A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Louisville is a city in Jefferson County, United States. It is the county seat of Jefferson County, it is located southwest of Augusta on the Ogeechee River, its population was 2,493 at the 2010 census, down from 2,712 at the 2000 census. The name is pronounced "Lewis-ville" by locals. Louisville was incorporated on January 1786, as the prospective state capital. Savannah had served as the colonial capital, but was considered too far from the center of population in the growing state. Louisville was named for Louis XVI, still the King of France and had aided the Continentals during the successful American Revolutionary War. Development of the city began and its state government buildings were completed in 1795. An old Revolutionary War Soldiers Cemetery is located on the western side of town; the city of Louisville served as the state capital of Georgia from 1796 to 1806. It was a center of trade and political influence; the Jefferson County courthouse, built in 1904, stands on the site of Georgia's first permanent capitol building.
Louisville's historic, open-sided market house still stands in the center of downtown. The original market had sections for sales of farm produce, household goods, enslaved African Americans; the Old Market is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Roads and other transportation routes intersected at the market square, the hub of the region when the town was the state capital; the state capital was moved to Milledgeville and to Atlanta, in the Piedmont. As a small city and county seat, Louisville now has few major industries. A marker dedicated to the Yazoo land scandal of the 19th century is located in front of the Jefferson County Courthouse. Queensborough National Bank and Trust Company was founded in 1902 and is headquartered in Louisville, on U. S. Highway 1. Louisville is located south of the center of Jefferson County at 33°0′15″N 82°24′18″W. U. S. Route 1 passes through the east side of the city, leading northeast 46 miles to Augusta and south 30 miles to Swainsboro. U. S. Route 221 passes through the north side of downtown as Peachtree Street and leads southwest 10 miles to Bartow.
US-221 leaves Louisville to the north, running with US-1 15 miles to Wrens before continuing north toward Harlem. According to the United States Census Bureau, Louisville has a total area of 3.7 square miles, of which 3.6 square miles are land and 0.1 square miles, or 1.93%, are water. The western city boundary follows Rocky Comfort Creek, which flows into the Ogeechee River at the city limits' southwest corner; the Ogeechee flows to the Atlantic Ocean south of Savannah. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,712 people, 994 households, 664 families residing in the city; the population density was 755.5 people per square mile. There were 1,123 housing units at an average density of 312.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 65.93% African American, 33.63% White, 0.04% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.07% from other races, 0.11% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.37% of the population. There were 994 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.8% were married couples living together, 27.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.1% were non-families.
31.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.22. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.2% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 25.1% from 25 to 44, 19.9% from 45 to 64, 18.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 77.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 71.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $19,883, the median income for a family was $32,578. Males had a median income of $31,500 versus $16,921 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,028. About 23.1% of families and 28.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.8% of those under age 18 and 51.8% of those age 65 or over. The Jefferson County School District holds pre-school to grade twelve, consists of two elementary schools, two middle schools, a high school, an academy school.
The district has 199 full-time teachers and over 3,526 students. Louisville Academy Carver Elementary School Wrens Elementary School Louisville Middle School Jefferson County High School Thomas Jefferson Academy Central Savannah River Area List of municipalities in Georgia Local radio station: WPEH, Big Peach Radio National Register of Historic Places listings in Jefferson County, Georgia Strong, Robert Hale. Halsey, Ashley, ed. A Yankee Private's Civil War. Chicago: Henry Regnery Company. Pp. 106–108. LCCN 61-10744. OCLC 1058411. GovernmentOfficial websiteGeneral information Geographic data related to Louisville, Georgia at OpenStreetMap Louisville, Georgia at the Digital Library of Georgia Louisville, Georgia at Jefferson County Chamber of Commerce and Development Authority of Jefferson County Louisville, Georgia at New Georgia Encyclopedia Louisville Public Library at Jefferson County Library System The Sacking of Louisville at The Historical Marker Database
Bruce Kelly (landscape architect)
Bruce R. Kelly was a landscape architect based in New York City, an advocate for the preservation and restoration of the landscapes designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, he is remembered for his own designs in New York's parks, including Strawberry Fields, the memorial to John Lennon in New York's Central Park. Bruce Kelly was born in 1948 at Georgia. In 1971, he received a bachelor's degree in landscape architecture from the University of Georgia and in 1973, he received a master's degree in historic preservation from Columbia University. From July to September 1974, Kelly was in Tuscany preparing archaeological drawings of the ancient Roman town of Cosa, excavated under the auspices of the American Academy in Rome. After returning to New York, he worked from 1974 to 1977 for the Central Park Task Force, formed to help rehabilitate Central Park. In May 1977, Kelly formed Bruce Kelly Associates. An early client, the Central Park Conservancy, engaged Kelly to help compile an inventory of the park's assets, the first done in decades.
