LG Corporation Lucky-Goldstar, is a South Korean multinational conglomerate corporation. It is the fourth-largest chaebol in South Korea, it is headquartered in the LG Twin Towers building in Yeongdeungpo District, Seoul. LG makes electronics and telecom products and operates subsidiaries such as LG Electronics, Zenith, LG Display, LG Uplus, LG Innotek and LG Chem in over 80 countries. LG Corp. established as Lak Hui Chemical Industrial Corp. in 1947. In 1952, Lak Hui became the first South Korean company to enter the plastics industry; as the company expanded its plastics business, it established GoldStar Co. Ltd. in 1958. Both companies Lucky and GoldStar merged and formed Lucky-Goldstar in 1983. GoldStar produced South Korea's first radio. Many consumer electronics were sold under the brand name GoldStar, while some other household products were sold under the brand name of Lucky; the Lucky brand was famous for hygiene products such as soaps and HiTi laundry detergents, but the brand was associated with its Lucky and Perioe toothpaste.
LG continues to manufacture some of these products for the South Korean market, such as laundry detergent. Koo Bon-moo renamed the company to LG in 1995; the company associates the letters LG with the company's tagline "Life's Good". Since 2009, LG has owned the domain name LG.com. Since 2000, LG and Hitachi created. In 2001, LG had two joint ventures with Royal Philips Electronics: LG Philips Display and LG Philips LCD, but Philips sold off its shares in late 2008. In 2005, LG entered into a joint venture with Nortel Networks. On 30 November 2012, comScore released a report of the October 2012 U. S. Mobile Subscriber Market Share that found LG lost its place as second in the U. S. mobile market share to Apple Inc. On 20 January 2013, Counterpoint Research announced that LG has overtaken Apple to become second largest in U. S. market share. On 7 August 2013, comScore released a report of the June 2013 U. S. Smartphone Subscriber Market Share that found LG fell to fifth place in the U. S mobile market share.
The company logo of LG features a circle containing the letters "L" and "G", presented in the form of a smiling human face. The audio logo is used in radio commercial and TV commercial, 7 note jingle for LG. GS Group LG CNS India LS Group LIG Group Lejel Group Heesung Group SPC Group LG Corporation is a holding company that operates worldwide through more than 30 companies in the electronics and telecom fields, its electronics subsidiaries manufacture and sell products ranging from electronic and digital home appliances to televisions and mobile telephones, from Thin-film-transistor liquid-crystal displays to security devices and semiconductors. In the chemical industry, subsidiaries manufacture and sell products including cosmetics, industrial textiles, rechargeable batteries and toner products, polycarbonates and surface decorative materials, its telecom products include long-distance and international phone services and broadband telecommunications services, as well as consulting and telemarketing services.
LG operates the Coca-Cola Korea Bottling Company, manages real estate, offers management consulting, operates professional sports clubs. LG Lever Korea Food & Beverages Home Care Personal Care LG has owned the LG Twins and Changwon LG Sakers. 2013 Special Olympics World Winter Games Bayer 04 Leverkusen Changwon LG Sakers Copa América FIS Snowboard World Cup Formula One Swansea City A. F. C. Manchester City FC International Cricket Council LG Cup LG Cup LG Twins Los Angeles Dodgers Texas Rangers Millonarios Fútbol Club NCAA Son Heung-min Son Yeon-jae Akshay Kumar David Warner BTS Media related to LG Group at Wikimedia Commons Official website —
Smartphones are a class of mobile phones and of multi-purpose mobile computing devices. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and extensive mobile operating systems, which facilitate wider software and multimedia functionality, alongside core phone functions such as voice calls and text messaging. Smartphones include various sensors that can be leveraged by their software, such as a magnetometer, proximity sensors, barometer and accelerometer, support wireless communications protocols such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, satellite navigation. Early smartphones were marketed towards the enterprise market, attempting to bridge the functionality of standalone personal digital assistant devices with support for cellular telephony, but were limited by their battery life, bulky form, the immaturity of wireless data services. In the 2000s, BlackBerry, Nokia's Symbian platform, Windows Mobile began to gain market traction, with models featuring QWERTY keyboards or resistive touchscreen input, emphasizing access to push email and wireless internet.
