Eakins Oval is a traffic circle in Philadelphia. It forms the northwest end of the Benjamin Franklin Parkway just in front of the Philadelphia Museum of Art, with a central array of fountains and monuments, a network of pedestrian walkways; this loop of road carries a large volume of traffic, as it connects the core of the city with Fairmount Park, Kelly Drive, Martin Luther King, Jr. Drive. During parades and other major municipal events such as the Thanksgiving Day Parade, large concerts such as Live 8 Philadelphia and the Budweiser Made in America Festival, the roadways are shut down to automobile traffic and the oval becomes center stage for the gathering. Eakins Oval was the site of the stage for the 2017 NFL Draft; the oval was part of urban planner Jacques Gréber's design for the Benjamin Franklin Parkway, which he proposed in 1917. The oval is named for Thomas Eakins, world-famous realist painter, fine arts educator; the southeastern part of the oval serves as a parking lot. Just inside the northwest edge of Eakins Oval, in front of the Philadelphia Museum of Art stairs, stands the Washington Monument fountain.
It was designed by sculptor Rudolf Siemering. The sculpture was dedicated in 1897 at the Green Street entrance to Fairmount Park, it was moved in 1928 to its present location. In 1997, work to restore the statue began under the direction of Margo Berg of the Philadelphia Art Commission. Over the years, the sculpture had come loose from its base, the fountain had ceased to function properly; the restoration was completed in June of the same year. The bronze and granite sculpture features. Washington and his horse are poised on top of the fountain, facing southeast down the Benjamin Franklin Parkway towards Philadelphia City Hall; the face of the sculpture was made from an impression of the former president made while he was still alive. The body was of a Prussian General; the lowest level of the monument features Native Americans and animals that are native to the United States. The Washington Monument fountain is flanked by two smaller fountains, honoring Eli Kirk Price and John Ericsson. Beneath Eakins Oval and the surrounding area run two tunnels for rail traffic, constructed in the 1920s at the same time as the Oval, the Parkway, the Art Museum.
The lower tunnel, built for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, is owned by successor CSX and carries freight trains on a single track. The upper tunnel carried streetcars on the Spring Garden Street line of Philadelphia Rapid Transit and successor Philadelphia Transportation Company until 1956; this double-track tunnel was completely rebuilt in 1960 to carry two lanes of one-way traffic on Spring Garden from Pennsylvania Avenue to the Spring Garden Street Bridge over the Schuylkill River. This tunnel crosses above the CSX tunnel in the middle. Today's Route 43 buses, operated by SEPTA, do not use the tunnel. Center City, Philadelphia List of monuments dedicated to George Washington List of parks in Philadelphia http://museumwithoutwallsaudio.org/interactive-map/washington-monument#audio Fairmount Park Official Website A. Rutari: Das Washington-Denkmal für Amerika: Ein Atelierbesuch bei Rudolf Siemerding. In: Die Kunst für alle: Malerei, Graphik, Architektur. Heft 3, S. 39–41
Portrait of Leslie W. Miller
Portrait of Leslie W. Miller is a 1901 painting by Thomas Eakins, Goodrich catalogue #348, it is in the permanent collection of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Professor Leslie William Miller was an artist and principal of the Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art for forty years, 1880–1920, he was born in Brattleboro and studied at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. He graduated from the Massachusetts Normal Art School in 1874, worked as a portrait painter, he returned to MNAS to teach, completed a second degree in 1880. The Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art had been chartered in 1876, was housed in Memorial Hall, the art gallery from the 1876 Centennial Exposition; the school began classes in Fall 1877, in a building at 312 North Broad Street, soon expanded into the old Franklin Institute, at 15 South 7th Street. Miller came to Philadelphia in Summer 1880 as PMSIA's first principal, at the same time that Eakins was teaching at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts.
