click links in text for more info

Wulfstan of Hedeby

Wulfstan of Hedeby was a late ninth century traveller and trader. His travel accounts, as well as those of another trader, Ohthere of Hålogaland, were included in Alfred the Great's translation of Orosius' Histories, it is unclear if Wulfstan was English or indeed if he was from Hedeby, in today's northern Germany near the city of Schleswig. According to this account, Wulfstan undertook a journey by sea from Hedeby to the Prussian trading centre of Truso around the year 880, he names the lands the coasts. Wulfstan said that he went from Haethum to Truso in seven days and nights, that the ship was running under sail all the way. Weonodland was on his right, Langland, Laeland and Sconey, on his left, all which land is subject to Denmark. On our left we had the land of the Burgundians, who have a king to themselves. After the land of the Burgundians, we had on our left the lands that have been called from the earliest times Blekingey, Meore, Eowland, Gotland, all which territory is subject to the Sweons.

This may be the earliest recorded use of the word "Denmark". The text of Wulfstan is one of the earliest attestments of unique traditions and customs of Western Balts - Prussians, called Estum, their land called Witland in his text; the purpose of this travel remains unclear, one of the hypothesis is that King Alfred was interested in having allies against vikings and therefore looked at Prussians - Aestii as a potential ally. The Project Gutenberg Etext of Discovery of Muscovy - The complete texts translated to modern English Historia de los Gotlandeses - The beginning of the original text in Anglo-Saxon can be found in footnote 1 Orosius, King of England, translator Bosworth, J. and editor Hampson, R. T.. King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon version of the Compendious history of the world by Orosius. Containing,--facsimile specimens of the Lauderdale and Cotton mss. A preface describing these mss. etc. an introduction--on Orosius and his work. Available at:

The catalog of Paulus Orosius History of the World - 1859 edition. Available at: Jesch, J.. Who was Wulfstan?. Available at: Englert, A. and Trakadas, A.. Wulfstan's Voyage: The Baltic Sea Region in the early Viking Age as seen from shipboard. Roskilde: The Viking Ship Museum. ISBN 978-8785180568 Kemp Malone, On King Alfred's Geographical Treatise, Vol. 8, No. 1. Pp. 67-78 Samuel H. Cross, Notes on King Alfred's North: Osti, Speculum, Vol. 6, No. 2. Pp. 296-299

Levasseur PL.3

The Levasseur PL.3 AM3 was a carrier-based reconnaissance aircraft produced in France in the 1920s tofulfil a specification for a three-seat carrier-borne reconnaissance aircraft. The PL.3 AM3, a biplane of all-wood construction did not enter production and only the prototypr was built. Data from Aviafrance: Levasseur PL.3 AM3General characteristics Crew: 3 Length: 9.40 m Wingspan: 14.50 m Height: 3.80 m Wing area: 59 m2 Empty weight: 1,435 kg Gross weight: 2,200 kg Powerplant: 1 × Lorraine-Dietrich 12Db V-12 water-cooled piston engine, 300 kW Propellers: 2-bladed fixed pitchpropellerPerformance Maximum speed: 180 km/h Range: 600 km Endurance: 5 hours Service ceiling: 5,300 m Related lists List of Interwar military aircraft

Contemporary Tibetan art

Contemporary Tibetan art refers to the art of modern Tibet, or Tibet after 1950. It can refer to art by the Tibetan diaspora, explicitly political and religious in nature. Contemporary Tibetan art includes modern thangka that resemble ancient thangka, as well as radical, avant-garde, works. In the northeast of the Netherlands, an Museum of Contemporary Tibetan Art has been established in 2017. For more than a thousand years, Tibetan artists have played a key role in the cultural life of Tibet. From designs for painted furniture to elaborate murals in religious buildings, their efforts have permeated every facet of life on the Tibetan plateau; the vast majority of surviving artworks created before the mid-20th century are dedicated to the depiction of religious subjects, for the most part being distemper on cloth or murals. They were commissioned by religious establishments or by pious individuals for use within the practice of Tibetan Buddhism and were manufactured in large workshops by uncredited artists.