Since the unveiling of the iPhone in 2007, the majority of smartphones have featured thin, slate-like form factors, with large, capacitive screens with support for multi-touch gestures rather than physical keyboards, offer the ability for users to download or purchase additional applications from a centralized store, use cloud storage and synchronization, virtual assistants, as well as mobile payment services. Improved hardware and faster wireless communication have bolstered the growth of the smartphone industry. In the third quarter of 2012, one billion smartphones were in use worldwide. Global smartphone sales surpassed the sales figures for feature phones in early 2013; the first commercially available device that could be properly referred to as a "smartphone" began as a prototype called "Angler" developed by Frank Canova in 1992 while at IBM and demonstrated in November of that year at the COMDEX computer industry trade show. A refined version was marketed to consumers in 1994 by BellSouth under the name Simon Personal Communicator.
In addition to placing and receiving cellular calls, the touchscreen-equipped Simon could send and receive faxes and emails. It included an address book, appointment scheduler, world time clock, notepad, as well as other visionary mobile applications such as maps, stock reports and news; the term "smart phone" or "smartphone" was not coined until a year after the introduction of the Simon, appearing in print as early as 1995, describing AT&T's PhoneWriter Communicator. Beginning in the mid-late 1990s, many people who had mobile phones carried a separate dedicated PDA device, running early versions of operating systems such as Palm OS, Newton OS, Symbian or Windows CE/Pocket PC; these operating systems would evolve into early mobile operating systems. Most of the "smartphones" in this era were hybrid devices that combined these existing familiar PDA OSes with basic phone hardware; the results were devices that were bulkier than either dedicated mobile phones or PDAs, but allowed a limited amount of cellular Internet access.
The trend at the time, that manufacturers competed on in both mobile phones and PDAs was to make devices smaller and slimmer. The bulk of these smartphones combined with their high cost and expensive data plans, plus other drawbacks such as expansion limitations and decreased battery life compared to separate standalone devices limited their popularity to "early adopters" and business users who needed portable connectivity. In March 1996, Hewlett-Packard released the OmniGo 700LX, a modified HP 200LX palmtop PC with a Nokia 2110 mobile phone piggybacked onto it and ROM-based software to support it, it had a 640×200 resolution CGA compatible four-shade gray-scale LCD screen and could be used to place and receive calls, to create and receive text messages and faxes. It was 100% DOS 5.0 compatible, allowing it to run thousands of existing software titles, including early versions of Windows. In August 1996, Nokia released the Nokia 9000 Communicator, a digital cellular PDA based on the Nokia 2110 with an integrated system based on the PEN/GEOS 3.0 operating system from Geoworks.
The two components were attached by a hinge in what became known as a clamshell design, with the display above and a physical QWERTY keyboard below. The PDA provided e-mail; when closed, the device could be used as a digital cellular telephone. In June 1999 Qualcomm released the "pdQ Smartphone", a CDMA digital PCS smartphone with an integrated Palm PDA and Internet connectivity. Subsequent landmark devices included: The Ericsson R380 by Ericsson Mobile Communications; the first device marketed as a "smartphone", it was the first Symbian-based phone, with PDA functionality and limited Web browsing on a resistive touchscreen utilizing a stylus. Users could not install their own software on the device, however; the Kyocera 6035, a dual-nature device with a separate Palm OS PDA operating system and CDMA mobile phone firmware. It supported limited Web browsing with the PDA software treating the phone hardware as an attached modem. Handspring's Treo 180, the first smartphone that integrated the Palm OS on a GSM mobile phone having telephony, SMS messaging and Internet access built in to the OS.
The 180 model had a thumb-type keyboard and the 180g version had a Graffiti handwriting recognition area, instead. In 1999, Japanese wireless provider NTT DoCoMo launched i-mode, a new
The Orange Alternative is a Polish anti-communist underground movement, started in Wrocław, a city in south-west Poland and led by Waldemar Fydrych known as Major in the 1980s. Its main purpose was to offer a wider group of citizens an alternative way of opposition against the authoritarian regime by means of a peaceful protest that used absurd and nonsensical elements. By doing this, members of the Orange Alternative could not be arrested by the police for opposition to the regime without the authorities becoming a laughing stock; the Orange Alternative has been viewed as part of the broader Solidarity movement. Academics Dennis Bos and Marjolein't Hart have asserted it was the most effective of all Solidarity's factions in bringing about the movement's success, it painted ridiculous graffiti of dwarves on paint spots covering up anti-government slogans on city walls. Afterwards, beginning with 1985 through 1990, it organized a series of more than sixty happenings in several Polish cities, including Wrocław, Warsaw, Łódź, Tomaszów Mazowiecki.
