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Writ of election

A writ of election is a writ issued ordering the holding of an election. In Commonwealth countries writs are the usual mechanism by which general elections are called and are issued by the head of state or their representative. In the United States, it is more used to call a special election for a political office. In the United Kingdom, a writ is the only way of holding an election for the House of Commons; when the government wants to or is required to dissolve Parliament, a writ of election is drawn up for each constituency in the UK by the Clerk of the Crown in Chancery. They are formally issued by the monarch. Where a single seat becomes vacant, a writ is issued to trigger the by-election for that seat. In Canada, a writ is the only way of holding an election for the House of Commons; when the government wants to or is required to dissolve Parliament, a writ of election is drawn up for each riding in Canada by the Chief Electoral Officer. They are formally issued by the Governor-General. Where a single seat becomes vacant, a writ is issued to trigger the by-election for that seat.

In Australia, writs for election are issued by the Governor-General for the House of Representatives within 10 days of the dissolution or expiration of the House and by the state governors for the election of senators for their respective states, while writs for the election of territory senators are issued by the Governor-General. State governors issue the writs for elections in the state legislatures. In some states and territories of Australia, such as New South Wales, South Australia and the Australian Capital Territory, it is required by law that the parliament must run its full term before writs are issued. Early dissolutions are allowed by the Governor in those states and by the federal Minister for Territories for the Australian Capital Territory, but only if certain objective criteria are met—in particular, if the parliament is unable to agree on the annual budget; the writs are issued to the relevant Electoral Officer or Returning Officer, as the case may be, who returns them after the election has been held within a fixed period.

In the United States, this writ is issued by state governors for filling vacancies in the United States House of Representatives, the United States Senate, or the states' own legislatures

EuroSpeedway Lausitz

The EuroSpeedway Lausitz is a race track located near Klettwitz in the state of Brandenburg in northeast Germany, near the borders of Poland and the Czech Republic. It was named Lausitzring as it is located in the region the Germans call Lausitz, but was renamed "EuroSpeedway Lausitz" for better international communication; the EuroSpeedway has been in use for motor racing since 2000. Among other series, DTM and Superbike World Championship take place there annually; the EuroSpeedway has a feature, unique in continental Europe: a high-speed oval race track, as used in the United States by NASCAR and IndyCar. The 3.2 km tri-oval was used twice in 2001 and 2003 by open seater CART races named German 500, plus a few British SCSA races. In 2005 and 2006, the German Formula Three Championship held races at the oval, with a pole position lap average speed of 251.761 km/h and a race average of 228.931 km/h. As far back as 1986, in the former socialist East Germany, it was planned to convert one of the huge open coal mine pits into a race track.

In the late 1990s, this idea was taken up again in order to build a replacement for the AVUS in Berlin. Winding in the infield of the high-speed tri-oval, there is a regular road race track for automobile and motorbike racing, using various track configurations up to 4,500 m; the stands around the tri-oval have a capacity of 120,000, while the huge main grandstands have 25,000 seats, unlike many circuits, the entire circuit can be seen from the main grandstand. A test oval with long straights and steeply banked corners is located next to the track. All tracks can be connected to form an 11 km long endurance racing course, but this option was not yet used for a major event, but as a test track capability. Like all modern tracks, the EuroSpeedway was built to the highest possible safety standards. However, in its first year of operation there were three serious accidents at the track. On 26 April 2001 former Formula One driver Michele Alboreto was killed while testing an Audi R8 Le Mans Prototype racecar.

On 3 May the same year a track marshal was killed when he was hit by a touring car during a test session. On 15 September 2001 Alex Zanardi, two-time champion of the American CART series, lost both his legs in an accident on the venue's oval; the official EuroSpeedway anthem "Speed Kings" was recorded by the veteran East German band Puhdys in 2000. The last concert of German hard rock band Böhse Onkelz took place on 17 and 18 June 2005 at the EuroSpeedway Lausitz under the name Vaya Con Tioz, in front of 120,000, it was the biggest open air show by a German band ever. On October 9, 2005, EuroSpeedway played host to the A1 Grand Prix series on its road course; the fastest lap of the meeting by Frenchman Nicolas Lapierre was 0.45 seconds slower than the lap record for the 4.345 km circuit held by Heikki Kovalainen. EuroSpeedway played host to Round 6 of the 2010 Red Bull Air Race World Championship; as the last two events of the 2010 Championship were cancelled, the 2011 series was cancelled as well.

The series suffered an overall three-year hiatus before returning in late February 2014, September 2016 and September 2017. The circuit will close to the public following the conclusion of the 2017 racing season due to Dekra purchasing the circuit to run it as a testing ground for road car innovations. However, the DTM and Red Bull Air Race World Championship will continue to host events at the venue in 2018. On November 1, 2017 the DEKRA acquired the EuroSpeedway Lausitz as a test site for autonomous driving. In April 2019 test and verification of communication elements took place on the EuroSpeedway Lausitz. Participants were Ford, Vodafone, Huawei, LG Electronics and others. Topics were communication matters. DEKRA organised an Open-air festival, that will take place in May 2019 Complementary racing events, such as DTM are on the agenda. AVUS Official website of EuroSpeedway e-Tracks: EuroSpeedway Lausitz

Josh Gorges

Joshua Daniel Gorges is a Canadian former professional ice hockey defenseman. He is of German ancestry. Gorges played in the National Hockey League for the San Jose Sharks, Montreal Canadiens and Buffalo Sabres; as a youth, Gorges played in the 1998 Quebec International Pee-Wee Hockey Tournament with a minor ice hockey team from Kelowna. Gorges played major junior for his hometown Kelowna Rockets of the Western Hockey League from 2000 through 2004. After going undrafted in 2002, he signed as a free agent with the San Jose Sharks. Gorges was named, he was a member of Team Canada at the 2004 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships, where he won a silver medal. In 2004, the Rockets won the Memorial Cup. During the 2004–05 NHL lockout, Gorges played for the Sharks' American Hockey League affiliate, the Cleveland Barons, he made his debut for the Sharks during the 2005-06 season, skating in 49 games On February 25, 2007, Gorges and a 2007 first-round pick were traded to the Montreal Canadiens in exchange for Craig Rivet and a 2008 fifth-round pick.

On July 9, 2008, the Canadiens signed Gorges to a three-year, $3.3 million contract extension. On February 10, 2010, during a game against the Washington Capitals, Gorges was hit on the left side of the head by a slap shot from Mike Green. Gorges remained motionless with his head bleeding, he was helped up by team doctors and helped to the bench. The Canadiens won the game 6–5 in OT to end the Capitals 14-game win streak. Gorges skated in practice the next day and was quoted as saying "Unless something happens in the next 24 hours, I’ll be in the lineup against the Flyers."Gorges was praised for his performances in the 2010 Stanley Cup Playoffs, with Don Cherry declaring "Josh Gorges should be captain of the Canadiens, there’s no doubt in my mind. He’s a captain’s captain; this isn't in any way to say that Brian Gionta is bad, it's only to say. He’s exceptional, and I think Brian would be happy to have a little pressure taken off him so he could just play the game. Look up the word ‘leader’ in the dictionary, you’ll find Gorges’s picture."On July 22, 2011, the Canadiens re-signed Gorges to a one-year, $2.5 million contract extension.

On January 1, 2012, Gorges signed a six-year, $23.4 million contract extension with the Canadiens. On July 1, 2014, Gorges was traded to the Buffalo Sabres in exchange for a 2016 second-round pick, he refused to waive his no-trade clause to be traded to the Canadiens' rival, the Toronto Maple Leafs. Upon concluding his contract with the Sabres following the 2017–18 season, Gorges remained an un-signed free agent over the summer and into the 2018–19 season. On January 14, 2019, Gorges announced his retirement from his 13 season NHL career. 2004: Memorial Cup – George Parsons Trophy 2003–04: WHL – West First All-Star Team 2004: Junior World Championships – Silver medal 2004–05: Cleveland Barons rookie of the year 2004–05: Cleveland Barons Rubbermaid "Player of the Year" 2011–12: Montreal Canadiens Jacques-Beauchamp-Molson individual team award Biographical information and career statistics from, or, or, or The Internet Hockey Database

Leonard Hilty

Leonard Franklin Hilty was an American football player. He played college football for the University of Pittsburgh and was a consensus selection at the tackle position on the 1918 College Football All-America Team. Hilty was raised in Pittsburgh and attended Peabody High School, he enrolled at the University of Pittsburgh where he was a member of the Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity. He was a member of the Pittsburgh Panthers football team and was selected as a consensus first-team All-American in 1918. After graduating from Pitt, Hilty moved to Houston, Texas, by 1920, he lived there with his wife, a Texas native, their two children. He was employed for many years as a salesman for a paper company, L. S. Bosworth Co. Hilty died in 1978 at Brenham, Texas, at age 81


OpenVZ is an operating-system-level virtualization technology for Linux. It allows a physical server to run multiple isolated operating system instances, called containers, virtual private servers, or virtual environments. OpenVZ is similar to Solaris Containers and LXC. While virtualization technologies such as VMware and Xen provide full virtualization and can run multiple operating systems and different kernel versions, OpenVZ uses a single Linux kernel and therefore can run only Linux. All OpenVZ containers share the same kernel version; this can be a disadvantage in situations where guests require different kernel versions than that of the host. However, as it does not have the overhead of a true hypervisor, it is fast and efficient. Memory allocation with OpenVZ is soft in that memory not used in one virtual environment can be used by others or for disk caching. While old versions of OpenVZ used a common file system, current versions of OpenVZ allow each container to have its own file system.

The OpenVZ kernel is a Linux kernel, modified to add support for OpenVZ containers. The modified kernel provides virtualization, resource management, checkpointing; as of vzctl 4.0, OpenVZ can work with a reduced feature set. Each container is a separate entity, behaves as a physical server would; each has its own: Files System libraries, virtualized /proc and /sys, virtualized locks, etc. Users and groups Each container has its own root user, as well as other groups. Process tree A container only sees its own processes. PIDs are virtualized. Network Virtual network device, which allows a container to have its own IP addresses, as well as a set of netfilter, routing rules. Devices If needed, any container can be granted access to real devices like network interfaces, serial ports, disk partitions, etc. IPC objects Shared memory, messages. OpenVZ resource management consists of four components: two-level disk quota, fair CPU scheduler, disk I/O scheduler, user bean counters; these resources can be changed during container run time.

Each container can have its own disk quotas, measured in terms of disk blocks and inodes. Within the container, it is possible to use standard tools to set UNIX per-user and per-group disk quotas; the CPU scheduler in OpenVZ is a two-level implementation of fair-share scheduling strategy. On the first level, the scheduler decides which container it is to give the CPU time slice to, based on per-container cpuunits values. On the second level the standard Linux scheduler decides which process to run in that container, using standard Linux process priorities, it is possible to set different values for the CPUs in each container. Real CPU time will be distributed proportionally to these values. In addition to the above, OpenVZ provides ways to: set strict CPU limits, such as 10% of a total CPU time. Similar to the CPU scheduler described above, I/O scheduler in OpenVZ is two-level, utilizing Jens Axboe's CFQ I/O scheduler on its second level; each container is assigned an I/O priority, the scheduler distributes the available I/O bandwidth according to the priorities assigned.

Thus no single container can saturate an I/O channel. User Beancounters is a set of per-container counters and guarantees, meant to prevent a single container from monopolizing system resources. In current OpenVZ kernels there are two primary parameters, others are optional. Other resources are memory and various in-kernel objects such as Inter-process communication shared memory segments and network buffers; each resource can be seen from /proc/user_beancounters and has five values associated with it: current usage, maximum usage, barrier and fail counter. The meaning of barrier and limit is parameter-dependent. If any resource hits the limit, the fail counter; this allows the owner to detect problems by monitoring /proc/user_beancounters in the container. A live migration and checkpointing feature was released for OpenVZ in the middle of April 2006; this makes it possible to move a container from one physical server to another without shutting down the container. The process is known as checkpointing: a container is frozen and its whole state is saved to a file on disk.

This file can be transferred to another machine and a container can be unfrozen there. Because state is preserved this pause may appear to be an ordinary computational delay. By default, OpenVZ restricts container access to real physical devices. An OpenVZ administrator can enable container access to various real devices, such as disk drives, USB ports, PCI devices or physical network cards./dev/loopN is restricted in deployments, which restricts the ability to mount disk images. A work-around is to use FUSE. OpenVZ is limited to providing only some VPN technologies based on PPP and TUN/TAP. IPsec is supported inside containers since kernel 2.6.32. A graphical user interface called EasyVZ was attempted in 2007, but it did not progress beyond version 0.1. Up to version 3.4, Proxmox VE could

List of judgments of the Constitutional Court of South Africa delivered in 1995

The table below lists the judgments of the Constitutional Court of South Africa delivered in 1995, the first year of the court's existence. The eleven members of the court appointed at its formation were President Arthur Chaskalson, Deputy President Ismail Mahomed, judges Lourens Ackermann, John Didcott, Richard Goldstone, Johann Kriegler, Pius Langa, Tholie Madala, Yvonne Mokgoro, Kate O'Regan and Albie Sachs. Justice Goldstone was granted leave of absence to serve as chief prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, his seat was filled over the court of the year by acting judges Sydney Kentridge, John Trengove and Bernard Ngoepe. "Overview of the judgments of the Constitutional Court of South Africa since 1994 to 2005". June 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2012. "1995 South Africa: Constitutional Court Decisions". SAFLII. Retrieved 22 January 2011