China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Uyghur Latin alphabet
The Uyghur Latin alphabet is an auxiliary alphabet for the Uyghur language based on the Latin script. Uyghur is written in an Arabic alphabet and sometimes in a Cyrillic alphabet; the ULY project was finalized at Xinjiang University, Ürümqi, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China in July 2001, at the fifth conference of a series held there for that purpose that started in November 2000. In January 2008, the ULY project was amended and identified by Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Regional Working Committee of Minorities' Language and Writing; the letters in the ULY are, in order: The creators of ULY emphasized that “the proposed alphabet should not replace nor should its introduction represent a new reform of the writing system. It is to be used in computer-related fields as an ancillary writing system”. ULY had a heavy public relations presence on both the Internet and official Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region media but despite official efforts to play down the sense of a massive reform, ULY has acquired that connotation and the public seems wary of it.
The importance of having one-to-one correspondence between Latin and Arabic is noteworthy. The different orthographies are compared in the following table. Below follows an example of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Uyghur: Uyghur Ereb Yëziqi Uyghur alphabets An Introduction to LSU
Shanshan County as the official romanized name transliterated from Uyghur as Piqan County, is a county within the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and is under the administrative jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city of Turpan. It contains an area of 39,548 km2. According to the 2002 census, it has a population of 210,000; the county seat is in Shanshan Town. The county is named after the ancient Shanshan Kingdom, although the kingdom was located outside of the borders of the modern county, in the Lop Nur area; the place was named Piqian, the Grand coordinator and provincial governor of Xinjiang proposed the name of Shanshan when Guangxu Emperor decided to set up a county in 1902. The local geology and the desert climate made it possible to discover a number of important fossil sites in the area, including China's largest cluster of fossilized dinosaur tracks and China's largest dinosaur. Important dinosaur sites are associated with the Lianmuqin Formation and the Subashi Formation (named after Subashi Village in Tuyugou Township.
The Shanshanosaurus is named after Shanshan. In 2008–2011, a team of German and Chinese paleontologists discovered and studied an "enormous" accumulation of Jurassic turtle fossils at a site they nicknamed "Mesa Chelonia" 25 km NNE of Shanshan Town, it is estimated that at least 1,800 skeletons of freshwater turtles, preliminary identified as belonging to the Annemys species were buried in this bone bed, in a stratigraphic layer belonging to the Qigu Formation. The researchers suggest that during a drought the turtles congregating at one of the few remaining water sources, died there once that last water hole dried out; the skeletons were transported to the present location by a debris flow during a catastrophic rainfall event, forming a Konzentrat-Lagerstätte. According to the paleontologist Walter Joyce, the Shanshan find has more than doubled the total number of Jurassic turtle specimens known to science; the excavated fossils have been transported to Shanshan Town, where they will be housed in the county museum.
On January 6, 2009, five well-preserved mummies of ethnic Han men who lived during the Qing dynasty were excavated at a construction site near the Flaming Mountains in the county. Shanshan is served by China National Highway 312, the Lanzhou-Xinjiang Railway and Shanshan Airport
Khorgas known as Korgas known as Khorgos and Gorgos Gongchen, is a Chinese city near the border with Kazakhstan. It is located in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region; the city on the Kazakh side of the border is known as Khorgas the first regular trains from the two countries crossed the border on December 22, 2012. The railway border crossing is expected to handle up to 15 million tons of freight per year the volume rising to 30 million tons per year in the long run, opening up the second Europe-China rail link via Kazakhstan.41-ton gantry cranes are used to move shipping containers between standard gauge Chinese trains and Russian gauge Kazakh trains. In June 2017, the Ürümqi Railway Bureau of the China Railway started daily passenger service from Ürümqi to Astana via Khorgas. Transport in Kazakhstan Railway stations in Kazakhstan Xinjiang's Land Ports and Border Trade see www.battle-of-qurman.com.cn for more information on the conquest of Khorgos and the whole of Xinjiang in 1755-1759
The Hui people are an East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of ethnically Sinitic adherents of the Muslim faith found throughout China in the northwestern provinces of the country and the Zhongyuan region. According to the 2011 census, China is home to 10.5 million Hui people, the majority of whom are Chinese-speaking practitioners of Islam, though some may practise other religions. The 110,000 Dungan people of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are considered part of the Hui ethnicity, their culture has distinct differences. For example, as Muslims, they follow Islamic dietary laws and reject the consumption of pork, the most common meat consumed in China and have given rise to their own variation of Chinese cuisine. Traditional Hui clothing differs from that of the Han in that some men wear white caps and some women wear headscarves, as is the case in many Islamic cultures. However, since the industrialization and modernization of China, most of the young Hui people wear the same clothes as mainstream fashion trends.
The Hui people are one of 56 ethnic groups recognized by China. The government defines the Hui people to include all Muslim communities not included in China's other ethnic groups; the Hui predominantly speak Chinese, while maintaining some Arabic phrases. In fact, the Hui ethnic group is unique among Chinese ethnic minorities in that it associates with no non-Sinitic language; the Hui people are more concentrated in Northwestern China, but communities exist across the country, e.g. Beijing, Xi'an, Inner Mongolia, Hebei and Yunnan. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the term "Hui" was applied by the Chinese government to one of China's ten Islamic minorities. Earlier, the term referred to Chinese-speaking groups with Muslim ancestry. Practising Islam was not a criterion. Use of the Hui category to describe foreign Muslims moving into China dates back to the Song dynasty. Pan-Turkic Uyghur activist, Masud Sabri, viewed the Hui people as Muslim Han Chinese and separate from his own people, noting that with the exception of religion, their customs and language were identical to those of the Han.
Hui people are of varied ancestry, many directly descending from Silk Road travellers and expatriates. Their ancestors include Central Asians, Middle Eastern ethnic groups such as the Arabs who intermarried with the local Han Chinese. West Eurasian DNA is prevalent—6.7% of Hui people's maternal genetics have a Central Asian and Middle Eastern origin. Several medieval Chinese dynasties the Tang and Mongol Yuan Dynasties, encouraged immigration from predominantly Muslim Central Asia, with both dynasties welcoming traders from these regions and appointing Central Asian officials. In subsequent centuries, the immigrants mixed with the Han Chinese forming the Hui. Nonetheless, included among Huis in Chinese census statistics are members of a few small non-Chinese speaking communities; these include several thousand Utsuls in southern Hainan Province, who speak an Austronesian language related to that of the Vietnamese Cham Muslim minority, said to descend from Chams who migrated to Hainan. A small Muslim minority among Yunnan's Bai people are classified as Hui as well, as are some groups of Tibetan Muslims.
The East Asian O3-M122 Y chromosome Haplogroup is found in large quantities in other Muslims close to the Hui like Dongxiang, Bo'an and Salar. The majority of Tibeto-Burmans, Han Chinese, Ningxia and Liaoning Hui share paternal Y chromosomes of East Asian origin which are unrelated to Middle Easterners and Europeans. In contrast to distant Middle Easterners and Europeans with whom the Muslims of China are not related, East Asians, Han Chinese, most of the Hui and Dongxiang of Linxia share more genes with each other; this indicates that native East Asian populations converted to Islam and were culturally assimilated and that the Chinese Muslim populations are not descendants of foreigners as claimed by some accounts while only a small minority of them are. Huihui was the usual generic term for China's Muslims during the Qing Dynasties, it is thought to have its origin in the earlier Huihe or Huihu, the name for the Uyghur State of the 8th and 9th centuries. Although the ancient Uyghurs were not Muslims the name Huihui came to refer to foreigners, regardless of language or origin, by the time of the Yuan. and Ming Dynasties.
During the Yuan Dynasty, large numbers of Muslims came from the west, since the Uyghur land was in the west, this led the Chinese to call foreigners of all religions, including Muslims, Nestorian Christians and Jews, as Huihui. Kublai Khan called both foreign Jews and Muslims in China Huihui when he forced them to stop halal and kosher methods of preparing food: "Among all the alien peoples only the Hui-hui say "we do not eat Mongol food". "By the aid of heaven we have pacified you. Yet you do not eat our drink. How can this be right?" He thereupon made. "If you slaughter sheep, you will be considered guilty of a crime." He issued a regulation to that effect... all the Muslims say: "if someone else slaughters we do not eat". Because the poor people are upset by this, from now on, Musuluman Huihui and Zhuhu Huihui, no matter who kills will eat and must cease s
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name. They are sometimes called "red-tasseled Manchus", a reference to the ornamentation on traditional Manchu hats; the Later Jin, Qing dynasty were established and ruled by Manchus, who are descended from the Jurchen people who earlier established the Jin dynasty in China. Manchus form the largest branch of the Tungusic peoples and are distributed throughout China, forming the fourth largest ethnic group in the country, they can be found in 31 Chinese provincial regions. They form the largest minority group in China without an autonomous region. Among them, Liaoning has the largest population and Hebei, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Beijing have over 100,000 Manchu residents. About half of the population live in one-fifth in Hebei. There are a number of Manchu autonomous counties in China, such as Xinbin, Qinglong, Yitong, Weichang, Benxi, Huanren, Fengcheng and over 300 Manchu towns and townships; the Jiu Manzhou Dang contains the earliest use of Manchu.
However, the actual etymology of the ethnic name "Manju" is debatable. According to the Qing dynasty's official historical record, the Researches on Manchu Origins, the ethnic name came from Mañjuśrī; the Qianlong Emperor supported the point of view and wrote several poems on the subject. Meng Sen, a famous scholar of the Qing dynasty, too. On the other hand, he thought the name "Manchu" was related to Li Manzhu, the chieftain of the Jianzhou Jurchens, it was just the most respectful appellation in the society of the Jianzhou Jurchens in Meng's mind. Another scholar, Chang Shan, thinks. "Man" was from the word "mangga". So Manju means "intrepid arrow". There are other hypotheses, such as Fu Sinian's "etymology of Jianzhou"; the Manchus are descended from the Jurchen people who earlier established the Jin dynasty in China, but as early as the semi-mythological chronicles of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors there is mention of the Sushen, a Tungusic people from the northern Manchurian region of northeast Asia, who paid bows and arrows as tribute to Emperor Shun and to the Zhou dynasty.
The Sushen used flint-headed wooden arrows, farmed and fished, lived in caves and trees. The cognates Sushen or Jichen again appear in the Shan Hai Jing and Book of Wei during the dynastic era referring to the Tungusic Mohe tribes of the far northeast; the Mohe practiced pig farming extensively and were sedentary, used both pig and dog skins for coats. They were predominantly farmers and grew soybeans, wheat and rice, in addition to hunting. In the 10th century AD, the term Jurchen first appeared in documents of the late Tang dynasty in reference to the state of Balhae in present-day northeastern China. Following the fall of Balhae, the Jurchens became vassals of the Khitan-led Liao dynasty; the Jurchens in the Yalu River region were tributaries of Goryeo since the reign of Wang Geon, who called upon them during the wars of the Later Three Kingdoms period, but the Jurchens switched allegiance between Liao and Goryeo multiple times, taking advantage of the tension between the two nations. In the year 1114, Wanyan Aguda established the Jin dynasty.
His brother and successor, Wanyan Wuqimai defeated the Liao dynasty. After the fall of the Liao dynasty, the Jurchens went to war with the Northern Song dynasty, captured most of northern China in the Jin–Song wars. During the Jin dynasty, the first Jurchen script came into use in the 1120s, it was derived from the Khitan script. The Jurchens were sedentary, settled farmers with advanced agriculture, they farmed grain and millet as their cereal crops, grew flax, raised oxen, pigs and horses. Their farming way of life was different from the pastoral nomadism of the Mongols and the Khitans on the steppes. In 1206, the Mongols, vassals to the Jurchens, rose in Mongolia, their leader, Genghis Khan, led Mongol troops against the Jurchens, who were defeated by Ögedei Khan in 1234. Under the Mongols' control, the Jurchens were divided into two groups and treated differently: the ones who were born and raised in North China and fluent in Chinese were considered to be Chinese, but the people who were born and raised in the Jurchen homeland without Chinese-speaking abilities were treated as Mongols politically.
From that time, the Jurchens of North China merged with the Han Chinese while those living in their homeland started to be Mongolized. They adopted Mongolian customs and the Mongolian language; as time went on, fewer and fewer Jurchens could recognize their own script. The Mongol-led Yuan dynasty was replaced by the Ming dynasty in 1368. In 1387, Ming forces defeated the Mongol commander Naghachu's resisting forces who settled in the Haixi area and began to summon the Jurchen tribes to pay tribute. At the time, some Jurchen clans were vassals to the Joseon dynasty of Korea such as Odoli and Huligai, their elites served in the Korean royal bodyguard. The Joseon Koreans tried to deal with the military threat posed by the Jurchen by using both forceful means and incentives, by launc