Coot Club is the fifth book of Arthur Ransome's Swallows and Amazons series of children's books, published in 1934. The book sees Dick and Dorothea Callum visiting the Norfolk Broads during the Easter holidays, eager to learn to sail and thus impress the Swallows and Amazons when they return to the Lake District that year. Along with a cast of new characters and Dorothea explore the North and South Broads and become'able seamen'; the Callum children spend their Easter holidays on The Broads with a family friend, Mrs Barrable, staying on a small yacht called the Teasel, moored near the village of Horning. There they encounter the Coot Club, a gang of local children comprising Tom Dudgeon, twin girls'Port' and'Starboard', three younger boys — Joe and Pete; the Coot Club was formed to protect local birds and their nests from egg collectors and other disturbances. Protecting wild birds was a new concept at the time. A noisy and inconsiderate party of city-dwellers hire the motor cruiser Margoletta and threaten an important nesting site of a coot with a white feather by mooring in front of it, refuse to move when politely requested to do so.
Despite warnings "not to mix with foreigners", Tom stealthily casts off the Margoletta's moorings to save the nest and hides behind the Teasel. He hides for fear of disgracing his father, the local doctor. Casting off boats is considered unthinkable on The Broads, where the local economy is so dependent on boating. Mrs Barrable does not give Tom away to the Hullabaloos and instead asks him to teach the Callums to sail. Tom and Starboard join the crew of the Teasel, together with Mrs Barrable and her pug William, the children teach Dick and Dorothea the basics of sailing up and down the Broads; the women of the party sleep in Teasel and Tom and Dick share Tom's small sailing boat Titmouse. Dick shares the Coot Club's keen interest in local bird life, Dorothea uses the voyage as fodder for her new story, "Outlaw Of The Broads", based on the Hullabaloos' vow to catch Tom, they chase the crew of the Teasel all over the Broads. Through a piece of imprudence on the part of Mrs Barrable and Titmouse are caught on a falling tide on Breydon Water and go aground, just too far apart to be able to pass things between them.
William the pug is encouraged to make a heroic journey across the mud towing a thread, by which a rope is hauled across to share food, without which some of the party would have had to go unfed for 12 hours. They are still stranded on the mud. There is no escape, but the Hullabaloos, in their joy at running their quarry to earth, manage to crash the Margoletta into a wooden marker post, holing her hull and putting the crew in danger of drowning. At that moment the Death and Glories appear, having rowed all the way from Horning to warn Tom of the Hullabaloos' approach, they conduct a dramatic rescue, are rewarded by the owners of the Margoletta with a salvage award which enables them to refurbish their vessel. The Hullabaloos depart without thanking their rescuers, Tom can return home in the knowledge that the reputation of the doctor's family is intact, it turns out that the Hullabaloos were alerted to Tom's whereabouts by George Owdon, a Horning youth who makes money by selling birds' eggs to collectors, who therefore has no love for the Coot Club.
This rivalry is the subject of The Big Six. In the text, the twins are on board the fictional Thames barge, Welcome of Rochester. Ransome encountered SB Pudge of Rochester, he wrote to the owners, LRTC for details of the cargoes Pudge carried, the routes the Pudge sailed, which bridges she could pass under. The book describes the cabin and stateroom, the newly fitted petrol auxiliary engine. Pudge was fitted with the more powerful Kelvin K3 66HP engine, present today. Ransome's description has been useful in the restoration of the Pudge. Another boat referred to in the text is the Norfolk wherry Sir Garnett which gives the twins a lift when they need to catch up with Tom; the BBC produced a television series Swallows and Amazons Forever!, based on Coot Club and The Big Six, in 1984. Coot Club at Faded Page Coot Club on IMDb
Bure Valley Railway
The Bure Valley Railway is a 15 in minimum gauge heritage railway in Norfolk, within The Broads National Park. The railway runs from Wroxham to Aylsham and is Norfolk's longest railway of less than standard gauge, it uses diesel locomotives. There are intermediate halts at Brampton and Coltishall. There are 17 bridges, including a 105 ft long girder bridge over the River Bure in Buxton with Lammas as well as Aylsham Bypass Tunnel under the A140 at Aylsham; the railway is built on the trackbed of the East Norfolk Railway. The ENR started in 1877 when the East Norfolk Railway opened from Norwich to Cromer, with an extension from Wroxham to Aylsham in 1880; the ENR was taken over by the Great Eastern Railway in 1882, amalgamated into the London & North Eastern Railway in 1923. The railway was nationalised in 1948. In 1952 the passenger service stopped. Buxton Lamas, as it was known, closed for goods in 1964, Aylsham and Coltishall in 1974. Freight trains continued to run over the line after this for two principal sources of traffic.