These works not only document spiritual concepts but demonstrate the vitality of Tibetan aesthetics over the centuries in terms of the cross-fertilisation of stylistic influences from other Chinese and Indian styles. Historical Tibetan art followed a formal system of art making, used to spread Tibetan religious culture. However, in 1950, the People's Republic of China gained sovereignty over Tibet while still granting autonomy to the area; this changed the social reality of life in Tibet, modern Tibetan artists use their work as a mode of self-expression and exploration of their new, complex national identity. Contemporary Tibetan artwork conflicts with traditional artwork commissioned for religious purposes, identity was tied to place, family lines, Tibetan language, Tibetan Buddhism, with art serving as the transmission of the religion. However, Tibetan art after 1950 raises questions of how globalization effects national and cultural identity, the conflict between tradition and modernity, the influence of religion in a more secular age.

Gonkar Gyatso is a Tibetan-born British artist, born in 1961 during the Cultural Revolution. He studied thankga in India before returning to Tibet in 1985, when he established the Sweet Tea House Contemporary Gallery, the first avant-garde artists association in Tibet. Gyatso's work incorporates stickers on paper using the technique of the Tibetan thankga, he applies kitsch stickers to penciled images of the Buddha, adds commentary in speech bubbles. These colorful children's stickers take the form of characters from American movies and media, such as The Simpsons and Spiderman, creating a cheap, consumerist appearance that contrasts with the meticulous and deliberate nature of their application; these images draw the viewer's attention to the conflict between the meditative and spiritual aspects of Buddhism and worldly materialism. Gyatso draws on his training in traditional art techniques to create work that explores Western consumer interests, the relationship between capitalism and culture, as well as the conflict between tradition and modernity and materialism, religion and secularism.

Work of Gyatso is being exhibited at the Museum of Contemporary Tibetan Art in the Netherlands. Mechak Center for Contemporary Tibetan Art Peak Art Gallery, A Contemporary Tibetan Art Gallery Sweet Tea House Art Gallery

Bee Thousand

Bee Thousand is the seventh album by American indie rock band Guided by Voices, released on June 21, 1994 on Scat Records. After its release the band became one of the more prominent groups associated with the "lo-fi" genre, a movement defined by the low fidelity of audio releases. Musically, the album draws inspiration from British Invasion-era rock punk rock. Following the release of Bee Thousand, the band began to attract interest from other record labels signing with Matador for their next album. Guided by Voices is a Dayton, Ohio-based band formed in 1983. Although by 1992 the band had released five full-length albums, Guided by Voices was not a band in a conventional sense. Robert Pollard thought of Guided by Voices as more of a "songwriter's guild" than a band, said that "Whoever could come over would play, it was just a bunch of friends who could get together so it didn't feel like a band."Bee Thousand was to be the original band's final album. Pollard was close to disbanding Guided by Voices by 1993, due to financial constraints and pressure to focus more on his family and teaching career.

Pollard was struggling with writing for a follow-up record to Vampire on Titus and Propeller, the band's two most noticed records yet. However, it occurred to him to "deconstruct" and "reconstruct" the band's older, unused material into new songs. Unlike some of the band's earlier releases, Bee Thousand was not recorded in a studio, but rather on four track machines or other primitive home recording devices in the garages and basements of various band members. Moreover, many of the demo takes of the songs were the ones. Due in part to both of these factors, several unusual errors are present in the album's recording and mixing; the band's choice to use inexpensive recording devices was a matter of economics, but the band grew to prefer the sound. Pollard said that:... For our first, Forever Since Breakfast, we went into a studio and created a mediocre recording out of a sterile environment. I thought, "Fuck that. If we're paying for it and no one's listening to these records anyway, if we're only making them for ourselves I'm going to put what I want on them."

