The Age is a daily newspaper that has been published in Melbourne, since 1854. It is delivered in both hardcopy and online formats, the newspaper shares many articles with other Fairfax Media metropolitan daily newspapers, such as The Sydney Morning Herald. As at February 2017, The Age had a weekday circulation of 88,000. The Sunday Age had a circulation of 123,000 and these represented year-on-year declines of 8% to 9%. The Ages website, according to third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb, is the 44th and 58th most visited website in Australia respectively, SimilarWeb rates the site as the seventh most visited news website in Australia, attracting more than 7 million visitors per month. The newspaper went compact in March 2013, with the Saturday and Sunday editions retaining the broadsheet format, on 22/23 February 2014, the final weekend edition were produced in broadsheet format with these too converted to compact format on 1/2 March 2014. The Ages parent company Chief executive officer, Greg Hywood, has foreshadowed the end of the print edition of the newspaper, with some analysts saying this will occur during 2017.
The Age was founded by three Melbourne businessmen, the brothers John and Henry Cooke, who had arrived from New Zealand in the 1840s, the first edition appeared on 17 October 1854. The first edition under the new owners was on 17 June 1856, Ebenezer Syme was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly shortly after buying The Age, and his brother David Syme soon came to dominate the paper and managerially. When Ebenezer died in 1860, David became editor-in-chief, a position he retained until his death in 1908, in 1891, Syme bought out Ebenezers heirs and McEwans and became sole proprietor. He built up The Age into Victorias leading newspaper, in circulation, it soon overtook its rivals The Herald and The Argus, and by 1890 it was selling 100,000 copies a day, making it one of the worlds most successful newspapers. Under Symes control The Age exercised enormous political power in Victoria, Syme was originally a free trader, but converted to protectionism through his belief that Victoria needed to develop its manufacturing industries behind tariff barriers.
In the 1890s, The Age was a supporter of Australian federation. After Symes death the paper remained in the hands of his three sons, with his eldest son Herbert Syme becoming general manager until his death in 1939, by the 1940s, the papers circulation was smaller than it had been in 1900, and its political influence declined. Although it remained more liberal than the extremely conservative Argus, it lost much of its political identity. The historian Sybil Nolan writes, Accounts of The Age in these years generally suggest that the paper was second-rate, walker described a newspaper which had fallen asleep in the embrace of the Liberal Party, querulous and turgid are some of the epithets applied by other journalists. In 1942, David Symes last surviving son, Oswald Syme and he modernised the papers appearance and standards of news coverage. A takeover attempt by the Warwick Fairfax family, publishers of The Sydney Morning Herald, was beaten off and this new lease on life allowed The Age to recover commercially, and in 1957 it received a great boost when The Argus ceased publication
A message stick is a form of communication traditionally used by Indigenous Australians. It is usually a piece of wood, around 20–30cm in length, etched with angular lines. Traditionally, message sticks were passed between different clans and language groups to establish information and transmit messages and they were often used to invite neighbouring groups to corroborees, set-fights and ball games. Finally, the stick having passed from one to the other of the old men present is handed to the messenger, if any duration of time is connected with the message, or if an enumeration of stages or camps is made, a method is used. They are often commonly called letters by Aboriginal people and they were transmitted by mailmen, who could travel hundreds of kilometres to deliver them. Donald Thomson, recounting his journey to Arnhem Land after the Caledon Bay Crisis, writes of Wonggu sending a message stick to his sons, at time in prison. In etched angles, it showed people sitting together, with Wonggu at the centre.
There was some other news marked on it, the student newspaper of the University of New South Wales goes by the name Tharunka, which means message stick in a Central Australian dialect. Devils Pool, Australia Koori Mail National Indigenous Times Australias largest circulating Indigenous affairs newspaper Message Stick TV Message Stick Internet
Sunbury earth rings
The Sunbury earth rings are prehistoric aboriginal sites located on hills to the west of Jacksons Creek near Sunbury, Australia. Sometimes referred to as Bora rings, they were formed by scraping off grass and topsoil and they measure between 10 and 25m diameter. Three of the rings are in proximity and two others several kilometres away. All are on gently sloping sites and they are somewhat different from the Bora rings found in New South Wales and southeast Queensland, which tend to be located in hidden, flat sites, and in connected pairs. The rings have been interpreted as Aboriginal ceremonial sites, although there are no historical or ethnographic accounts of them being used as such. However, Elder Auntie Annette Xibberas acknowledged that the people of Melbourne. lost a lot of our knowledge with European colonisation. Some of the rings have been put under the management of the Wurundjeri Tribe Land and Compensation Cultural Heritage Council, there are ongoing pressures on the sites from development.