It was the most picturesque element of Polish opposition to Stalinist authoritarianism. It suspended activity in 1989, but reactivated in 2001 and has been active on a small scale since. A statue of a dwarf, dedicated to the memory of the movement, stands today on Świdnicka Street in Wrocław, in the place where events took place; the Orange Alternative movement has inspired several other similar movements in authoritarian countries including Czechoslovakia and Hungary and it has inspired and influenced the Pora and the so-called Orange Revolution movement in Ukraine, in turn supported by Poland. Some utterances ascribed to Waldemar Fydrych: In Poland there are only three places when you can feel free: In churches, but only for prayers; the Western World will find out much more about the situation in Poland from hearing that I was sent to jail for handing out sanitary pads to women, than from reading books and articles written by other members of the opposition. Can you treat a police officer when he is asking you: "Why did you participate in an illegal meeting of dwarfs?"
The beginnings of the Orange Alternative are in a student movement called the Movement for New Culture created in 1980 at the University of Wrocław. It is in that year that Waldemar "Major" Fydrych, one of the movement's founders, proclaims the Socialist Surrealism Manifesto, which becomes the ideological backbone behind a gazette known as "The Orange Alternative". Seven out of the total fifteen issues of this gazette appear during student strikes organized in November and December 1980 as part of the Solidarity upheaval; the first number is edited jointly by Major Waldemar Fydrych and Wiesław Cupała with an idea to have fun. The editors treat the surrounding reality as forms of Art. For the ensuing numbers, the editorial committee is joined by Piotr Adamcio, known as "Lieutenant Pablo", Andrzej Dziewit and Zenon Zegarski, nicknamed "Lieutenant Zizi Top". Although its avantgarde character, according to the student strike organizers, was a threat to the "higher aims of the strike", notwithstanding attempts by the strike committee to censor it, the gazette became very popular among the students.
The first known actions of the Orange Alternative consisted of painting dwarf graffiti on spots created by the police's covering up anti-regime slogans on walls of the Polish cities. The first graffiti was painted by Major Waldemar Fydrych and Wiesław Cupała on the night from the 30 to 31 August 1982 on one of the residences in the Wrocław district of Biskupin and Sępolno. Altogether more than one thousand of such graffiti were painted in the major Polish cities such as Wrocław, Kraków, Warsaw, Łódź, Gdańsk. Dwarves appearing in numbers all over Poland aroused the interest of both Polish pedestrians and the militia, whose intervention led to short term arrests of the graffiti artists. During one of these incidents, Major, a detainee at a police station in Łódź, proclaimed, in reference to the Marxist and Hegelian dialectics, yet another artistic manifesto and referred to his graffiti art as "dialectic painting" stating: "The Thesis is the Anti-Regime Slogan; the Anti-thesis is the Spot and the Synthesis is the Dwarf.
Quantity evolves into Quality. The more Dwarves there are, the better it is." At the beginning of the 21st century Dwarf figurines made of bronze began to appear in Wrocław. Over time, they have become a major tourist attraction in Wrocław. What brought the Orange Alternative the biggest fame were its street happenings which it organized throughout the second half of the 1980s; these actions gained it enormous popularity among the Polish youth, who joined the movement, seeing it an alternative to the opposition style presented by the Solidarity, which they viewed as more stiff and boring. The first modest happening called the "Burning of Tubes" was organized as early as 1985 in Wrocław by Major Waldemar Fydrych accompanied by a small group of artists to which belonged: Krzysztof Skarbek, Piotr Petyszkowski, Andrzej Głuszek, Sławomir Monkiewicz; the break-through moment came in the fall of 1987, during the Open Theatre Festival in Wrocław, when the Village Voice reported the Orange Alternative's action known as "Distribution of Toilet Paper" – a happening that satirized the annoying lack of that consumer product at the time.
After the publication of this article, the Orange Alternative became of interest to a number of Polish and foreign media. The biggest happenings however took place in the years 1987 through 1989, with the "orange" wave spilling over Poland into cit
Biskupice Podgórne is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Kobierzyce, within Wrocław County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland. Prior to 1945 it was in Germany, it lies 16 kilometres south-west of the regional capital Wrocław. The village has a population of 190
Anti-communism is opposition to communism. Organized anti-communism developed after the 1917 October Revolution in Russia and it reached global dimensions during the Cold War, when the United States and the Soviet Union engaged in an intense rivalry. Anti-communism has been an element of movements holding many different political positions, including nationalist, social democratic, libertarian, fascist, capitalist and socialist viewpoints; the first organization dedicated to opposing communism was the Russian White movement, which fought in the Russian Civil War starting in 1918 against the established Communist government. The White movement was supported militarily by several allied foreign governments, which represented the first instance of anti-communism as a government policy; the Communist Red Army defeated the White movement and the Soviet Union was created in 1922. During the existence of the Soviet Union, anti-communism became an important feature of many different political movements and governments across the world.