Kevin Fennell said, "When Bee Thousand came out we sounded much less professional than we did in 1982. The music was much more spontaneous." Pollard said that, at the time, the band's recording style was intended to sound like Beatles bootlegs. Furthermore, songs were completed in a minimum number of takes with no rehearsal beforehand. In all, recording for the album was brief, taking only three days, with Pollard estimating that each song took half an hour; the music of Bee Thousand is influenced by British Invasion rock music, as well as what Pollard calls the "four P's" of rock: pop, punk rock, progressive rock, psychedelia. Only a few new songs were written for the album, among them "I Am a Scientist" and "Gold Star for Robot Boy", with the rest of the album being overdubbed, rerecorded, or edited versions of the band's older, unused material. While typical rock instruments, such as guitar and drums, are dominant, a variety of instruments and sounds are used. Recorders are used in "The Goldheart Mountaintop Queen Directory", a piano is used in the closing track "You're Not an Airplane".

Pollard's surreal lyrical style has been compared to the cut-up technique of Beat writer William S. Burroughs. Many of the album's lyrics reflect childish or fantastical themes and were influenced by the statements and actions of Pollard's fourth grade class, exemplified by "Gold Star for Robot Boy". Pollard was inspired to write "The Goldheart Mountaintop Queen Directory" after having an LSD-triggered psychedelic experience in which he perceived his own face in a mirror changing into his son's face. According to Pollard, "I Am a Scientist" is "the first song that showed some maturity in my ability as a songwriter." "Tractor Rape Chain"'s lyrics. Those three songs are "Still Worth Nothing", "Tractor Rape Chain", "Tell Me"; the title Bee Thousand was inspired by a group brainstorming session, during which band members smoked cannabis. Pollard's brother, thought of "zoo thousand" inspired by a mile marker reading "Z1000." This phrase coalesced with a misspelling of a movie title at a drive-in theater, with "Beethoven" spelled as "Beethouen", which Pollard liked because the misspelling sounded like the name of The Who guitarist Pete Townshend.

Other considered titles included All That Glue and Instructions for the Rusty Time Machine, both of which were used in the lyrics of other Guided by Voices songs. The caped person on the front of the album is from an image in an article by National Geographic. In July 2014, Guitar World ranked Bee Thousand at number 6 in their "Superunknown: 50 Iconic Albums That Defined 1994" list. All tracks were written except where noted. Side one "Demons Are Real" – 0:49 "Deathtrot and Warlock Riding a Rooster" – 1:12 "Postal Blowfish" – 2:09 "The Goldheart Mountaintop Queen Directory" –

Clock Tower (1996 video game)

Clock Tower, known in Japan as Clock Tower 2, is a survival horror point-and-click adventure game developed by Human Entertainment and released for the PlayStation in 1996. It is the second game in the Clock Tower series after the original Clock Tower, released in Japan for the Super Famicom one year prior; the story takes place in Norway and follows a variety of characters as they attempt to survive the return of Scissorman and uncover the mystery of his immortal state. The scenarios encountered and endings vary based upon the player's actions. Director Hifumi Kono was not interested in developing a sequel to the original Clock Tower at first, but was swayed after seeing the technical possibilities of the next-generation consoles. Kono had difficulty in choosing the platform to develop on, but settled for the PlayStation despite its uncertain future. Clock Tower was one of the first games developed by Human Entertainment to utilize a 3D graphics engine; the team felt challenged to create high-quality graphics after being impressed by the visuals of Resident Evil, announced during development.

Clock Tower was commercially successful. Kono attributed some of this success to Resident Evil generating interest in horror games and the success of the PlayStation. Critical reviews of Clock Tower were mixed; the game's horror atmosphere and storyline were praised, although most other aspects were found to be mediocre. Most of the negative critique was directed towards the game's slow pace, compared unfavorably to other PlayStation games of the era the more action-oriented and fast-paced Resident Evil; these factors influenced some critics to recommend Clock Tower purely for point-and-click adventure fans. Clock Tower is a point-and-click adventure game with 3D graphics; the player may use a PlayStation mouse to move the cursor on the screen. The cursor changes shape when placed over certain objects, which the player can click to interact with. Clicking on any location guides the player character in that direction. Moving the cursor to the top of the screen reveals the player's inventory. Clicking on an item and clicking on an object on the screen uses the item on that object or in that location.