Miller registered for PAFA's life classes in February 1881. Colleagues in Philadelphia's artistic circles and Miller became close friends. Miller was a member of the American Philosophical Society, the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, was a founder of the Art Club of Philadelphia; as secretary of the Fairmount Park Art Association, he was involved in public art decisions for the City, including the layout of the Benjamin Franklin Parkway and the design of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. He was an honorary member of Philadelphia's T-Square Club, of the Philadelphia chapter of the American Institute of Architects. In 1892, the Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb moved to a suburban campus in the Germantown section of Philadelphia; the following year, its vacant buildings at Broad & Pine Streets were bought by the Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art's trustees, renovated for the art school's needs. Former student Charles Sheeler recalled Eakins visiting PMSIA to work on the portrait: "One day a stocky little man, gray-haired and gray-bearded, passed through our workroom.
His trousers were tucked into short leather boots and fitted so snugly as to make the braces over his dark sweater superfluous. Neither his appearance nor his manner offered a clew as to the reason for his visit. A few days he returned and passed to the life-class room, just beyond where we were working. Knotholes in the board partition were permitted us to satisfy our curiosity; the stocky little man was beginning a portrait of the principal of the school, Leslie Miller, before long the plan of the picture was indicated. The subject was to be portrayed standing with one hand in his trousers pocket and the other holding a manuscript from which he raised his eyes as if to direct them toward an audience; as the artist's work continued we witnessed the progress of a perspective drawing, made on paper and transferred to the canvas, to account for charts of ornament receding into the background—those charts which we knew only too well. This careful procedure led us to the conclusion that the man, whoever he was, couldn't be a great artist, for we had learned somewhere that great artists painted only by inspiration, a process akin to magic.
Several months were thus consumed. The letters spelled Eakins; the name was not familiar to us." Of the perspective drawings described by Sheeler, only one is known to survive, that of Eakins's signature. He signed the painting at Miller's feet. In the nearly life-sized, full-length portrait, Miller is depicted as if lecturing to a class; the painting's eye level is unusually high and the color range limited, leading the viewer to Miller's face. Its informality makes this a democratic formal portrait. Eakins exhibited Miller's portrait seven times, it was awarded the Thomas R. Proctor Prize at the National Academy of Design in 1905, the second class medal at the Carnegie Institute in 1907. Miller wrote of the painting: "The primitive shabby frame represents Eakins' taste rather than mine as do the old nondescript clothes in which the subject is garbed which he begged me to rescue from the slop-chest and put on for the occasion, I should be glad to have the frame at least spruced up a bit. Since I found out how much of a picture he was going to make of it, I have been haunted by a mild regret that I didn't insist on his painting me,—if he painted me at all,— in habilments that would at least have been more like those I would have worn when appearing in any such character as that in which he has done me the honor to portray me, but, as is evident throughout all his work, he had a passion for the ultra informal which sometimes carried him so far as to lead him to prefer the unfit to the fit if it were only old, worn and familiar enough.
But all, part of the Eakins hallmark and of course it cannot be spared. He was one of the great ones and I value the picture highly." The Metropolitan Museum of Art hosted a memorial exhibition of Eakins's work in November 1917. In a letter to his students at the Art Students League of New York and teacher Robert Henri wrote: "Look, if you will... at the portrait of Miller for a man's feeling for a man. This is. Eakins's pictures and his sculptures
The Fairman Rogers Four-in-Hand
The Fairman Rogers Four-in-Hand is an 1879-80 painting by Thomas Eakins. It shows Fairman Rogers driving a coaching party in his four-in-hand carriage through Philadelphia's Fairmount Park, it is thought to be the first painting to examine through systematic photographic analysis, how horses move. The Fairman Rogers Four-in-Hand is in the permanent collection of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Eakins taught at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, where Rogers was a Board member and chairman of the Committee on Instruction. Rogers recruited Eakins back to the Academy in 1878 and commissioned the painting from his new instructor. Independently wealthy, Rogers was a civil engineer and retired professor at the University of Pennsylvania, he was an avid coaching enthusiast, founder of the Philadelphia Coaching Club and author of the still-definitive guide to the sport: A Manual of Coaching. In the painting, Eakins combined Rogers's love of science with his love of coaching. Both Rogers and Eakins admired and followed Eadweard Muybridge's ground-breaking work in photographing the movement of horses in motion.