In the United States, anti-communism came to prominence with the First Red Scare of 1919–1920. During the 1920s and 1930s, opposition to communism in Europe was promoted by conservatives, social democrats and fascists. Fascist governments rose to prominence as major opponents of communism in the 1930s and they founded the Anti-Comintern Pact in 1936 as an anti-communist alliance. In Asia, the Empire of Japan and the Kuomintang were the leading anti-communist forces in this period. After World War II, fascism ceased to be a major political movement due to the defeat of the Axis powers; the victorious Allies were an international coalition led by the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, but after the war this alliance broke down into two opposing camps: a Communist one led by the Soviet Union and a capitalist one led by the United States. The rivalry between the two sides came to be known as the Cold War and during this period the United States government played a leading role in supporting global anti-communism as part of its containment policy.
There were numerous military conflicts between Communists and anti-Communists in various parts of the world, including the Chinese Civil War, the Korean War, the Vietnam War and the Soviet–Afghan War. NATO was founded as an anti-communist military alliance in 1949 and continued throughout the Cold War. With the Revolutions of 1989 and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, most of the world's Communist governments were overthrown and the Cold War ended. Anti-communism remains an important intellectual element of many contemporary political movements and organized anti-communism is a factor in the domestic opposition found to varying degrees within the People's Republic of China and other countries governed by Communist parties. Since the split of the Communist parties from the socialist Second International to form the Communist Third International, social democrats have been critical of Communism for its anti-democratic nature. Examples of left-wing critics of Communist states and parties are such as Friedrich Ebert, Boris Souveraine, Bayard Rustin, Irving Howe and Max Shachtman.
The American Federation of Labor has always been anti-communist. The more leftist Congress of Industrial Organizations purged its Communists in 1947 and has been staunchly anti-communist since. In Britain, the Labour Party strenuously resisted Communist efforts to infiltrate its ranks and take control of locals in the 1930s; the Labour Party became anti-communist and Labour Prime Minister Clement Attlee was a staunch supporter of NATO. Although most anarchists describe themselves as communists, most anarchists criticize authoritarian Communist parties and states. Many argue that Marxist concepts such as dictatorship of the proletariat and state ownership of the means of production are anathema to anarchism; some anarchists criticize communism from an individualist point of view. Anarchists participated in and rejoiced over the 1917 February Revolution as an example of workers taking power for themselves. However, after the October Revolution it became evident that the Bolsheviks and the anarchists had different ideas.
Anarchist Emma Goldman, deported from the United States to Russia in 1919, was enthusiastic about the revolution, but was left sorely disappointed and began to write her book My Disillusionment in Russia. Anarchist Peter Kropotkin proffered trenchant criticism of the emergent Bolshevik bureaucracy in letters to Vladimir Lenin, noting in 1920 that " is positively harmful for the building of a new socialist system. What is needed is local construction by local forces. Russia has become a Soviet Republic only in name". Many anarchists fought against Russian and Greek Communists—many were killed by them, such as Lev Chernyi, Camillo Berneri and Konstantinos Speras. In The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels outline some provisional short-term measures that could be steps towards communism, they note: "These measures will, of course, be different in different countries. In most advanced countries, will be pretty applicable". Ludwig von Mises described this as a "10-point plan" for the redistribution of land and production and argues that the initial and ongoing forms of redistribution constitute direct coercion.
Neither Marx's 10-point plan nor the rest of the manifesto say anything about who has the right to carry out the plan. Milton Friedman argued that the absence of voluntary economic activity makes it too easy for repressive political leaders to grant themselves coercive powers. Friedman's view was shared by Friedrich
St. Elizabeth's Church, Wrocław
St. Elizabeth's Church of the Catholic Third Order of Saint Francis is a Gothic church in Wrocław, Poland, it is one of the most iconic structures of the city's panorama. Between 1525 and 1945, it was the principal Protestant church in Breslau; the structure dates back to the 14th century. The main tower was 130 meters tall. From 1525 until 1946, St. Elizabeth's was the chief Lutheran Church of Breslau and Silesia and the principal congregation of the Evangelical Church of Prussia in Breslau. In 1946 it was expropriated and given to the Military Chaplaincy of the Polish Roman Catholic Church; the church was damaged by heavy hail in 1529, gutted by fire in 1976. The church's renowned organ was destroyed; the reconstructed main tower is now 91.5 meters tall. An observation deck near the top is open to the public. Since 1999 there is a memorial on the church property to Pastor Dietrich Bonhoeffer, a native of the city and martyr to the anti-Nazi Cause. List of tallest churches
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge