Mississippi State University
The Mississippi State University for Agriculture and Applied Science known as Mississippi State University, is a public land-grant research university adjacent to Starkville, Mississippi. With 21,353 students at its main campus, it is the largest campus by enrollment in the state, it is classified in the category of "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very High Research Activity" by the Carnegie Foundation and has a total research and development budget of $239.4 million, the largest in Mississippi. It is listed as one of the state's flagship universities; the university was chartered as Mississippi Agricultural & Mechanical College on February 28, 1878 and admitted its first students in 1880. Organized into 12 colleges and schools, the university offers over 180 baccalaureate and professional degree programs, is home to Mississippi's only accredited programs in architecture and veterinary medicine. Mississippi State participates in the National Sea Grant College Program and National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program.
The university's main campus in Starkville is supplemented by auxiliary campuses in Meridian and Vicksburg, Mississippi. The 19th and current president of Mississippi State is Mark E. Keenum, a former United States Under Secretary of Agriculture. Mississippi State's intercollegiate sports teams, known as the Mississippi State Bulldogs, compete in NCAA Division I athletics as members of the Southeastern Conference's western division. Mississippi State was a founding member of the SEC in 1932. In their more-than 120-year history, the Bulldogs have won 21 individual national championships and 30 regular season conference championships; the school is noted for a pervasive baseball fan culture, with Dudy Noble Field holding 17 of the top 25 all-time NCAA attendance records and the school's Left Field Lounge being described as an epicenter of college baseball. The university began as The Agricultural and Mechanical College of the State of Mississippi, one of the national land-grant colleges established after Congress passed the Morrill Act in 1862.
It was created by the Mississippi Legislature on February 28, 1878, to fulfill the mission of offering training in "agriculture and the mechanical arts... without excluding other scientific and classical studies, including military tactics." The university received its first students in the fall of 1880 in the presidency of General Stephen D. Lee. In 1887 Congress passed the Hatch Act, which provided for the establishment of the Agricultural Experiment Station in 1888; the Cooperative Extension Service was established in 1914 by the Smith-Lever Act. The university redefined by the Legislature. In 1932, the Legislature renamed the university as Mississippi State College. In 1958 the Legislature renamed the university Mississippi State University in recognition of its academic development and addition of graduate programs; the Graduate School had been organized, doctoral degree programs had begun, the School of Forest Resources had been established, the College of Arts and Sciences had replaced the General Science School.
The university was uneventfully desegregated in July 1965, when Richard E. Holmes, a graduate of Henderson High School in Starkville, became the first African-American student to enroll; the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed by Congress the year before, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was being debated, the United States Supreme Court had ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that segregation of public schools was unconstitutional; the School of Architecture admitted its first students in 1973, the College of Veterinary Medicine admitted its first class in 1977. The MSU Vet school is the largest veterinary school under one roof in the nation; the School of Accountancy was established in 1979. The University Honors Program was founded in 1968 to provide more rigorous course curricula for academically talented students and support guest lecture series and distinguished external scholarships; the program has a separate college. This was made possible by funding by Bobby Shackouls, an MSU alumnus and retired CEO, who donated US$10 million to found the Judy and Bobby Shackouls Honors College in April 2006.
MSU started a joint Ph. D. program in engineering with San Jose State University in California, allowing an increase in research for both universities, as well as enhancing the stature of both engineering colleges. In March 2009, Mississippi State announced the conclusion of the university's seven-year capital campaign, with more than $462 million received in private gifts and pledges. Mississippi State University is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to award baccalaureate, master's, doctoral degrees. Today, the university has the following colleges and schools: As of Fall 2011, Mississippi State's enrollment was 20,424; the university has 160 buildings, the grounds comprise about 4,200 acres, including farms and woodlands of the Experiment Station. The university owns an additional 80,000 acres across the state. Mississippi State University operates an off-campus, degree-granting center in Meridian that offers undergraduate and graduate programs.
In cooperation with the U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, the College of Engineering offers the Master of Science degree to students in Vicksburg. Mississippi State's campus is centered on the main quadrangle, called the Drill Field due to its heavy use by the Corps of Cadets prior to the end of World War II; the Drill Field is defined at its north and south ends by the mirror-image buildings, Lee Hall (th
A civil township is a used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. The term town is used in New England, New York, Wisconsin to refer to the equivalent of the civil township in these states. Specific responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. Civil townships are distinct from survey townships, but in states that have both, the boundaries coincide and may geographically subdivide a county; the U. S. Census Bureau classifies civil townships as minor civil divisions. There are 20 states with civil townships. Township functions are overseen by a governing board and a clerk or trustee. Township officers include justice of the peace, road commissioner, assessor and surveyor. In the 20th century, many townships added a township administrator or supervisor to the officers as an executive for the board. In some cases, townships run local libraries, senior citizen services, youth services, disabled citizen services, emergency assistance, cemetery services.
In some states, a township and a municipality, coterminous with that township may wholly or consolidate their operations. Depending on the state, the township government has varying degrees of authority. In the Upper Midwestern states near the Great Lakes, civil townships, are but not always, overlaid on survey townships; the degree to which these townships are functioning governmental entities varies from state to state and in some cases within a state. For example, townships in the northern part of Illinois are active in providing public services — such as road maintenance, after-school care, senior services — whereas townships in southern Illinois delegate these services to the county. Most townships in Illinois provide services such as snow removal, senior transportation, emergency services to households residing in unincorporated parts of the county; the townships in Illinois each have a township board, whose board members were called township trustees, a single township supervisor. In contrast, civil townships in Indiana are operated in a consistent manner statewide and tend to be well organized, with each served by a single township trustee and a three-member board.
Civil townships in these states are not incorporated, nearby cities may annex land in adjoining townships with relative ease. In Michigan, general law townships are corporate entities, some can become reformulated as charter townships, a status intended to protect against annexation from nearby municipalities and which grants the township some home rule powers similar to cities. In Wisconsin, civil townships are known as "towns" rather than townships, but they function the same as in neighboring states. In Minnesota, state statute refers to such entities as towns yet requires them to have a name in the form "Name Township". In both documents and conversation, "town" and "township" are used interchangeably. Minnesota townships can be either Non-Urban or Urban, but this is not reflected in the township's name. In Ohio, a city or village is overlaid onto a township unless it withdraws by establishing a paper township. Where the paper township does not extend to the city limits, property owners pay taxes for both the township and municipality, though these overlaps are sometimes overlooked by mistake.
Ten other states allow townships and municipalities to overlap. In Kansas, some civil townships provide services such as road maintenance and fire protection services not provided by the county. In New England, the states are subdivided into towns, which are functioning municipal corporations that provide most local services. While counties exist in New England, for the most part they serve as dividing lines for state judicial systems. With the exception of a few remote areas of New Hampshire and Maine, every square foot of New England lies within the borders of an incorporated town. New England has cities, most of which are towns whose residents have voted to replace the town meeting form of government with a city form. In portions of New Hampshire and Maine, county subdivisions that are not incorporated are referred to as townships, or by other terms such as "gore", "grant", "location", "plantation", or "purchase". In New York, counties are further subdivided into towns and cities, the principal forms of local government.