Completed between 1982 and 1985, the exercise led to the creation of the Conservancy's master plan for the subsequent restoration of the park. In October 1981, Kelly and Gail Guillet organized an exhibit at the Metropolitan Museum of Art entitled "Art of the Olmsted Landscape." The exhibit and the accompanying catalogue helped cement Kelly's reputation as an Olmsted expert. That same month, Kelly obtained his license to practice landscape architecture in New York State. In March 1986, Kelly formed a partnership with David Varnell, a classmate from the University of Georgia, where in 1971 they jointly published their senior thesis, a planning study for Washington, Georgia. Kelly and Varnell were well known for their many master plans and projects for public spaces, but on a parallel track they cultivated a private practice. Writing in 1988, James Baily noted that Kelly was active "...in the most rarefied strata of the private sector, undertaking elaborate garden projects for such clients as Mary Morgan, Carolyne Roehm and Henry Kravis, Yoko Ono and Gayfryd Steinberg, some dozen others.
These are good times to be Bruce Kelly." Other glamorous commissions included the garden of Angier Biddle Duke in Southampton, New York, that of Ashton Hawkins on the Greek island of Patmos and the restoration of the gardens of the Pallazo Abrizzi in Venice. Kelly died in 1993 at the age of 44, after which David Varnell continued the practice, completing the Eleanor Roosevelt Monument in New York's Riverside Park, dedicated in October 1996. In 2000, the firm changed its name to Kelly Varnell Virgona. Master Plan for the Arboretum, South Park, New York. Strawberry Fields, Central Park, New York City. Master Plan, Boulevard East Promenade, New Jersey. James Michael Levin Playground, Central Park, New York City. Restoration of the Dene in Central Park, New York City. Garden Design, Metropolitan Home Magazine Show House, 126 East 65th St. New York City. Restoration of the Shakespeare Garden in Central Park, New York City. Forest Park Redevelopment Proposal, Forest Park, St. Louis, Missouri. Perennial Garden, Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, New York City.
The Hermitage, Ho-Ho-Kus, New Jersey, Specifications for Landscape Restoration and Construction. Renovation of the Boulevard East Promenade and ancillary parks, New Jersey. Eleanor Roosevelt Monument, Riverside Park, New York City. Bruce Kelly, Gail Travis Guillet and Mary Ellen W. Hern. Art of the Olmsted Landscape. Elizabeth Barlow Rogers with Marianne Cramer, Judith L. Heintz, Bruce Kelly, Philip N. Winslow, John Berendt. Rebuilding Central Park: A Management and Restoration Tool
Tobacco Road (novel)
Tobacco Road is a 1932 novel by Erskine Caldwell about Georgia sharecroppers. It was dramatized for Broadway by Jack Kirkland in 1933, ran for eight years, an astounding feat for a non-musical and, as of 2014, it was still the 18th longest-running Broadway show in history as well as being the second-longest running non-musical on Broadway; the novel argues for the sterilization of Georgia's poor whites, as the author's father, Ira Caldwell, had argued in his 1930 article in The Eugenics Review. A 1941 film version, deliberately played for laughs, was directed by John Ford, the storyline was altered; the novel was included in Life magazine's list of the 100 outstanding books of 1924–1944. Tobacco Road is set in rural Georgia, several miles outside Augusta, during the worst years of the Great Depression, it depicts a family of poor white tenant farmers, the Lesters, as one of the many small Southern cotton farmers made redundant by the industrialization of production and the migration into cities.
The main character of the novel is Jeeter Lester, an ignorant and sinful man, redeemed by his love of the land and his faith in the fertility and promise of the soil. Lov Bensey, a friend of the Lesters, walks to his home at the train yard coal chute, he has walked seven and a half miles to get a sack of winter turnips for 50 cents, half of his daily wage. On his way home, he stops by the Lesters to talk to Jeeter about Jeeter's 12-year-old daughter Pearl, to whom Lov is married. While Lov is talking to Jeeter, the book introduces the reader to 16-year-old Dude, the youngest of the Lester boys; the entire family, acting in complete desperation, works to steal the turnips from Lov, who becomes nauseated by the sight and leaves for home. At this point, the preacher Bessie enters the scene. Sister Bessie Rice, like Ellie May has a deformity of the face. Bessie’s nose contains no bone, so when looking straight at her face one can see straight into her nostrils, like a pig. Despite this, Jeeter is still attracted to her.
She does some preaching and praying for everyone’s sins, proposes marriage to Dude. However, Dude is more interested in her offer of letting him drive the new automobile that she anticipates purchasing than in getting married to her. Bessie goes home to her hovel to ask God whether or not she and Dude should get married. Jeeter has lived on the same plot of land since he was born, though his standard of living continues to decline until he and his family begin to starve, Jeeter stubbornly refuses to move to the city to make a better life for himself by working in a cotton mill; such a life, would be impossible for him to live. Alongside Jeeter’s preoccupation with farming the land is his preoccupation with his own imminent death. Ada as well is fixated on her death, but their morbidity does not take the form of lamentation or self-pity. Ada’s main concern is that she not be buried in her tattered, out-of-style calico dress, Jeeter’s main concern is that his body not be left in the old corn storage shed where it might be eaten by rats.
He has had a terrible phobia of rats since he saw his dead father’s face half-eaten by a rat the day of his funeral. Neither of these two characters have any doubts that they are going to die sometime soon, it is not their present life but their lifeless bodies which they care about most, they realize that their way of life is dead. When Sister Bessie returns the next day to the Lester house, she exclaims that God has given her his approval for the marriage between Dude and herself; the two start the long walk to Fuller in order to purchase a new Ford for the purpose of traveling around the country and preaching. Once they are in the auto showroom, the salesmen take advantage of Bessie's rural naïveté to pull off a quick and profitable sale, while at the same time making fun of her deformed nose. Dude and Bessie go off to get their marriage certificate and are questioned by the county official, who reprimands Bessie for attempting to marry a boy of 16 years, they get the marriage license, the anxious Dude gets to drive the automobile again.
Dude incessantly sounds the car horn whenever he gets behind the steering wheel to drive off somewhere. Over the course of the next two days, the automobile gets wrecked more and more. First there is an accident with a wagon in which they end up killing the negro driver, Dude drives into a stump; the seats get torn by Jeeter's blackjack wood. The engine irreparably becomes damaged by being run without enough oil. On top of this, they sell the spare tire and wheel for three dollars in order to pay for gasoline, a night at a disreputable hotel where Bessie willingly gets prostituted from room to room by the manager; some days Bessie refuses to let Jeeter ride in her car anymore, which makes him upset to the point of kicking her off the land. When she physically attacks him and Jeeter proceed to beat Bessie and poke her with sticks until she and Dude take off in the car. While fleeing from Ada and Jeeter’s onslaught, Dude backs the Ford right over Grandma Lester, who lies with her face mashed into the sand, near dead.
Lov runs down to see Jeeter, asks him if he knows what happened to Pearl, who had run away to Augusta to be free of Lov and the bleak and desperate country life surrounding her. Jeeter notes that more than a few of
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi