A class in education has a variety of related meanings. It can be the group of students which attends a specific course or lesson at a university, school, or other educational institution, see Form, it can refer for example, a class in Shakespearean drama. It can be the group of students at the same level in an institution: the freshman class; the term can be used in a more general context, such as "the graduating class." It can refer to the classroom, in the building or venue where such a lesson is conducted. In some countries' educational systems, it can refer to a subdivision of the students in an academic department, consisting of a cohort of students of the same academic level. For example, a department's sophomores may be divided into three classes. In countries such as the Republic of Ireland, Germany, in the past, the word can mean a grade: 1st class is ages 4–5, 2nd class is ages 6–7, 3rd class is ages 8–9, 4th class is ages 9–10, 5th class is ages 10–11, 6th class is ages 11–12, 9th class is ages 14–15, class 10 is ages 15–16 and class 12th is ages 17–18
Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols. In most languages, writing is a spoken language. Writing is not a language. Within a language system, writing relies on many of the same structures as speech, such as vocabulary and semantics, with the added dependency of a system of signs or symbols; the result of writing is called text, the recipient of text is called a reader. Motivations for writing include publication, correspondence, record keeping and diary. Writing has been instrumental in keeping history, maintaining culture, dissemination of knowledge through the media and the formation of legal systems; as human societies emerged, the development of writing was driven by pragmatic exigencies such as exchanging information, maintaining financial accounts, codifying laws and recording history. Around the 4th millennium BC, the complexity of trade and administration in Mesopotamia outgrew human memory, writing became a more dependable method of recording and presenting transactions in a permanent form.
In both ancient Egypt and Mesoamerica, writing may have evolved through calendric and a political necessity for recording historical and environmental events. H. G. Wells argued that writing has the ability to "put agreements, commandments on record, it made the growth of states larger. It made a continuous historical consciousness possible; the command of the priest or king and his seal could go far beyond his sight and voice and could survive his death". The major writing systems—methods of inscription—broadly fall into five categories: logographic, alphabetic and ideographic. A sixth category, pictographic, is insufficient to represent language on its own, but forms the core of logographies. A logogram is a written character which represents a morpheme. A vast number of logograms are needed to write Chinese characters and Mayan, where a glyph may stand for a morpheme, a syllable, or both—. Many logograms have an ideographic component. For example, in Mayan, the glyph for "fin", pronounced "ka", was used to represent the syllable "ka" whenever the pronunciation of a logogram needed to be indicated, or when there was no logogram.
In Chinese, about 90% of characters are compounds of a semantic element called a radical with an existing character to indicate the pronunciation, called a phonetic. However, such phonetic elements complement the logographic elements, rather than vice versa; the main logographic system in use today is Chinese characters, used with some modification for the various languages or dialects of China and sometimes in Korean despite the fact that in South and North Korea, the phonetic Hangul system is used. A syllabary is a set of written symbols. A glyph in a syllabary represents a consonant followed by a vowel, or just a vowel alone, though in some scripts more complex syllables may have dedicated glyphs. Phonetically related syllables are not so indicated in the script. For instance, the syllable "ka" may look nothing like the syllable "ki", nor will syllables with the same vowels be similar. Syllabaries are best suited to languages with a simple syllable structure, such as Japanese. Other languages that use syllabic writing include the Linear B script for Mycenaean Greek.
Most logographic systems have a strong syllabic component. Ethiopic, though technically an abugida, has fused consonants and vowels together to the point where it is learned as if it were a syllabary. An alphabet is a set of symbols, each of which represents or represented a phoneme of the language. In a phonological alphabet, the phonemes and letters would correspond in two directions: a writer could predict the spelling of a word given its pronunciation, a speaker could predict the pronunciation of a word given its spelling; as languages evolve independently of their writing systems, writing systems have been borrowed for languages they were not designed for, the degree to which letters of an alphabet correspond to phonemes of a language varies from one language to another and within a single language. In most of the writing systems of the Middle East, it is only the consonants of a word that are written, although vowels may be indicated by the addition of various diacritical marks. Writing systems based on marking the consonant phonemes alone date back to the hieroglyphs of ancient Egypt.
Such systems are called abjads, derived from the Arabic word for "alphabet". In most of the alphabets of India and Southeast Asia, vowels are indicated through diacritics or modification of the shape of the consonant; these are called abugidas. Some abugidas, such as Ethiopic and Cree, are learned by children as syllabaries, so are called "syllabics". However, unlike true syllabaries, there is not an independent glyph for each syllable. Sometimes the term "alphabet" is restricted to systems with separate letters for consonants and vowels, such as the Latin alphabet, although abugidas and abjads may be accepted as alphabets; because of this use, Greek is considered to be the first alphabet. A featural script notates the building blocks of the phonemes. For instance, all sounds pronounced. In the Latin alphabet, this is acciden
Clarion is a six-week workshop for aspiring science fiction and fantasy writers. An outgrowth of Damon Knight and Kate Wilhelm's Milford Writers' Conference, held at their home in Milford, United States, it was founded in 1968 by Robin Scott Wilson at Clarion State College in Pennsylvania. Knight and Wilhelm were among the first teachers at the workshop. In 1972, the workshop moved to Michigan State University, it moved again, to the University of California, San Diego. Independently-operated workshops which share the Clarion name and follow its founding principles include: Clarion West Writers Workshop, founded in Seattle, Washington in 1971 by Vonda N. McIntyre, it has been held annually since 1984. Clarion South Writers Workshop was held at Griffith University in Australia, it ran biennially. In 2009, Clarion South lost its venue. In March 2011, Clarion South organizers announced that future workshops were "on hold indefinitely." List of Clarion Writers Workshop Instructors List of Clarion Writers Workshop alumni List of Clarion South Writers Workshop Instructors Knight, Damon.
"I Remember Clarion". Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine. 14: 20–28. Clarion official website Clarion Science Fiction and Fantasy Workshop: Archive of Stories by Participants MSS 681. Special Collections & Archives, UC San Diego Library
Beginning with the Industrial Revolution era, a workshop may be a room, rooms or building which provides both the area and tools that may be required for the manufacture or repair of manufactured goods. Workshops were the only places of production until the advent of industrialization and the development of larger factories. In the 20th and 21st century, many Western homes contain a workshop in the garage, basement, or an external shed. Home workshops contain a workbench, hand tools, power tools and other hardware. Along with their practical applications for repair goods or do small manufacturing runs, workshops are used to tinker and make prototypes. Workshops may vary in industrial focus. For instance, some workshops may focus on automotive restoration. Woodworking is one of the most common focuses, but metalworking, electronics work, many types of electronic prototyping may be done. In some repair industries, such as locomotives and aircraft, the repair operations have specialized workshops called back shops or railway workshops.
Most repairs are carried out except where an industrial service is needed. The New Yankee Workshop Laboratory Hackspace Studio
Iowa Writers' Workshop
The Program in Creative Writing, more known as the Iowa Writers' Workshop, at the University of Iowa in Iowa City, Iowa, is a celebrated graduate-level creative writing program in the United States. Writer Lan Samantha Chang is its director. Graduates earn a Master of Fine Arts degree in Creative Writing, it has been cited as the best graduate writing program in the nation. The program began in 1936 with the gathering of poets and fiction writers under the direction of Wilbur Schramm; the workshop's second director from 1941–1965 was Cedar Rapids, native Paul Engle. Under his tenure, the Writers' Workshop became a national landmark, he secured donations for the workshop from the business community for about 20 years, including locals such as Maytag and Quaker Oats, as well as U. S. Steel and Reader's Digest. Between 1953 and 1956, the Rockefeller Foundation donated $40,000. Henry Luce, the publisher of TIME and Life magazines, Gardner Cowles, Jr. who published Look magazine, provided publicity for the workshop's events.
From 1965–1969, the workshop had several different directors. John Leggett was the director from 1969–86 and attracted writers such as T. C. Boyle, Ethan Canin, Michael Cunningham, Gail Godwin, Denis Johnson, Jane Smiley. From 1987 until his death in 2005, Frank Conroy directed the workshop and was Engle's longest-lasting successor. Lan Samantha Chang became the director in 2006; the Program in Creative Writing, at the University of Iowa in Iowa City, Iowa, is more known as the Iowa Writers' Workshop graduate-level creative writing program in the United States. Graduates earn a Master of Fine Arts degree in English. Iowa has the oldest creative writing program in the country offering an MFA credential; the workshop is staffed by several visiting faculty. The program's curriculum requires students to take a small number of classes each semester, including the Graduate Fiction Workshop or Graduate Poetry Workshop itself, one or two additional literature seminars; the modest requirements are intended to prepare the student for the realities of professional writing, where self-discipline is paramount.
The graduate workshop courses meet weekly. Before each three-hour class, a small number of students submit material for critical reading by their peers; the class itself consists of a round-table discussion during which the students and the instructor discuss each piece. The specifics of how the class is conducted vary somewhat from teacher to teacher, between poetry and fiction workshops; the ideal result is not only that authors come away with insights into the strengths and weaknesses of their own work, but that the class as a whole derives some insight, whether general or specific, about the process of writing. "Conversations from the Iowa Writer's Workshop" is an event put on by the program, recorded and put online in podcast form. As of 2018, Iowa Writers' Workshop alumni won 17 Pulitzer Prizes, as well as numerous National Book Awards and other literary honors. Six U. S. Poets Laureate have been graduates of the workshop. Faculty and graduates affiliated with the Iowa Writers' Workshop have won 29 Pulitzer Prizes, including 16 won by graduates since 1947, graduates and faculty of the University of Iowa have won over 40.
Robert Penn Warren, 1947 Pulitzer for All the King's Men, former faculty member. Wallace Stegner, 1972 Pulitzer for Angle of Repose, MA, 1932. James Alan McPherson, 1977 Pulitzer for Elbow Room, MFA, 1969. John Cheever, 1979 Pulitzer for The Stories of John Cheever, former faculty member. Jane Smiley, 1992 Pulitzer for A Thousand Acres, MA, 1975. Philip Roth, 1998 Pulitzer for American Pastoral, former faculty member. Michael Cunningham, 1999 Pulitzer for The Hours, MFA, English, 1980. Marilynne Robinson, 2005 Pulitzer for Gilead, emeritus faculty member. Paul Harding, 2010 Pulitzer for Tinkers, MFA, English, 2000. Andrew Sean Greer, 2018 Pulitzer for Less, former visiting faculty member. Tracy Kidder, 1982 Pulitzer in general nonfiction for The Soul of a New Machine, MFA, 1974. Karl Shapiro, 1945 Pulitzer for V-Letter and Other Poems, former faculty member. Robert Lowell, 1947 Pulitzer for Lord Weary's Castle, 1974 Pulitzer for The Dolphin, former faculty member. Robert Penn Warren, 1958 Pulitzer for Poems 1954–56, Now and Then, 1980 Pulitzer for Poems 1976–78, former faculty member.
W. D. Snodgrass, 1960 Pulitzer for Heart's Needle, BA, 1949. John Berryman, 1965 Pulitzer for 77 Dream Songs, former faculty member. Anthony Hecht, 1968 Pulitzer for The Hard Hours, did not graduate. Donald Justice, 1980 Pulitzer for Selected Poems and former faculty member. Carolyn Kizer, 1985 Pulitzer for Yin, former faculty member. Rita Dove, 1987 Pulitzer for Thomas and Beulah, MFA, 1977. Mona Van Duyn, 1991 Pulitzer for Near Changes, MA, English, 1943. James Tate, 1992 Pulitzer for Selected Poems, MFA, 1967. Louise Glück, 1993 Pulitzer for The Wild Iris, former faculty member. Philip Levine, 1995 Pulitzer for The Simple Truth, MFA, 1957. Jorie Graham, 1996 Pulitzer for The Dream of the Unified Field, MFA, English, 1978. Charles Wright, 1998 Pulitzer for Black Zodiac, MFA, 1963. Mark Strand, 1999 Pulitzer for Blizzard of One, MA, 1962. Robert Hass, 2008 Pulitzer for Time and Materials, frequent visiting faculty member. Philip Schultz, 2008 Pulitzer for Failure, MFA, English, 1971. University of Iowa Writers' Workshop official webpage accessed 15 June 2015 Tom Grimes.
The Workshop: Seven Decades of the Iowa Writers Workshop. Hyperion. ISBN 978-0-7868-8672-2. Robert Dana. A community of writers. University of Iowa Press. ISBN 978-0-87745-668-1