Towns fulfill a function similar to those of townships in other states. As is the case in most of New England, every square foot of New York's territory is incorporated. New York towns contain one or more incorporated villages, village residents pay both town and village taxes. Towns include a number of unincorporated hamlets. A Pennsylvania township is a unit of local government, responsible for services such as police departments, local road and street maintenance, it acts the same as a borough. Townships were established based on convenient geographical boundaries and vary in size from six to fifty-two square miles. A New Jersey township is similar, in that it is a form of municipal government equal in status to a village, borough, or city, provides similar services to a Pennsylvania township. In the South, outside cities and towns there is no local government other than the county. North Carolina is no exception to that rule, but it does have townships as minor geographical subdivisions of counties, including
Greenfield is a city in Greene County, United States. The population was 1,071 at the 2010 census. Greenfield is located in eastern Greene County at 39°20′35″N 90°12′35″W. Illinois Route 267 passes through the city, leading north 27 miles to Jacksonville and south 13 miles to Medora. Carrollton, the Greene County seat, is 13 miles to the southwest via Routes 267 and 108. According to the 2010 census, Greenfield has a total area of 1.783 square miles, of which 1.72 square miles is land and 0.063 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,179 people, 500 households, 330 families residing in the city; the population density was 687.2 people per square mile. There were 531 housing units at an average density of 309.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 99.24% White, 0.08% African American, 0.42% Native American, 0.25% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.42% of the population. There were 500 households out of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.0% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.8% were non-families.
31.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.95. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.5% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 25.3% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, 20.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,833, the median income for a family was $36,908. Males had a median income of $27,961 versus $22,216 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,386. About 10.0% of families and 10.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.2% of those under age 18 and 7.5% of those age 65 or over. Greenfield is served by its own school district, Greenfield Community Unit School District Number 10. Greenfield CUSD 10 serves portions of Greene, Jersey and Morgan Counties.
Greenfield Public Schools Greenfield Public Library
A post office is a public department that provides a customer service to the public and handles their mail needs. Post offices offer mail-related services such as acceptance of parcels. In addition, many post offices offer additional services: providing and accepting government forms, processing government services and fees, banking services; the chief administrator of a post office is called a postmaster. Prior to the advent of postal and ZIP codes, postal systems would route items to a specific post office for receipt or delivery. During the nineteenth-century, in the United States, this led to smaller communities being renamed after their post offices; the term "Post-Office" has been in use since the 1650's, shortly after the legalization of private mail services in England in 1635. In early Modern England, post riders – mounted couriers – were placed every few hours along post roads at posting houses known as post houses, between major cities; these stables or inns permitted important correspondence to travel without delay.
In early America, post offices were known as "stations". This term and "post house" fell from use as horse and coach service was replaced by railways and automobiles. Today, the term "Post Office" refers to postal facilities providing customer service; the term "General Post Office" is sometimes used for the national headquarters of a postal service if it does not provide customer service within the building. A postal facility, used for processing mail is instead known as sorting office or delivery office, which may have a large central area known as a "sorting" or "postal hall". Integrated facilities combining mail processing with railway stations or airports are known as mail exchanges. There is evidence of corps of royal couriers disseminating the decrees of the Egyptian pharaohs as early as 2,400 BC and the service may precede that date. Organized systems of post houses providing swift mounted courier service seems quite ancient, although sources vary as to who initiated the practice. By the time of the Persian Empire, a system of Chapar-Khaneh existed along the Royal Road.
The 2nd-Century BC Mauryan and Han dynasties established similar systems in China. Suetonius credited Augustus with regularizing the Cursus Publicus. Local officials were obliged to provide couriers who would be responsible for their message's entire course. Locally maintained post houses owned rest houses were obliged or honored to care for them along their way. Diocletian established two parallel systems: one providing fresh horses or mules for urgent correspondence and another providing sturdy oxen for bulk shipments. Procopius, though not unbiased, records that this system remained intact until it was dismantled in the surviving empire by Justinian in the 6th Century; the Princely House of Thurn and Taxis family initiated regular mail service from Brussels in the 16th century, directing the Imperial Post of the Holy Roman Empire. The British Postal Museum claims that the oldest functioning post office in the world is on High Street in Sanquhar, Scotland; this post office has functioned continuously since 1712, an era in which horses and stage coaches were used to carry mail.
In parts of Europe, special postal censorship offices censor mail. In France, such offices were known as cabinets noirs. In many jurisdictions, mail boxes and post office boxes have long been in widespread use for drop-off and pickup of mail and small packages outside post offices or when offices are closed. Deutsche Post introduced the Pack-Station for package delivery in 2001. In the 2000s, the United States Postal Service began to install Automated Postal Centers in many locations both in post offices and in retail locations. APCs can accept mail and small packages. General Post Office Dublin, headquarters of the Irish post and headquarters of the 1916 Easter Uprising First Toronto Post Office General Post Office, erected on the site of the Black Hole of Calcutta General Post Office in Chennai, India General Post Office in Lahore, Pakistan General Post Office, the headquarters of the Sri Lankan Post General Post Office, headquarters of the Croatian post Istanbul Main Post Office, home of the Istanbul Postal Museum James Farley Post Office, America's largest operating post office, the main office for New York City.
It bears the famous translation of Herodotus's description of the Persian postal system along its front facade: "Neither snow nor rain nor heat nor gloom of night stays these couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds". General Post Office, the main post office of Mumbai and one of the world's largest Polish Post Office, the scene of intense fighting during the 1939 German invasion of Danzig General Post Office Building, former headquarters of the Chunghwa Post and present home of the Shanghai Postal Museum Manila Central Post Office Taipei Post Office, the headquarters of Taiwan Post General Post Office, the headquarters of Hongkong Post Bandinelli Palace, a former post office in Lviv in the Ukraine General Post Office, the city's first "all-marbl
Area code 217
Area code 217 is the North American telephone area code for much of western and parts of north southern Illinois. The 217 area code includes the Illinois capital, plus Champaign, Decatur, Effingham and Rantoul. 217 was one of the original area codes, which were created in 1947. 217 included most of Metro East, the Illinois side of the St. Louis metropolitan area. However, a slight boundary shift in 1951 moved most of the southern portion of Metro East to 618, leaving the northern portion in 217; the only other significant change in 217's boundaries was in 1957, when its northern portion was combined with part of area code 815 to form area code 309. Other cities and towns in the 217 area code include: List of North American Numbering Plan area codes List of Illinois area codes NANPA Area Code Map of Illinois List of exchanges from AreaCodeDownload.com, 217 Area Code
A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race. If the individual is concerned with events preceding written history, the individual is a historian of prehistory; some historians are recognized by training and experience. "Historian" became a professional occupation in the late nineteenth century as research universities were emerging in Germany and elsewhere. During the Irving v Penguin Books and Lipstadt trial, it became evident that the court needed to identify what was an "objective historian" in the same vein as the reasonable person, reminiscent of the standard traditionally used in English law of "the man on the Clapham omnibus"; this was necessary so that there would be a legal bench mark to compare and contrast the scholarship of an objective historian against the illegitimate methods employed by David Irving, as before the Irving v Penguin Books and Lipstadt trial, there was no legal precedent for what constituted an objective historian.
Justice Gray leant on the research of one of the expert witnesses, Richard J. Evans, who compared illegitimate distortion of the historical record practice by holocaust deniers with established historical methodologies. By summarizing Gray's judgement, in an article published in the Yale Law Journal, Wendie E. Schneider distils these seven points for what he meant by an objective historian: The historian must treat sources with appropriate reservations. Schneider uses the concept of the "objective historian" to suggest that this could be an aid in assessing what makes an historian suitable as an expert witnesses under the Daubert standard in the United States. Schneider proposed this, because, in her opinion, Irving could have passed the standard Daubert tests unless a court was given "a great deal of assistance from historians". Schneider proposes that by testing an historian against the criteria of the "objective historian" even if an historian holds specific political views, providing the historian uses the "objective historian" standards, he or she is a "conscientious historian".