In 1877, Muybridge published an instantaneous photograph of the racehorse "Occident", showing for the first time just when all four hooves of a galloping horse left the ground. It was taken for granted that the horse has a period of suspension in the gallop, but, as illustrated here, they thought it was in the extended phase of the stride. Muybridge demonstrated; the following year he conducted an experiment that became one of the seminal events in the history of motion pictures: Sallie Gardner at a Gallop. On June 19, 1878, at a racetrack in Palo Alto, Muybridge positioned a row of 24 cameras set close together at regular intervals, each with a trip wire crossing the track; when the racehorse "Sallie Gardner" galloped past the cameras she tripped the wires, resulting in a short but regular sequence of instantaneous photographs shot close to 1/25 of a second apart. Eakins studied Muybridge's published photographs and taught the new discoveries to his students at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts.
According to Eakins biographer Gordon Hendricks, seven years before Sallie Gardner was published, Rogers had attempted to photograph his own horses in motion using a camera with a shutter that opened and closed. In 1879, Muybridge invited Rogers to witness his further experiments in California — a 7-day train ride from Philadelphia — but Rogers chose to spend the summer in Newport, Rhode Island. Under Rogers's sponsorship, Muybridge moved to Philadelphia and continue his experiments at the University of Pennsylvania. Eakins visited Rogers in Newport that Summer of 1879, did visit in September, where he may have painted the sketch of Rogers driving his coach through a rocky landscape, it is believed that while in Newport that Eakins created wax models of Rogers's horses, their poses based on another set of Muybridge photographs — the "Abe Edgington" Series, showing a trotter pulling a sulky. Eakins painted individual studies of Rogers's horses both in Newport and Philadelphia. A year earlier, he dissected a horse with his Academy students, may have relied on those anatomical notes.
In the sketch, the animal's hooves are more tentative than in the finished painting. Eakins painted a replica of the sketch. Eakins set the finished painting in Philadelphia's Fairmount Park, at a location just north of Memorial Hall, he populated the work with more figures and inverted the coach's direction so as to set it at a sharper angle which better showed the horses' hooves. The sketch shows one passenger and a groom; the painting shows Mr. and Mrs. Rogers, four passengers on a bench behind them and two grooms at the rear of the coach. Eakins made studies of each of the people, he worked through the winter of 1879 through to the following spring. Theodor Siegl conjectures that the landscaped background may have been the last element to be painted in as late as May 1880. Once resolved to show the horses' hooves frozen in motion, Eakins was confronted with the problem of the coach's wheels. In the sketch, he blurred the spokes of the wheels, the traditional way for artists to indicate motion, but this conflicted with his intention to show an instantaneous view of the hooves.
He seems to have gone back and forth about this — artist Joseph Pennell reported that Eakins at first "drew every spoke in the wheels, the whole affair looked as if it had been instantaneously petrified." In the end, Eakins made the same compromise of logic as in the sketch: freezing the horses' hooves, but blurring the spokes of the coach's wheels. In 1899, Eakins painted a black and white replica to be photographed as an illustration for Rogers's A Manual of Coaching. Rogers paid Eakins $500 for the painting, exhibited it at the Philadelphia Society of Artists in November 1880; the reviews were respectful, but unfavorable, noting the inconsistency between the hooves and spokes, using this point as a springboard to lecture about the superiority of Art over Science. Eakins was trying something new and while some understood and appreciated the attempt, when first exhibited the painting was not regarded as successful. According to Hilton Kramer, "... The Fairman Rogers For-In-Hand is a surpassingly dull painting...
The painting lacks. Representational accuracy, "scientific" or otherwise, was a necessary co-efficient of this moral imperative in art, but it was not itself a sufficient basis for it." Goodr
A nelson hold is a grappling hold, executed from behind the opponent when both are on the mat face down with the opponent under the aggressor. One or both arms are used to encircle the opponent's arm under the armpit, secured at the opponent's neck. Several different nelson holds exist, they can be separated according to the positioning of the encircling arm. A nelson is used to turn him over on his back and execute a pin; the term "nelson" is derived from "full nelson". It has been suggested that it was named after Horatio Nelson, who used strategies based on surrounding the opponent to win the Battle of the Nile and the Battle of Trafalgar, but its true origin remains uncertain; the quarter nelson involves putting one hand on the opponent's neck, passing the free arm under the arm of the opponent, locking the free arm to the other arm by clasping the wrist. In amateur wrestling a strong quarter nelson can be used to secure a pin, or to control the opponent and advance into a more dominant position.