Some items such as keys are used automatically. The player character has three levels of strength; the strength level is indicated by the cursor which will either be flashing yellow, or red. Strength will decrease after extreme actions or being attacked by the game's enemy and recovers with time; when the character's life is being threatened, the cursor will blink red. If the character is being chased, click points are only effective on objects that will make Scissorman retreat. In escape mode, actions do not lower recovery is suspended; this mode stays active. If the player's strength reaches zero it is game over and the player must continue from the last room they entered with one level of strength; the game features four scenarios including the prologue. The actions during the prologue determine who will be the central character in the story, either Jennifer Simpson or Helen Maxwell; the scenarios and player characters that follow are determined by the player's actions. There are five different endings per heroine depending on.

After each scenario is a save screen and an intermission mode that allows the player to explore without the threat of Scissorman. During the intermission, the player can have conversations with various characters; the next scenario begins. After the events of the original Clock Tower, central protagonist Jennifer Simpson was adopted by Helen Maxwell, an assistant professor of criminal psychology in Oslo, Norway, she begins undergoing treatment at a university research building in order to learn more about the Scissorman murder case at Barrows Mansion and help her cope with her trauma. Over a year has passed, now a series of brutal murders have made headline news, it appears. Having heard the details of Jennifer's original encounters with the Scissorman, Helen begins searching for information that could put an end to the immortal killer; the scenarios that follow, including the player characters and settings, are vastly different depending on player actions throughout the game. The first chapter places the player in control of either Jennifer or Helen, escaping from Scissorman within the university research building.

The second chapter will have the player retrieve a clue to the murder investigation. The scenario in which the idol is retrieved can change depending on choices made by the player earlier. Helen may search for it within the city library, or reporter Nolan Campbell or detective Stan Gotts will search for it in the home of a Barrows family butler; the final chapter occurs at Barrows Castle, putting the player in control of the same character they controlled in chapter one. Jennifer or Helen must use the Demon Idol to open a vortex in the castle basement and destroy Scissorman. Depending on the narrative followed and choices made along the way, 10 different endings can be seen. Clock Tower was developed by a team of about 30 people and was the first game at Human Entertainment to utilize a 3D graphics engine, although team veterans preferred to have used 2D graphics instead. At first, director Hifumi Kono was not interested in working on a sequel to the first Clock Tower, but after seeing the technical possibilities with newly-released hardware of the time, he agreed.

For Kono, one of the most difficult parts of developing Clock Tower was choosing the platform

Chevron Cars

This article is about the Chevron promotional animation, for the manufacturer of racing cars see Chevron Cars Ltd. The Chevron Cars are part of an advertising campaign of the Chevron Corporation consisting of television spots, print ads and toy cars available at Chevron retail locations, their debut in television commercials on May 1, 1995 featured talking cars done in clay animation, with a variety of car colors each with different personalities. The commercials themselves, done in a similar fashion to Creature Comforts, were crafted by Aardman Animations and used to promote Chevron with Techron. A year Chevron gas stations began selling the toy cars featured in the commercials. Chevron underestimated demand in 1997 and increased production to 700,000 on each of 4 or 5 new models at the time, compared to 500,000 in the previous year. Although designed for children, Chevron executives were surprised that adults started collecting the toy plastic cars as well. Older adults are among the most enthusiastic collectors of the Chevron Cars.

On October 2, 2001, Chevron issued the limited edition Hope car to raise awareness about the fight for a cure for breast cancer and raised about $300,000 in donations. This has been followed by a new breast cancer awareness each October through 2007 with profits going to relevant charities. In 2007, Chevron began limited production of cars in association with major commercial sports and university teams based on their Victor E. Van car. On July 26, 2011, Chevron announced that due to decreasing consumer demand, the production of the Chevron Cars would be discontinued; this brought to an end a period of fifteen years in which they were sold. The television ads were designed by Rubicam; the internet strategy, digital brand extension and the ecommerce component was created and managed by San Francisco web developer ISL Consulting, now part of ClearMetrics, Inc. ISL Consulting developed the original corporate website as well as numerous other web-based initiatives for the various Chevron operating companies.

The Chevron Cars television ads have been parodied in several television shows, including Robot Chicken, the animated comedy Family Guy, a MADtv sketch in which one of the cars gets fitted with a bomb and explodes after asking questions about the ticking. The Chevron Cars The Chevron Cars Blog Chevron Cars as Branding Identity of Techron Gas