It was Irving's failure as an "objective historian" not his right wing views that caused him to lose his libel case, as a "conscientious historian" would not have "deliberately misrepresented and manipulated historical evidence" to support his political views. The process of historical analysis involves investigation and analysis of competing ideas and purported facts to create coherent narratives that explain "what happened" and "why or how it happened". Modern historical analysis draws upon other social sciences, including economics, politics, anthropology and linguistics. While ancient writers do not share modern historical practices, their work remains valuable for its insights within the cultural context of the times. An important part of the contribution of many modern historians is the verification or dismissal of earlier historical accounts through reviewing newly discovered sources and recent scholarship or through parallel disciplines like archaeology. Understanding the past appears to be a universal human need, the telling of history has emerged independently in civilizations around the world.
What constitutes history is a philosophical question. The earliest chronologies date back to Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, though no historical writers in these early civilizations were known by name. Systematic historical thought emerged in ancient Greece, a development that became an important influence on the writing of history elsewhere around the Mediterranean region; the earliest known critical historical works were The Histories, composed by Herodotus of Halicarnassus who became known as the "father of history". Herodotus attempted to distinguish between more and less reliable accounts, conducted research by travelling extensively, giving written accounts of various Mediterranean cultures. Although Herodotus' overall emphasis lay on the actions and characters of men, he attributed an important role to divinity in the determination of historical events. Thucydides eliminated divine causality in his account of the war between Athens and Sparta, establishing a rationalistic element that set a precedent for subsequent Western historical writings.
He was the first to distinguish between cause and immediate origins of an event, while his successor Xenophon introduced autobiographical elements and character studies in his Anabasis. The Romans adopted the Greek tradition. While early Roman works were still written in Greek, the Origines, composed by the Roman statesman Cato the Elder, was written in Latin, in a conscious effort to counteract Greek cultural influence. Strabo was an important exponent of the Greco-Roman tradition of combining geography with history, presenting a descriptive history of peoples and places known to his era. Livy (59 BCE
Greene County, Illinois
Greene County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 United States Census, it has a population of 13,886, its county seat is Carrollton. A notable archaeological area, the Koster Site, has produced evidence of more than 7,000 years of human habitation. Artifacts from the site are displayed at the Center for American Archeology in Illinois. Greene County is named in honor of General Nathanael Greene, a hero of the American Revolutionary War. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 546 square miles, of which 543 square miles is land and 3.3 square miles is water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Carrollton have ranged from a low of 16 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −26 °F was recorded in January 1912 and a record high of 113 °F was recorded in July 1934. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.60 inches in January to 4.34 inches in May. Two Rivers National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 13,886 people, 5,570 households, 3,777 families residing in the county.
The population density was 25.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,389 housing units at an average density of 11.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.9% white, 0.9% black or African American, 0.2% American Indian, 0.1% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 0.7% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 30.7% were German, 14.7% were Irish, 13.3% were English, 12.1% were American. Of the 5,570 households, 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.0% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.2% were non-families, 27.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.95. The median age was 41.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,450 and the median income for a family was $52,049. Males had a median income of $38,185 versus $27,231 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $22,107. About 11.8% of families and 15.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.1% of those under age 18 and 10.0% of those age 65 or over. Greene County was reliably Democratic from the beginning through 1948. Since it has voted for the Republican nominee; as one of the most northerly “southern” counties in Illinois, Greene County was rock-ribbed Democratic for the seventy years after the Civil War, which it opposed as a “Yankee” war. Not until considerable anti-Catholic sentiment against Al Smith turned many voters to Herbert Hoover did the county support a Republican presidential nominee. However, with the coming of World War II, opposition to American involvement led to gains for Wendell Willkie and Thomas E. Dewey, although apart from the 1960 election – influenced by Catholicism – Greene was a bellwether county throughout the period from 1928 to 2004. In recent years, like most of downstate Illinois, opposition to the Democratic Party’s liberal views on social issues, along with economic problems, has caused rapid swings toward the Republican Party.
Hillary Clinton’s 2016 tally of 21.6 percent of the county’s vote is fifteen percent worse than any Democrat before 2010. National Register of Historic Places listings in Greene County, Illinois