The half nelson is referred to by most coaches as being the easiest, but most effective move in folkstyle wrestling, is commonly used. The half nelson is done using only one hand, by passing it under the arm of the opponent and locking the hand on the opponent's neck. In addition, the hand not being used should be holding the opponent's other wrist in so that they can not post the hand or peel the half nelson off. A power half nelson is a type of half nelson; the hand not performing the nelson is placed on the opponent's head to increase the overall power of the half nelson. When the half nelson has been put into place, it is used to turn the opponent over onto his back; this is accomplished by using the hand to press the opponent's neck down, while using the arm under the opponent's shoulder to lift the shoulder and drive it perpendicularly to the opponent's body. When the opponent has been turned over onto his back, the aggressor attempts to pin him by tightening the grip on the neck, putting the nelson in more so that the aggressor's elbow is hooking the opponent's neck.
The aggressor remains perpendicular to the opponent, chest on chest. The aggressor's free hand is used to minimize struggling by hooking the opponent's near or far leg or crotch; when the aggressor is in the process of putting the half nelson in, the opponent can attempt to prevent it from going in by using his affected arm to clamp down on the intruding arm. This is effective if the opponent is on his knees instead of lying flat, why the half nelson should not be attempted until the opponent's stomach is on the ground; when the aggressor is driving forward perpendicularly to the opponent's body, the opponent can try to avoid being flipped over onto his back by extending his opposite foot in the direction of the undesired movement, planting it. Once the opponent is on his back, he can attempt to avoid having his shoulders pinned to the mat, to get off his back, by planting his feet and pushing the mat with them, allowing him to roll his head back so the top of his head is on the mat, rather than the back of his neck being on the aggressor's arm.
From this position he can try to turn over either away from the aggressor. The three-quarter nelson is done by performing a half nelson using one hand, passing the other hand underneath the opponent from the same side; the passing hand goes under the opponent's neck and around the far side to the top of the neck, where it is locked with the other hand around the neck at the wrist or using a palm-to-palm or interlacing fingers grip. The three-quarter nelson can be used in amateur wrestling to pin the opponent, is more secure than a half-nelson; the full nelson is done by performing half nelsons with both arms. In collegiate, high school, middle school/junior high school, most other forms of amateur wrestling, the move is illegal; the holder is on the back side of the opponent, has his or her hands extended upwards under the opponents armpits, holding the neck with a palm-to-palm grip or with interlaced fingers. By cranking the hands forward, pressure can be applied to the neck of the opponent.
The usage of the full nelson in combat sports is limited. It is a secure hold which can be used to control the opponent, but does not allow for finishing action, such as pinning the opponent, executing a reliable submission hold, or allowing for effective striking; because it can be used as a limited neck crank, it is considered dangerous in some grappling arts, is banned, for instance, in amateur wrestling
Rowing is the act of propelling a boat using the motion of oars in the water by displacing water to propel the boat forward. Rowing and paddling are similar but the difference is that rowing requires oars to have a mechanical connection with the boat, while paddles are hand-held and have no mechanical connection; this article focuses on the general types of rowing, such as the recreation and the transport rather than the sport of competitive rowing, a specialized case of racing using regulated equipment and a refined technique. In the Ancient World, all major ancient civilizations used rowing for transportation and war.. It was considered a way to advance their civilization during peace; the beginning of rowing is clouded in history but the use of oars in the way they are used today can be traced back to ancient Egypt. Whether it was invented in Egypt or something learned from Mesopotamia via trade is not known. However, archaeologists have recovered a model of a rowing vessel in a tomb dating back to the 18-19th century BC.