A past proposal even considered incorporating one of the rings in the middle of a traffic round-about, the Canterbury Hills housing estate has submitted plans for residential development around the Riddells Road ring
Healesville is a town in Victoria, Australia,52 km north-east from Melbournes central business district. Its local government area is the Shire of Yarra Ranges, at the 2011 Census, Healesville had a population of 6,839. Healesville is situated on the Watts River, a tributary of the Yarra River, the creation of a railway to the more distant Gippsland and Yarra Valley goldfields in the 1860s resulted in a settlement forming on the Watts River and its survey as a town in 1864. It was named after Richard Heales, the Premier of Victoria from 1860–1861, the post office opened on 1 May 1865. The town became a setting off point for the Woods Point Goldfield with the construction of the Yarra Track in the 1870s. Healesville is well known for the Healesville Sanctuary, a park with hundreds of native Australian animals displayed in a semi-open natural setting. The Yarra Valley Railway operates from Healesville Station on every Sunday, most public holidays, much of what is now Healesville lies on the ancestral land of the Wurundjeri people.
The Coranderrk mission station, set up in 1863, is located just south of the main township, industries in and around Healesville include sawmilling, tourism and, more recently, viticulture. The Salvation Army has been part of the community since the late 19th century, Healesville has an active CFA volunteer fire brigade established in 1894 which has been active in the community and still is to this day. The Healesville Rural Fire Brigade was formed in 1941 and disbanded, the amalgamation of the Chum Creek Rural Fire Brigade with the Healesville brigade occurred in 1996. The Healesville Fire Brigade now operates a main and a station with members from both the Healesville and Chum Creek areas. The town has an Australian Rules football team, The Bloods, Healesville has a tennis club, the Healesville Tennis Club, which competes in the Eastern Region Tennis junior and senior competitions. Healesville has a horse racing club, Healesville Amateur Racing. The Healesville Greyhound Racing Club holds regular meetings, golfers play at the course of the RACV Country Club on Yarra Glen Road.
Healesville has a football team known as Healesville Soccer Club that plays in the Football Federation Victoria league. Noted Aboriginal artist and Wurundjeri elder William Barak spent much of his life at Coranderrk Station, Wurundjeri elder Joy Murphy Wandin lives in Healesville. Kelvin Moore, Australian rules footballer for the Richmond Football Club, gordon Collis Australian Rules Football player for Carlton Football Club, Brownlow Medal 1964 James Wandin, Wurundjeri ngurungaeta and Australian Rules footballer with St Kilda Football Club. David Wirrpanda, Australian Rules Football player for the West Coast, from the late 1890s elaborate country retreat residences were built alongside hotels and guest houses
Coranderrk was a government reserve for Australian Aborigines in the state of Victoria between 1863 and 1924, located 50km north-east of Melbourne. The reserve was closed in 1924, with most residents removed to Lake Tyers Mission. In March 1863, after 3 years of upheaval, the leaders, among them Simon Wonga and William Barak, led 40 Wurundjeri, Taungurong. They squatted on a camping site on Badger Creek near Healesville. They were anxious to have the officially approved so that they could move down. An area of 9.6 km² was gazetted on 30 June 1863 and called Coranderrk and this was the name they used for the Christmas Bush, a white flowering summer plant which is indigenous to the area. In mid-1864, there were around 70 Aboriginal people living at Coranderrk, Coranderrk Station ran successfully for many years as an Aboriginal enterprise, selling wheat and crafts on the burgeoning Melbourne market. Produce from the farm won first prize at the Melbourne International Exhibition in 1881, by 1874, the Aboriginal Protection Board was looking for ways to undermine Coranderrk by moving people away due to their successful farming practices.
Neighbouring farmers wanted the mission closed as the land was now deemed too valuable for Aboriginal people to occupy, photographer Fred Kruger was commissioned to document the site and its inhabitants. In the 1870s and 80s, Coranderrk residents sent deputations to the Victorian colonial government protesting their lack of rights, why does the Board seek in these latter days more stronger authority over us Aborigines than it has yet been. The Coranderrk Petition has survived and is on display at the Melbourne Museum in Carlton, as a result of the Aborigines Protection Act of 1886, around 60 residents were ejected from Coranderrk on the eve of the 1890s Depression. Their forced departure crippled Coranderrk as an enterprise, with only around 15 able-bodied men left to work the hitherto successful hop gardens, the reserve was formally closed in 1924, with most residents moved to Lake Tyers Mission in Gippsland in eastern Victoria. Five older people refused to move and continued living at Coranderrk until they died, the last known Aboriginal woman to live at Coranderrk was Elizabeth Davis, who died in 1956, aged 104.
