, during the Migration Period, "new" Frisians repopulated the coastal regions; these Frisians consisted of tribes with loose bonds, centred without great power. The earliest Frisian records name four social classes, the ethelings and frilings, who together made up the "Free Frisians" who might bring suit at court, the laten or liten with the slaves, who were absorbed into the laten during the Early Middle Ages, as slavery was not so much formally abolished, as evaporated; the laten were tenants of lands they did not own and might be tied to it in the manner of serfs, but in times might buy their freedom. Under the rule of King Aldgisl, the Frisians came in conflict with the Frankish mayor of the palace Ebroin, over the old Roman border fortifications. Aldgisl could keep the Franks at a distance with his army. During the reign of Redbad, the tide turned in favour of the Franks.
In 733, Charles Martel sent an army against the Frisians. The Frisian army was pushed back to Eastergoa; the next year the Battle of the Boarn took place. Charles ferried an army across the Almere with a fleet; the Frisians were defeated in the ensuing battle, their last king Poppo was killed. The victors began burning heathen sanctuaries. Charles Martel returned with much loot, broke the power of the Frisian kings for good; the Franks annexed the Frisian lands between the Vlie and the Lauwers. They conquered the area east of the Lauwers in 785; the Carolingians laid Frisia under the rule of grewan, a title, loosely related to count in its early sense of "governor" rather than "feudal overlord". About 100,000 Dutch drowned in a flood in 1228. When, around 800, the Scandinavian Vikings first attacked Frisia, still under Carolingian rule, the Frisians were released from military service on foreign territory in order to be able to defend themselves against the heathen Vikings. With their victory in the Battle of Norditi in 884 they were able to drive the Vikings permanently out of East Frisia, although it remained under constan
Willemstad is the capital city of Curaçao, an island in the southern Caribbean Sea that forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The capital of the Netherlands Antilles prior to its dissolution in 2010, it has an estimated population of 150,000; the historic centre of the city consists of four quarters: the Punda and Otrobanda, which are separated by the Sint Anna Bay, an inlet that leads into the large natural harbour called the Schottegat, as well as the Scharloo and Pietermaai Smal quarters, which are across from each other on the smaller Waaigat harbour. Willemstad is home to the oldest surviving synagogue in the Americas; the city centre, with its unique architecture and harbour entry, has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Punda was established in 1634; the original name of Punda was de punt in Dutch. Otrobanda, founded in 1707, is the newer section of the city and is considered to be the cultural centre of Willemstad, its name originated from the Papiamentu otro banda, which means "the other side."The Curaçao synagogue was built by Sephardic Portuguese Jews from Amsterdam and Recife, Brazil.
Insel Air, the national airline of Curaçao, has its corporate head office in Maduro Plaza. Tourism is a major industry and the city has several casinos; the city centre of Willemstad has an array of colonial architecture, influenced by Dutch styles. Archaeological research has been developed there. Owing to its location near the Venezuelan oilfields, its political stability and its natural deep water harbour, Willemstad became the site of an important seaport and refinery. Willemstad's harbour is one of the largest oil handling ports in the Caribbean; the refinery, at one point the largest in the world, was built and owned by Royal Dutch Shell in 1915. The four companies comprising the Royal Dutch Shell refining operation. Schlumberger, the world's largest oil field services company is incorporated in Willemstad. Numerous financial institutions are incorporated in Willemstad due to Curaçao's favourable tax policies; the Avalon University School of Medicine is located in Willemstad. The Caribbean Medical University is located in Willemstad, close to the city centre.
Major League Baseball players Jair Jurrjens, Wladimir Balentien, Jurickson Profar, Andruw Jones, Ozzie Albies, Kenley Jansen and Jonathan Schoop are from Willemstad. Pabao Little League has appeared in five Little League World Series, winning in 2004. In 2008, another Pabao Little League team won the Junior League World Series, after winning the Latin America Region defeating the Asia-Pacific Region and Mexico Region champions to become the International champion, defeating the U. S. champion, Hilo American/National LL, 5-2. Willemstad is served by Curaçao International Airport, located 12 kilometres north of the city, annually used by about two million passengers. Punda and Otrobanda are connected by a long pontoon bridge. Although it is still in use, these days most road traffic now uses the Queen Juliana Bridge built in 1967 which arches high over the bay further inland. Nearby is the now non-functioning Queen Wilhelmina drawbridge. Willemstad has a tropical savannah climate. Major League Baseball players Andruw Jones, Jonathan Schoop, Kenley Jansen, Ozzie Albies were born in Willemstad.
Tennis player Jean-Julien Rojer was born in Willemstad. Footballer Kemy Agustien was born in Willemstad. Footballer Vurnon Anita was born in Willemstad. Footballer for Manchester United Tahith Chong born in Willemstad. Curaçao