From Egypt, rowing vessels galleys, were extensively used in naval warfare and trade in the Mediterranean from classical antiquity onward. Galleys had advantages over sailing ships: they were easier to maneuver, capable of short bursts of speed, able to move independently of the wind. During the classical age of oared galleys, the Greeks dominated the Mediterranean while the Athenians dominated the other Greeks, they used thousands of lower-class citizens to serve as rowers in the fleet. The Classical trireme used 170 rowers. Trireme oarsmen used leather cushions to slide over their seats, which allowed them to use their leg strength as a modern oarsman does with a sliding seat. Galleys had masts and sails, but would lower them at the approach of combat. Greek fleets would leave their sails and masts on shore if possible; the use of oars in rowing instead of paddling came rather late to northern Europe, sometime between 500 BC-1 AD. This change might have been hastened by the Roman conquest of Northern Gaul.
However, between 500-1100 AD, combined sailing and rowing vessels dominated trade and warfare in northern Europe in the time that has come to be known as the Viking Age. Galleys continued to be used in the Mediterranean until the advent of steam propulsion. Rowing was used during war in the ancient world; the victorious in the sea would be those. Because the Greek and the Athenians developed the Trireme, they were able to win against their enemy ships with great speed powered by the 170 oarsmen. In some localities, rear-facing systems prevail. In other localities, forward-facing systems prevail in crowded areas such as in Venice, Italy and in Asian and Indonesian rivers and harbors; this is not an "either-or", because in different situations it's useful to be able to row a boat facing either way. The current emphasis on the health aspects of rowing has resulted in some new mechanical systems being developed, some different from the traditional rowing systems of the past; this is the oldest system used in Europe and North America.
A seated rower pulls on two oars, which lever the boat through the water. The pivot point of the oars is the fulcrum; the motive force is applied through the rower's feet. In traditional rowing craft, the pivot point of the oars is located on the boat's gunwale; the actual fitting that holds the oar may be as simple as one or two pegs or a metal oarlock. In performance rowing craft, the rowlock is extended outboard on a "rigger" to allow the use of a longer oar for increased power. Sculling involves a seated rower who pulls on two oars or sculls, attached to the boat, thereby moving the boat in the direction opposite that which the rower faces. In some multiple-seat boats seated rowers each pull on a single "sweep" oar with both hands. Boats in which the rowers are coordinated by a coxswain are referred to as a "coxed" pair/four/eight. Sometimes sliding seats are used to enable the rower to use the leg muscles increasing the power available. An alternative to the sliding seat, called a sliding rigger, uses a stationary seat and the rower moves the oarlocks with his feet.
On a craft used in Italy, the catamaran moscone, the rower stands and takes advantage of his body weight to increase leverage while sculling. Articulated or bow facing oars have two-piece oars and use a mechanical transmission to reverse the direction of the oar blade, enabling a seated rower to row facing forward with a pulling motion. Push rowing called back-watering if used in a boat not designed for forward motion, uses regular oars with a pushing motion to achieve forward-facing travel, sometimes seated and sometimes standing; this is a convenient method of manoeuvring through a busy harbour. The "Rantilla" system of frontrowing oars uses inboard mounted oarlocks rather than a reversing transmission to achieve forward motion of the boat with a pulling motion on the oars. Another system involves using a single oar extending from the stern of the boat, moved back and forth under water somewhat like a fish tail, such as the Chinese yuloh, by which quite large boats can be moved. Sampans are rowed by foot in Ninh Bình Province of northern Vietnam.
In Venice and other similar flat-bottomed boats are popular forms of transport propelled by oars which are held in place by an open wooden fórcola. The Voga alla Veneta technique of rowing is different from the style used in international sp
William Rush and His Model
William Rush and His Model is the collective name given to several paintings by Thomas Eakins, one set from 1876–77 and the other from 1908. These works depict the American wood sculptor William Rush in 1808, carving his statue Water Nymph and Bittern for a fountain at Philadelphia's first waterworks; the water nymph is an allegorical figure representing the Schuylkill River, which provided the city's drinking water, on her shoulder is a bittern, a native waterbird related to the heron. Hence, these Eakins works are known as William Rush Carving His Allegorical Figure of the Schuylkill River. Philadelphia's first waterworks was located at Centre Square, now the site of Philadelphia City Hall. Steam engines drew drinking water from the Schuylkill River and pumped it up to tanks in the engine house tower, from which it was distributed by gravity through underground mains to the city. Rush, a carver of ship figureheads, was commissioned in 1808 to carve an allegorical statue to be the centerpiece of an ornamental fountain.
His pine statue was painted white to imitate marble, its water jet gushed from the mouth of the bittern held atop the nymph's shoulder. Art historian Elizabeth Milroy notes that the nymph's pose recalls the Venus de' Medici, a copy of, owned by a Philadelphia painter. Local legend tells; when the Centre Square waterworks was demolished in 1829, the statue was relocated to a fountain at the nearby Fairmount Waterworks. Following more than 60 years of exposure to water and the elements and Bittern was stripped of its white paint in 1872, a bronze copy was cast; the copy became the centerpiece of a new fountain at Fairmount, the rotting original was placed in storage. Eakins's interest in William Rush originated from a desire to restore Rush's name to prominence in the history of American art. Eakins taught at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. Eakins was a strong believer in teaching human anatomy, insisted that his students study from nude models. Since it is unlikely that Rush had employed a nude model for his sculpture of a draped water nymph, the painting may be viewed as Eakins's demonstration of the importance of studying anatomy from nudes.
Eakins was able to study both versions of the statue, his notes document the deteriorated condition of the wooden original. Only its head survives, in the collection of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts; the 1872 bronze copy is in the collection of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. As part of his process of creating the painting, Eakins carved wax studies of the nymph, her head, Rush's head, the nude model, the other Rush sculptures depicted. Five of the six wax studies survive, in the collection of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. At Yale University Art Gallery is what appears to be an abandoned version of the painting, presumed to pre-date the finished version at PMA; this is sometimes called a study, but it is the same size as the finished version, contains the same figures, was never displayed during Eakins's lifetime. At the Farnsworth Art Museum in Rockland, Maine is an oil study for another composition; the model stands on a higher pedestal, the chaperone has been placed between the model and Rush.
Judging from a photograph in a 1938 auction catalogue, G-110 seems to be cut down from a larger study. The finished version of William Rush and His Model has the model rotated, the chaperone to the model's right, facing Rush. In the foreground, between Rush and the model, stands a chair conspicuously displaying the model's clothes. Rush’s life-sized figure of George Washington, his Allegorical Figure of The Waterworks —a reclining female figure manipulating a waterwheel—are visible in the background. Although the painting is inaccurate—Rush carved Water Nymph and Bittern in 1808, the other statues years later—Eakins's intent seems to have been to present a survey of the sculptor’s whole career; the painting was first exhibited in January 1878 at the Boston Art Club, that year at the Society of American Artists in New York. It sparked controversy with one New York reviewer writing, "What ruins the picture is much less the want of beauty in the model... than the presence in the foreground of the clothes of that young woman, cast carelessly over a chair.
This gives the shock which makes one think about the nudity—and at once the picture becomes improper”. For unspecified reasons—possibly related to the statue's approaching centennial—Eakins returned to this subject in 1908, his first 1908 version is similar to the PMA version, however and his statue have been moved to the far right, the chaperone is to the model's left, facing the viewer, the pile of the model’s clothes has been eliminated. This is the least successful composition, with little visual connection between the model; the second 1908 version shows a frontal view of the nude model descending the platform. She is neither sentimentalized. Rush is now out of the shadows and holding the model's hand as if helping a grand lady descend from a carriage; the chaperone and background sculptures are omitted from this version. The figure of Rush may be a self-portrait by Eakins. Ellis, George R. Honolulu Academy of Arts, Selected Works, Honolulu Academy of Arts, 1990, 227. Ellis, George R. and Marcia Morse, A Hawaii Treasury, Masterpieces from the Honolulu Academy of Arts, Asahi Shimbun, 2000, 110 & 211-2.
Johnson, Lincoln F. The Beginning of Modernism, Honolulu Academy of Arts Journal, Vol. 3, 1978, 17
Philadelphia Museum of Art
The Philadelphia Museum of Art is an art museum chartered in 1876 for the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. The main museum building was completed in 1928 on Fairmount, a hill located at the northwest end of the Benjamin Franklin Parkway at Eakins Oval; the museum administers collections containing over 240,000 objects including major holdings of European and Asian origin. The various classes of artwork include sculpture, prints, photographs and decorative arts; the Philadelphia Museum of Art administers several annexes including the Rodin Museum located on the Benjamin Franklin Parkway, the Ruth and Raymond G. Perelman Building, located across the street just north of the main building; the Perelman Building, which opened in 2007, houses more than 150,000 prints and photographs, along with 30,000 costume and textile pieces, over 1,000 modern and contemporary design objects including furniture and glasswork. The museum administers the historic colonial-era houses of Mount Pleasant and Cedar Grove, both located in Fairmount Park.