The line west of Aylsham via Cawston and Reepham went further to a junction at County School Station. Coal traffic continued to be carried from Norwich Thorpe via Aylsham to Norwich City There was regular traffic from Lenwade in the form of concrete building components; this traffic ended in 1981 and the line through Aylsham formally closed on 6 January 1982. A weed-killing train ran in 1983 and track-lifting trains ran the following year; the Bure Valley Railway opened on 10 July 1990 under the management of RKF Leisure which had purchased the trackbed. When the RKF's parent company, RKF Group Plc, went into receivership in January 1991, Broadland District Council moved to acquire the line from the receivers as it feared that property developers might seize the opportunity to take control of the land. Agreement was reached with Ffestiniog Railway director Mike Hart to set up a new company, Bure Valley Railway Ltd, to lease and operate the line. A long distance footpath opened alongside it in 1991.
It is home to Aylsham Bypass Tunnel, Norfolk's only operational railway tunnel, which carries the railway under the Aylsham Bypass replacing the original standard gauge level crossing. Cromer Tunnel in Cromer, the only other surviving railway tunnel in the county, is disused; when the railway first opened, several locomotives were hired from the Romney and Dymchurch Railway, including: Black Prince and Winston Churchill. Passenger rolling stock consists of 29 vehicles, which are marshalled so as to form three complete carriage sets, thus allowing for the operation of up to three distinct passenger trains; the 29 vehicles may be further subdivided as below: 19 standard passenger saloon bogie coaches 6 standard passenger saloon bogie coaches with wheelchair-accessible compartments 1 brake composite bogie coach with guard's compartment, baggage compartment, passenger compartments 1 brake composite bogie coach with guard's compartment, baggage compartment, diesel generator for winter train heating 2 brake short-wheelbase coaches with guard's compartment and baggage compartmentAll except one of the carriages are equipped with electric heating, for winter services.
All carriages are equipped with internal lighting. All carriages are connected to a passenger communication system, allowing passengers to stop the train in an emergency. On Monday 30 May 2011 a train on the line suffered a derailment at Brampton, during which wheels from one of the coaches were reported to have come up through the floor of the vehicle; the Rail Accident Investigation Branch were called in to conduct a preliminary examination into the incident, found it to have been caused by the failure due to metal fatigue of an axle journal, welded several years previously. Following this accident all wheels of this design were identified by the railway and scrapped, being replaced by new wheelsets, a new computerised passenger carriage maintenance database was introduced, providing detailed tracking of the service regime of whole carriages, of individual bogies and axles. In addition to the standard coaching stock, two non-standard passenger saloon bogie coaches used on the Fairbourne Railway, were acquired for use on special event days, purporting to be Thomas the tank engine's coaches Annie and Clarabel.
These vehicles were subsequently sold to the Evesham Vale Railway and left Aylesham in Spring 2016. The Friends of the Bure Valley Railway is the volunteer supporting group for the Bure Valley Railway, it owns locomotive number 4 and supports the railway financially and with regular working parties of volunteers. There is a hut at Aylsham which sells donated bric-a-brac, second hand books and magazines during the season to raise money to support the railway. A secondhand book, record and DVD shop is open at Wroxham station. Bressingham Steam and Gardens North Norfolk Railway Mid-Norfolk Railway Wells and Walsingham Light Railway Whitwell & Reepham railway station Yaxham Light Railway Barton House Railway Bure Valley Railway website
Norfolk is a county in East Anglia in England. It borders Lincolnshire to the northwest, Cambridgeshire to the west and southwest, Suffolk to the south, its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea and, to the north-west, The Wash. The county town is Norwich. With an area of 2,074 square miles and a population of 859,400, Norfolk is a rural county with a population density of 401 per square mile. Of the county's population, 40% live in four major built up areas: Norwich, Great Yarmouth, King's Lynn and Thetford; the Broads is a network of lakes in the east of the county, extending south into Suffolk. The area is not a national park, it has similar status to a national park, is protected by the Broads Authority. Norfolk was settled in pre-Roman times, with camps along the higher land in the west, where flints could be quarried. A Brythonic tribe, the Iceni, inhabited the county from the 1st century BC to the end of the 1st century AD; the Iceni revolted against the Roman invasion in AD 47, again in 60 led by Boudica.
The crushing of the second rebellion opened the county to the Romans. During the Roman era roads and ports were constructed throughout the county and farming was widespread. Situated on the east coast, Norfolk was vulnerable to invasions from Scandinavia and Northern Europe, forts were built to defend against the Angles and Saxons. By the 5th century the Angles, after whom East Anglia and England itself are named, had established control of the region and became the "north folk" and the "south folk", hence, "Norfolk" and "Suffolk". Norfolk and several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia, which merged with Mercia and with Wessex; the influence of the Early English settlers can be seen in the many place names ending in "-ton" and "-ham". Endings such as "-by" and "-thorpe" are common, indicating Danish place names: in the 9th century the region again came under attack, this time from Danes who killed the king, Edmund the Martyr. In the centuries before the Norman Conquest the wetlands of the east of the county began to be converted to farmland, settlements grew in these areas.
Migration into East Anglia must have been high: by the time of the Domesday Book survey it was one of the most densely populated parts of the British Isles. During the high and late Middle Ages the county developed arable woollen industries. Norfolk's prosperity at that time is evident from the county's large number of medieval churches: out of an original total of over one thousand, 659 have survived, more than in the whole of the rest of Great Britain; the economy was in decline by the time of the Black Death, which reduced the population in 1349. By the 16th century Norwich had grown to become the second-largest city in England, but over one-third of its population died in the plague epidemic of 1579, in 1665 the Great Plague again killed around one-third of the population. During the English Civil War Norfolk was Parliamentarian; the economy and agriculture of the region declined somewhat. During the Industrial Revolution Norfolk developed little industry except in Norwich, a late addition to the railway network.
In the 20th century the county developed a role in aviation. The first development in airfields came with the First World War. For the local army regiments the Royal Norfolk Regiment and the Norfolk Yeomanry please click on the links. During the Second World War agriculture intensified, it has remained intensive since, with the establishment of large fields for growing cereals and oilseed rape. Norfolk's low-lying land and eroded cliffs, many of which are composed of chalk and clay, make it vulnerable to weathering by the sea; the most recent major erosion event occurred during the North Sea flood of 1953. The low-lying section of coast between Kelling and Lowestoft Ness in Suffolk is managed by the British Environment Agency to protect the Broads from sea flooding. Management policy for the North Norfolk coastline is described in the "North Norfolk Shoreline Management Plan" published in 2006, but has yet to be accepted by local authorities; the Shoreline Management Plan states that the stretch of coast will be protected for at least another 50 years, but that in the face of sea level rise and post-glacial lowering of land levels in the South East, there is an urgent need for further research to inform future management decisions, including the possibility that the sea defences may have to be realigned to a more sustainable position.
Natural England have contributed some research into the impacts on the environment of various realignment options. The draft report of their research was leaked to the press, who created great anxiety by reporting that Natural England plan to abandon a large section of the Norfolk Broads and farmland to the sea to save the rest of the Norfolk coastline from the impact of climate change. In 1998 Norfolk had a Gross Domestic Product of £9,319 million, which represents 1.5% of England's economy and 1.25% of the United Kingdom's economy. The GDP per head was £11,825, compared to £13,635 for East Anglia, £12,845 for England and £12,438 for the United Kingdom. In 1999–2000 the county had an unemployment rate of 5.6%, compared to 5.8% for England and 6.0% for the UK. Data from 2017 provided a useful update on the county's economy; the median hourly gross pay was £12.17 and the median weekly pay was £496.80. The employm
The Broads is a network of navigable rivers and lakes in the English counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. The lakes, known as broads, were formed by the flooding of peat workings; the Broads, some surrounding land, were constituted as a special area with a level of protection similar to a national park by the Norfolk and Suffolk Broads Act 1988. The Broads Authority, a special statutory authority responsible for managing the area, became operational in 1989; the area is 303 square kilometres, most of, in Norfolk, with over 200 kilometres of navigable waterways. There are seven rivers and 63 broads less than 4 metres deep. Thirteen broads are open to navigation, with a further three having navigable channels; some broads have navigation restrictions imposed on them in autumn and winter, although the legality of the restrictions is questionable. Although the terms Norfolk Broads and Suffolk Broads are used to identify specific areas within the two counties the whole area is referred to as the "Norfolk Broads".
The Broads has similar status to the national parks in Wales. Because of its navigation role the Broads Authority was established under its own legislation on 1 April 1989; the Broads Authority Act 2009, promoted through Parliament by the authority, is intended to improve public safety on the water. In January 2015 the Broads Authority approved a change in name of the area to the Broads National Park, to recognise that the status of the area is equivalent to the English National Parks, that the Broads Authority shares the same two first purposes as the English National Park Authorities, receives a National park grant; this followed a three-month consultation which resulted in support from 79% of consultees, including unanimous support from the 14 UK national parks and the Campaign for National Parks. Defra, the Government department responsible for the parks expressed it was content that the Authority would make its own decision on the matter; this is the subject of ongoing controversy among some Broads users who note that the Broads is not named in law as a National Park and claim the branding detracts from the Broads Authority's third purpose, to protect the interests of navigation.
In response to this the Broads Authority has stated that its three purposes will remain in equal balance and that the branding is for marketing the National Park qualities of the Broads. The Broads are administered by the Broads Authority. Special legislation gives the navigation of the waterways equal status with the conservation and public enjoyment of the area. Specific parts of the Broads have been awarded a variety of conservation designations, for instance: Special Protection Area status for an area named'Broadland' composed of 28 Sites of Special Scientific Interest Environmentally Sensitive Area status for parts of the Halvergate Marshes National nature reserve status for: Bure Marshes NNR Ant Broads & Marshes NNR Hickling Broad NNR Ludham - Potter Heigham NNR Redgrave and Lopham Fen Martham Broad NNR Calthorpe Broad NNR Mid-Yare NNRA specific project being considered under the UK Biodiversity Action Plan is re-introduction of the large copper butterfly, whose habitat has been reduced by reduction of fens.
The Broads, although administered by the Broads Authority, give their name to the Broadland local government district, while parts of the Broads lie within other council areas: North Norfolk, South Norfolk and Great Yarmouth and Waveney district in Suffolk. For many years the lakes known as broads were regarded as natural features of the landscape, it was only in the 1960s that Dr Joyce Lambert proved that they were artificial features—flooded medieval peat excavations. In the Middle Ages the local monasteries began to excavate the peatlands as a turbary business, selling fuel to Norwich and Great Yarmouth. Norwich Cathedral took 320,000 tonnes of peat a year; the sea levels began to rise, the pits began to flood. Despite the construction of windpumps and dykes, the flooding continued and resulted in the typical Broads landscape of today, with its reedbeds, grazing marshes and wet woodland. Various attempts were made to extend the navigable rivers; the longest-lasting was on the River Waveney, where an Act of Parliament passed on 17 March 1670 authorised improvements which included three locks, at Geldeston and Wainford.
The head of navigation became a new staithe at Bungay. The new section was a private navigation, not controlled by the Yarmouth Haven and Pier Commissioners, who had responsibility for the rest of the Broadland rivers, it remained in use until 1934 and, although the upper two locks have been replaced by sluices and Geldeston lock is derelict, the Environment Agency have negotiated with local landowners to allow use by canoes and unpowered vessels which can be portaged around the locks. The next attempt was to extend navigation on the River Bure from Coltishall to Aylsham, authorised by an Act of Parliament on 7 April 1773. Five locks were built, to bypass mills, at Coltishall, Oxnead Lamas, Oxnead and Aylsham. There were financial difficulties during construction, but the works were completed and opened in October 1779. At Aylsham, a 1-mile cut was made from the river to a terminal basin, where several warehouses were constructed. Despite the arrival of the railways in 1879, goods continued to be carried to Aylsham by wherries until 1912, when major flooding badly damaged the locks.
Unable to fund r
Wroxham is a village and civil parish in the English county of Norfolk. The civil parish of Wroxham has an area of 6.21 square kilometres and in 2001 had a population of 1532 in 666 households, reducing to a population of 1,502 in 653 households at the 2011 Census. The village is situated within the Norfolk Broads on the south side of a loop in the middle reaches of the River Bure, it lies in an elevated position above the Bure, between Belaugh Broad to the west and Wroxham Broad to the east or south east. Wroxham is some eight miles north-east of Norwich; the village and broad lie in an area of intensive agriculture, with areas of wet woodland adjoining the broad and river. For the purposes of local government, the parish falls within the district of Broadland although the river and their immediate environs fall within the executive area of the Broads Authority. On the northern side of the Bure is the village of Hoveton confused with Wroxham. Wroxham Bridge was rebuilt in brick and stone in 1619 replacing a bridge built in 1576, which itself replaced an earlier wooden, structure.
It is considered to be the second most difficult on the Broads to navigate and a pilot station sits on the Hoveton side of the river to assist boaters for a fee: £12 each way per boat. Wroxham Broad lies about one mile downstream from Wroxham Bridge; the broad has a mean depth of 1.3 metres. It lies with two navigable openings between river and broad; the broad is the home of the Norfolk Broads Yacht Club. It is an important habitat for broadland flora and fauna. Between 2000 and 2005 the island between the two channels linking Wroxham Broad to the Bure underwent restoration to stop erosion and improve the island's ecology, which had become degraded; the project was a joint initiative involving the Broads Authority, Norfolk Broads Yacht Club and the local landowner, Trafford Estates. Scrub was cleared and a stretch of piling installed, allowing sedge and rush to grow back. By 2005 it was reported that more birds, including kingfishers, were nesting on the island and the rare Cetti's warbler was spotted.
Greater numbers of ducks including pochard and tufted ducks now wintered nearby and there was a greater profusion of wild flowers and marsh flora including orchids. During the course of the work, in 2004, volunteers came across an unexploded Second World War hand grenade in the dredgings, which had to be exploded by an army bomb disposal team. Wroxham is called the "Capital of the Broads", an accolade that may with some merit be challenged by Hoveton, where the majority of local businesses and boatyards are situated, the first centre on the Broads for boating holidays and excursions from the late nineteenth century when expansion of the rail network had made access to the area easier; the East Norfolk Railway arrived in Wroxham and Hoveton between 1874 and 1876 and John Loynes started the first boat hire firm on the Broads at Wroxham where he moved the business he had started in Norwich in 1878. Both Wroxham and Hoveton have several boat pleasure craft hire yards. Other local industries include the canning of soft fruits.
Wroxham village had at one time – for much of the 20th century – its own public house, four village shops and a primary school, all now closed. A public library was built near a small broad near Wroxham Bridge, in the 1960s. However, Wroxham has merged with Hoveton – each village growing on either bank of the river – with much of the area's commercial activity developing in Hoveton; the area around Wroxham Bridge is a local shopping centre due to the presence of Roys of Wroxham – situated near Wroxham Bridge since 1899 and, since the 1930s, proud bearer of the accolade "world's largest village store". Roys owns much of the commercial property in the area. In fact, Roys of Wroxham is situated in Hoveton – as are the local post office and the Hotel Wroxham, it seems that the proximity and name of Wroxham Bridge – one side of, in Hoveton – gave rise to the common attribution of the name'Wroxham' to that part of Hoveton, close to the river and may be considered the commercial centre for both villages.
Like many other local amenities, the station – called Wroxham Station – is located in Hoveton. Now called Hoveton and Wroxham railway station, it is on the Bittern Line from Norwich to Cromer and Sheringham, the terminus of the narrow gauge Bure Valley Railway to Aylsham; the Church of St Mary the Virgin is grade 1 listed and stands at the top of a steep slope above the River Bure, built of flint with limestone dressings and lead roofs. It has a high tower and a famous Norman south doorway, stained blue, with seven orders and three shafts, described by the architectural historian Nikolaus Pevsner as'barbaric and glorious'; the church was restored in the Victorian age. In the churchyard is the Trafford Mausoleum, mediaeval in appearance but built in 1831 to designs by the architect Anthony Salvin; the area near the church was the core of the village. A brick and pantiled manor house to the south east of the church has stepped gables showing Dutch influence, a panel dating to 1623. A picturesque red brick grade II listed cottage dating from about 1820 abuts the churchyard.
Other significant houses in the village include Keys Hill House, built to the east of Norwich Road around 1890 by an important Norwich architect, Edward Boardman, as a substantial country house in Jacobean style. It was used as a camp for Italian prisoners of war and as an old peop
The River Bure is a river in the county of Norfolk, most of it in the Broads. The Bure rises near Melton Constable, 11 miles upstream of Aylsham, the original head of navigation. Nowadays, the head of navigation is 10 miles downstream at Coltishall Bridge. After Aylsham Lock and Burgh Bridge, the Bure passes through Buxton Lammas, Belaugh, Horning, Ludham Bridge, past St. Benet's Abbey, through Oby, Stokesby, along the northern border of the Halvergate Marshes, through Runham and Great Yarmouth where it meets Breydon Water and flows into the sea at Gorleston, it has the River Thurne and the River Ant. There is Muck Fleet which connects the Trinity Broads to the main network; the River Bure has been navigable for some 31 miles as far as Horstead Mill, near Coltishall, since at least 1685, when cargoes of coal and timber were carried to within 1 mile of Meyton Manor House. It was stated at the time. Vessels could not travel beyond Coltishall, so Aylsham was served by carts, either loaded from wherries at Coltishall and carried north, or loaded from boats at Cromer and carried south.
Plans to extend the limit of navigation were drawn up in 1773. An Act of Parliament was obtained on 7 April 1773, authorising improvements from Coltishall to Aylsham, which John Adey estimated would cost £6,000; some £1,500 had been raised or promised, the balance was to be funded by subscriptions. Adey acted as clerk to the Bure Commissioners. Work began on 29 June 1774, the lock and cut at Coltishall were completed by 16 March 1775, when the first boat used the lock. Progress after, slow, for in October 1777 Smith announced that he had spent £3,600 so far, but estimated that a further £2,951 would be required to complete the work, it appears that the money had run out, but Smith was persuaded to carry on after 18 traders and landowners provided loans of between £50 and £150. John Green of Wroxham was appointed as joint engineer in March 1779, the new waterway opened in October 1779. Five locks were provided, at Aylsham, Burgh-near-Aylsham Mill, Oxnead Mill, Buxton Mill at Oxnead Lamas and Coltishall.
Within a month, the Commissioners found that silting of the river bed had occurred, reducing the navigable depth, dredging of the river bed using a scoop, known locally as a didle, was a regular activity. Small wherries, capable of carrying 13 tons, were used for the carriage of flour, agricultural produce and timber. A brickyard at Oxnead was served by the boats, while below Coltishall, marl was carried away from pits which were served by a system of navigable dikes on the estate of Horstead Hall; the marl trade continued until 1870. At each of the mills, cuts were made to accommodate the locks, but at Aylsham a longer cut of about 1 mile was made, ending at a basin where warehouses were constructed. Boats could get from there to Aylsham Mill Pool, which enabled them to deliver grain and carry flour away; the navigation was reasonably successful until 1880, when railway competition arrived, in the form of the East Norfolk Railway, which followed the Bure valley. The East Norfolk became part of the Great Eastern Railway.
Further competition arrived in 1883, when the Eastern and Midlands Railway opened a railway station near the terminal basin on its line from Melton Constable to North Walsham. Despite this, wherries were using the navigation until 1912, when a disastrous flood damaged the locks. Assessment of the damage suggested that repairs would cost £4,000, which the Commissioners could not find, so the navigation was abandoned; this act was formalised in 1928, when it was abandoned. Oxnead Lamas Lock was filled in, in 1933, but the other structures remain, although the lock gates have been replaced by sluices. Bure Valley Railway, a heritage railway Bure Valley Path Bure Marshes NNR, a national nature reserve Bure, a Category C men's prison in Scottow, Norfolk named after the river. Visit Aylsham and the Bure Valley Watermills & Windmills on the River Bure River Bure Literary History