Shanxi is a province of China, located in the North China region. Its one-character abbreviation is 晋, after the state of Jin that existed here during the Spring, the name Shanxi means West of the Mountains, a reference to the provinces location west of the Taihang Mountains. Shanxi borders Hebei to the east, Henan to the south, Shaanxi to the west, the capital of the province is Taiyuan. In the Spring and Autumn period, the state of Jin was located in what is now Shanxi and it underwent a three-way split into the states of Han and Wei in 403 BC, the traditional date taken as the start of the Warring States period. By 221 BC, all of states had fallen to the state of Qin. The Han Dynasty ruled Shanxi as the province of Bingzhou, during the invasion of northern nomads in the Sixteen Kingdoms period, several regimes including the Later Zhao, Former Yan, Former Qin, and Later Yan continuously controlled Shanxi. They were followed by Northern Wei, a Xianbei kingdom, which had one of its earlier capitals at present-day Datong in northern Shanxi, the Tang Dynasty originated in Taiyuan.
During the Tang Dynasty and after, present day Shanxi was called Hédōng, empress Wu Zetian, Chinas only female ruler, was born in Shanxi. Shanxi was initially home to the jiedushi of Hedong, Li Cunxu, shi Jingtang, founder of the Later Jin, the third of the Five Dynasties, ceded a piece of northern China to the Khitans in return for military assistance. This territory, called The Sixteen Prefectures of Yanyun, included a part of northern Shanxi, the ceded territory became a major problem for Chinas defense against the Khitans for the next 100 years, because it lay south of the Great Wall. He founded his dynasty by launching a coup against the Turkic Later Han Emperor. In the early years of the Northern Song Dynasty, the sixteen ceded prefectures continued to be an area of contention between Song China and the Liao Dynasty. Later the Southern Song Dynasty abandoned all of North China, including Shanxi, the Mongol Yuan Dynasty divided China into provinces but did not establish Shanxi as a province.
Shanxi only gained its present name and approximate borders during the Ming Dynasty which were of the same landarea, with the collapse of the Qing dynasty, Shanxi became part of the newly established Republic of China. During most of the Republic of Chinas period of rule over mainland China, Yan Xishan devoted himself to modernizing Shanxi and developing its resources during his reign over the province. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Japan occupied much of the province after winning the Battle of Taiyuan, Shanxi was a major battlefield between the Japanese and the Chinese communist guerrillas of the Eighth Route Army during the war. The soldiers of Shanxi province under Yan Xishan viciously fought against the invading Japanese, right after the defeat of Japan, much of the Shanxi countryside became important bases for the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the ensuing Chinese Civil War. Shanxi was eventually conquered by the communists, resulting in the warlord Yan Xishans retreat to Taiwan Island, for centuries, Shanxi served as the center of trade and banking, the Shanxi merchants were once synonymous with wealth
Provinces of China
Provinces, formally provincial-level administrative divisions or first-level administrative divisions, are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions. There are 34 such divisions, classified as 23 provinces, four municipalities, five autonomous regions, the Peoples Republic of China claims sovereignty over the territory administered by the Republic of China, claiming most of it as its Taiwan Province. The ROC administers some offshore islands which form Fujian Province and these were part of an originally unified Fujian province, which since the stalemate of the Chinese Civil War in 1949 has been divided between the PRC and ROC. Note that every province has a Communist Party of China provincial committee, the committee secretary is in effective charge of the province, rather than the nominal governor of the provincial government. The government of each province is nominally led by a provincial committee. The committee secretary is first-in-charge of the province, second-in-command is the governor of the provincial government, the Peoples Republic of China claims the island of Taiwan and its surrounding islets, including Penghu, as Taiwan Province.
The territory is controlled by the Republic of China, a municipality or direct-controlled municipality is a higher level of city which is directly under the Chinese government, with status equal to that of the provinces. In practice, their status is higher than that of common provinces. The governor of each region is usually appointed from the respective minority ethnic group. A special administrative region is an autonomous and self-governing subnational subject of the Peoples Republic of China that is directly under the Central Peoples Government. Each SAR has an executive as head of the region. The regions government is not fully independent, as policy and military defence are the responsibility of the central government. Notes,1, as of 20102, per km23, km24, Abbreviation in the parentheses is informal 5, Since founding in 1949, the PRC has never controlled Taiwan. Taiwan currently administers Taiwan, Penghu and Matsu, the subject of whether or not Taiwan is part of China is often debated, with no clear conclusion.