The main museum building and its annexes are owned by the City of Philadelphia and administered by a registered nonprofit corporation. Several special exhibitions are held in the museum every year, including touring exhibitions arranged with other museums in the United States and abroad; the attendance figure for the museum was 793,000 in 2017, which ranks it among the top one hundred most-visited art museums in the world. The museum is one of the largest art museums in the world based on gallery space. Philadelphia celebrated the 100th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence with the Centennial Exposition in 1876. Memorial Hall, which contained the art gallery, was intended to outlast the Exposition and house a permanent museum. Following the example of London's South Kensington Museum, the new museum was to focus on applied art and science, provide a school to train craftsmen in drawing, painting and designing; the Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art opened on May 10, 1877..
The museum's collection began with objects from the Exposition and gifts from the public impressed with the Exposition's ideals of good design and craftsmanship. European and Japanese fine and decorative art objects and books for the museum's library were among the first donations; the location outside of Center City, was distant from many of the city's inhabitants. Admission was charged until 1881 was dropped until 1962. Starting in 1882, Clara Jessup Moore donated a remarkable collection of antique furniture, carved ivory, metalwork, ceramics, books and paintings; the Countess de Brazza's lace collection was acquired in 1894 forming the nucleus of the lace collection. In 1893 Anna H. Wilstach bequeathed a large painting collection, including many American paintings, an endowment of half a million dollars for additional purchases. Works by James Abbott McNeill Whistler and George Inness were purchased within a few years and Henry Ossawa Tanner's The Annunciation was bought in 1899. In the early 1900s, the museum started an education program for the general public, as well as a membership program.
Fiske Kimball was the museum director during the rapid growth of the mid- to late-1920s, which included one million visitors in 1928—the new building's first year. The museum enlarged its print collection in 1928 with about 5,000 Old Master prints and drawings from the gift of Charles M. Lea, including French, German and Netherlandish engravings. Major exhibitions of the 1930s included works by Eakins, Renoir, Cézanne, van Gogh, Degas. In the 1940s, the museum's major gifts and acquisitions included the collections of John D. McIlhenny, George Grey Barnard, Alfred Stieglitz. Early modern art dominated the growth of the collections in the 1950s, with acquisitions of the Louise and Walter Arensberg and the A. E. Gallatin collections; the gift of Philadelphian Grace Kelly's wedding dress is the best known gift of the 1950s. Extensive renovation of the building lasted from the 1960s through 1976. Major acquisitions included the Carroll S. Tyson, Jr. and Samuel S. White III and Vera White collections, 71 objects from designer Elsa Schiaparelli, Marcel Duchamp's Étant donnés.
In 1976 there were celebrations and special exhibitions for the centennial of the museum and the bicentennial of the nation. During the last three decades major acquisitions have included After the Bath by Edgar Degas and Fifty Days at Iliam by Cy Twombly; the City Council of Philadelphia funded a competition in 1895 to design a new museum building, but it was not until 1907 that plans were first made to construct it on Fairmount, a rocky hill topped by the city's main reservoir. The Fairmount Parkway, a grand boulevard that cut diagonally across the grid of city streets, was designed to terminate at the foot of the hill, but there were conflicting views about whether to erect a single museum building, or a number of buildings to house individual collections. The architectural firms of Horace Trumbauer and Zantzinger and Medary collaborated for more than a decade to resolve these issues; the final design is credited to two architects in Trumbauer's firm: Howell Lewis Shay for the building's plan and massing, Julian Abele for the detail work and perspective drawings.
In 1902, Abele had become the first African-American student to be graduated from the University of Pennsylvania's Department of Architecture, presently known as Penn's School of Design. Abele adapted classical Greek temple columns for