She was denied permission to be buried at Coranderrk alongside her husband, the last Indigenous child to be born at Coranderrk Station was James Wandin in 1933, in the home of his grandmother, Jemima Wandin. After the death of the last remaining Indigenous residents in 1950s, in 1920, Sir Colin MacKenzie, a leading medical researcher, leased 78 acres from the Aboriginal Protection Board to begin his work in comparative anatomy with Australian fauna. This was the catalyst for the creation of the Healesville Sanctuary, a zoo for Australian native animals. Many Aboriginal families continue to live in the Upper Yarra and Healesville area, in March 1998, part of the Coranderrk Aboriginal Station was returned to the Wurundjeri Tribe Land Compensation and Cultural Heritage Council when the Indigenous Land Corporation purchased 0.81 km². Coranderrk was added to the Australian National Heritage List on 7 June 2011, James Wandin William Barak Simon Wonga Wurundjeri
Riji are the pearl shells traditionally worn by Aboriginal men in the north-west part of Australia, around present day Broome. The word Riji is from the Bardi language, another word for it is jakuli. Rijis were worn as pubic coverings, like a loin cloth, only men initiated to the highest degree could traditionally wear them. They were often incised with sacred patterns, which could be tribal insignia, or have other meanings, Riji are associated with water, spiritual powers and healing due to the luminous shimmering quality of their surfaces. One of the patterns used in the Kimberley region of Western Australia is a pattern of interlocking designs. The incised designs are highlighted with a mixture of ochre and Spinifex resin and plain pearl shells are used for rain-making and magical purposes or for trade. Riji were objects of value and were traded with inland Aborigines along ancient trade routes over vast areas of the continent. They have been found at Yuendumu in the desert, south-eastern Arnhem Land, often plain pearl shells were decorated further along trade routes, far from their place of origin.
Aboriginal artists Aubrey Tigan and Butcher Joe Nangan created riji out of mother-of-pearl buttons, artists still make Riji today in the Broome area. Some use the older, sacred patterns, while others choose to use more modern designs
Australian Aboriginal sacred sites
Sites sacred to Aboriginal people are part of Australias cultural heritage, connecting the land with the cultural values, spiritual beliefs and kin-based relationships of the local people. The Aboriginal population of Australia is made up of tribes and nations, each with their own sacred places, animal totems. Sacred sites are places within the landscape that have a special significance under Aboriginal tradition, rocks, trees and other natural features may be sacred sites. In coastal and sea areas, sacred sites may include features which lie both above and below water, sometimes sacred sites are obvious, such as ochre deposits, rock art galleries, or spectacular natural features. In other instances sacred sites may be unremarkable to an outside observer and they can range in size from a single stone or plant, to an entire mountain range. The Dreaming is a used to refer collectively to Aboriginal religious beliefs. These beliefs endeavour to explain the questions of human reality, including the origins of humans.
The Dreaming is a phenomenon, incorporating the past, the present. Aboriginal people believe that the Spirits who initially inhabited the land were their ancestors, particular tribes have their own totem which is an animal often native to their tribes territory. Their traditional way of life is based on their relationship with the land and they believe it is their duty to look after the land and take only what is needed. The beliefs of the Dreaming are diverse and various and they depend on an individuals tribe, gender and totem. The traditional custodians of the sites in an area are the tribal elders. Sacred sites give meaning to the natural landscape and they anchor values and kin-based relationships in the land. Custodians of sacred sites are concerned for the safety of all people, and the protection of sacred sites is integral to ensuring the well-being of the country and these sites are or were used for many sacred traditions and customs. Sites used for activities, such as initiation ceremonies, may be forbidden to women, sites used for female activities, such as giving birth.
Before 1965 there was no legislation protecting Aboriginal sites in Australia, in 1965, the South Australian Government was the first to introduce legislation, and all other States have since done so. Damage to these sites can result in civil penalties, willandra Lakes Region was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1981 and included in the National Heritage List on 21 May 2007. Murujuga, in the Pilbara Western Australia, uluru – Kata Tjuta National Park is directly and tangibly associated with events, living traditions and beliefs of outstanding universal significance
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to European colonisation. In present-day Australia these groups are divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken, it is estimated that 120 to 145 of these remain in use. Aboriginal people today mostly speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English, a population collapse following European settlement, and a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans may have caused a massive and early depopulation. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the flags of Australia. The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century, to mean, first or earliest known and it comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from ab and origo.
The word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789 and it soon became capitalised and employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. Strictly speaking, Aborigine is the noun and Aboriginal the adjectival form, use of either Aborigine or Aboriginal to refer to individuals has acquired negative connotations in some sectors of the community, and it is generally regarded as insensitive and even offensive. The more acceptable and correct expression is Aboriginal Australians or Aboriginal people, the term Indigenous Australians, which includes Torres Strait Islander peoples, has found increasing acceptance, particularly since the 1980s. The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many groups that often identify under names from local Indigenous languages. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land, Palawah in Tasmania and these larger groups may be further subdivided, for example, Anangu recognises localised subdivisions such as Pitjantjatjara, Ngaanyatjarra and Antikirinya.
It is estimated that prior to the arrival of British settlers, the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, they are not generally included under the designation Aboriginal Australians. This has been another factor in the promotion of the inclusive term Indigenous Australians. Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves fully as Torres Strait Islanders, a further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage. The Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879, eddie Mabo was from Mer or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term blacks has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement, while originally related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal heritage or culture in general and refers to people of any skin pigmentation.
In the 1970s, many Aboriginal activists, such as Gary Foley, proudly embraced the term black, the book included interviews with several members of the Aboriginal community including Robert Jabanungga reflecting on contemporary Aboriginal culture
The Merri Creek is a waterway in southern parts of Victoria, which flows through the northern suburbs of Melbourne. It begins near Wallan north of Melbourne and flows south for 70 km until it joins the Yarra River at Dights Falls. The creek was the site of industrial use throughout much of the 20th century, being home to quarries, landfills. This has degraded the riparian ecology of the leaving behind pollutants such as heavy metals. Recent decades have seen some regenerative planting and the foundation of community groups dedicated to protecting and regenerating the creeks ecology. The creek borrows its name from the Wurundjeri-willam phrase Merri Merri meaning very rocky, over 400 million years ago the sea covering the area receded. It left behind a layer of marine siltstone and sandstone rocks. Around 66 million years ago non-marine sediments left a sandy layer behind, over time the ancestral valley of the Merri Creek developed, eroding through these sediments. The modern day Merri Creek was formed many years, by incising through the lava surface.
Its tributaries include, Wallan Creek, Mittagong Creek, Taylors Creek, Malcolm Creek, Aitken Creek, Curly Sedge Creek, Merlynston Creek and Edgars Creek. One of the sites of geological interest along the Merri valley is the rocky cliff face on the eastern side of Merri Creek visible from the shared path in Clifton Hill. Its tall, cracked basalt columns, formed by cooling lava, are clearly visible, some of the vertical fractures at the top of the cliff appear to be leaning, forming a striking radial pattern. Merri Creek is abundant in plants for those trained to identify them. Edible species include dandelion, fennel, jerusalem artichoke, numerous brassicas, blackberry nightshade, catsear, sowthistle and many others. Great care in identification should be taken when harvesting fennel and other member of the Apiaceae family, the large number of pre and post-contact archaeological sites demonstrate a heavy usage of the area by Indigenous Australians. The creek and surrounding valley was the site of large gatherings of Aboriginal people and is suspected to be the site of one of the earliest land treaties between Aboriginals and Europeans.
Many archaeological sites contain scattered stone artefacts from old campsites. The artefact scatters are found because erosion of some sort has exposed the implements which were covered with sediment, the scarred trees are often on the creek bank, fence line or road reserve where they escaped the clearance process
It is distinct from the indigenous ball game Woggabaliri which is believed to be the subject of William Blandowskis engraving never let the ball hit the ground. Generally speaking, observers commented that Marn Grook was a game which featured punt kicking and catching a stuffed ball. It involved large numbers of players, and games were played over a large area. Totemic teams may have formed, however, to observers the game appeared to lack a team objective, having no real rules. Individual players who consistently exhibited outstanding skills, such as leaping high over others to catch the ball, were often commented on. Anecdotal evidence supports such games being played primarily by the Djabwurrung and Jardwadjali people and other tribes in the Wimmera and Millewa regions of western Victoria. However, according to accounts, the range extended to the Wurundjeri in the Yarra Valley, the Gunai people of Gippsland. The Walpiri tribe of Central Australia played a very similar kicking and catching game with possum skins known as pultja, the earliest accounts emerged decades after the European settlement of Australia, mostly from the colonial Victorian explorers and settlers.
The earliest anecdotal account was in 1841, a prior to the Victorian gold rush. The men and boys joyfully assemble when this game is to be played, the person who secures the ball kicks it. This continues for hours and the natives never seem to tire of the exercise. The game was a favourite of the Wurundjeri-william clan and the two teams were based on the traditional totemic moeties of Bunjil and Waang. The Australian Sports Commission considers this sketch to be depicting the game of Woggabaliri, the image is inscribed, A group of children is playing with a ball. The ball is out of typha roots. It is not thrown or hit with a bat, but is kicked up in the air with a foot, the aim of the game – never let the ball touch the ground. Historian Greg de Moore comments, What I can say for certain is that its the first image of any kind of football thats been discovered in Australia and it pre-dates the first European images of any kind of football, by almost ten years in Australia. Acclaim and recognition went to the players who could leap or kick the highest, howitt wrote, This game of ball-playing was practised among the Kurnai, the Wolgal, the Wotjoballuk as well as by the Woiworung, and was probably known to most tribes of south-eastern Australia.
The Kurnai made the ball from the scrotum of an old man kangaroo and it was called by them mangurt. In this tribe the two divisions and Waa, played on opposite sides