The Ming Dynasty kept the system set up by the Yuan Dynasty, however. By the time of the establishment of the Qing Dynasty in 1644 there were 18 provinces, in addition, there was a zongdu, a general military inspector or governor general, for every two to three provinces. Outer regions of China were not divided into provinces, military leaders or generals oversaw Manchuria and Mongolia, while vice-dutong and civilian leaders headed the leagues, a subdivision of Mongolia. The ambans supervised the administration of Tibet, in 1884 Xinjiang became a province, in 1907 Fengtian and Heilongjiang were made provinces as well
Yangquan is a prefecture-level city in the east of Shanxi province, Peoples Republic of China. Situated at the edge of the Loess Plateau and the west side of the Taihang Mountains. According to the 2010 Census, Yangquan has a population of 1,368,502 inhabitants,95,386 more than in 2000, Yangquan has a rather dry, monsoon-influenced humid continental climate, with cold and very dry winters, and hot, somewhat humid summers. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −3.4 °C in January to 24.0 °C in July, the diurnal temperature variation, not exceeding 13 °C in any month, is not large for provincial standards. China National Highway 207 The Beijing–Kunming Expressway Co-founder of Baidu, Robin Li was born, author of The Three-Body Problem, Liu Cixin was born and raised in Yangquan. Chesterfield, England, United Kingdom Mount Vernon, New York, United States Travel China Guide, Yangquan
Zunsheng Temple is located in Huyangling,20 km northeast of the seat of Wutai County. It was founded in Tang Dynasty and was initially called Shan Zhu Ge Yuan and it was rebuilt in Tiansheng 4th year, Northern Song Dynasty, and named Zhen Rong Chan Yuan. After renovation in Wanli 19th year of Ming Dynasty, it was named Zunsheng Temple, and it was partly renovated in Tongzhi 7th year, Qing Dynasty. The stele erected in Kangxi 24th year of Qing Dynasty recorded the history of the temple and its current appearance reflected the renovation during the period of the Republic of China. It has an area of more than 32,000 square meters
Changzhi is a prefecture-level city in Shanxi Province, China. Historically, the city was one of the 36 administrative areas extant under the reign of the first emperor of a unified China, literally speaking, Changzhi means eternal peace in Chinese. Nowadays, Changzhi is a centre in Shanxi. Convenient transportations are facilitated by 4 controlled-access highways,2 railways,3 national highways and 1 airport, internal transportation is built with bus and taxi network. Besides, the city is a commercial and industrial centre in south-eastern area of Shanxi. In 2011, its GDP increasing rate ranked the 1st out of 11 prefecture-level cities in the province, local environment, especially Air Quality Index, is monitored by Chinas Ministry of Environmental Protection and city government. A record of air quality has been kept and published by local government. To read the data, just visit http, //www. czshb. gov. cn or directly type http, //18.104.22.168, 85/cz/ribao/index. asp for details of daily or real-time air quality.
Changzhi is still on her way to a modern city with satisfied air quality. Data from the 6th National Population Census in 2010 reported the city was home for 3,334,564 residents, in ancient times the area around Changzhi（Including jincheng ） was known as Shangdang. Changzhi was the site of the Shangdang Campaign, the first battle between the Kuomintang and the Peoples Liberation Army after the end of World War II, the campaign began in August 1945 and lasted until October. It began when the local Shanxi warlord, Yan Xishan, attempted to retake the region from Communist forces, Yans forces were eventually defeated by an army led by Liu Bocheng, who was named one of Chinas Ten Great Marshals. Lius political commissar was Deng Xiaoping, who became Chinas paramount leader, the campaign ended with the complete destruction of Yans army, most of which joined the Communists after surrendering. Following the Shangdang Campaign, the Communists remained in control of the region until they won the war in 1949.
The area under the control of Peoples Government of Changzhi City is divided into 13 local government districts
Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative structure. Administrative chiefs of prefectural level cities generally have the rank as a division chief of a national ministry. Since the 1980s, most former prefectures have been renamed into prefectural level cities, a prefectural level city is a city and prefecture that have been merged into one unified jurisdiction. The larger prefectural level cities span over 100 kilometres, prefectural level cities nearly always contain multiple counties, county level cities, and other such sub-divisions. To distinguish a prefectural level city from its urban area. The first prefectural level cities were created on 5 November 1983, over the following two decades, prefectural level cities have come to replace the vast majority of Chinese prefectures, the process is still ongoing. Most provinces are composed entirely or nearly entirely of prefectural level cities and Zhengzhou are the largest prefectural level cities with populations approaching or exceeding some sub-provincial cities. A sub-prefecture-level city is a city with powers approaching those of prefectural level cities.
There are total of three classification of prefecture-level city, Regular prefectural level city which consist of counties, county level cities, consolidated district-governed prefectural level city which only consist of districts as it subdivisions. Thus, Indiana is indicated on the map by a point, which is distinct from, and enclosed by, in China, large cities such as City of Xianning may, in reality, contain both urban and rural elements. Moreover, they may enclose counties or other cities, on a less detailed map, City of Xianning would be indicated by a point, more or less corresponding to the coordinates of its city government. Other populous areas may be exhibited as points, such as County of Tongshan, with no indication that County of Tongshan is, in fact, enclosed by City of Xianning. On a more detailed map, City of Xianning would be drawn as an area, similar to a county of the United States and this convention may lead to difficulty in the identification of places mentioned in older sources.
For example, Guo Moruo writes that he was born in Town of Shawan, within Prefecture of Leshan, and attended primary school in Town of Jiading. A modern map is unlikely to show either town, because it is too small, and Jiading, because it is the seat of City of Leshan, and is therefore indicated on the map by a point labelled Leshan. A more detailed map would show Shawan as a district within City of Leshan, statistics of China such as population and industrial activity are generally reported along prefectural city lines. Thus, the relatively unknown City of Huangshi has 2.5 million residents, more than most European capitals, but upon closer inspection, Huangshi contains several other cities, such as City of Daye. If a person wished to calculate the population of the area of Huangshi, and had a map of Huangshi, and a table of its population by district
China, officially the Peoples Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1.381 billion. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China and its capital is Beijing, the countrys major urban areas include Shanghai, Beijing, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. China is a power and a major regional power within Asia. Chinas landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes, the Himalaya, Karakoram and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third and sixth longest in the world, Chinas coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers long and is bounded by the Bohai, East China and South China seas. China emerged as one of the worlds earliest civilizations in the basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, Chinas political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, in 1912, the Republic of China replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War.
The Communist Party established the Peoples Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory. China had the largest economy in the world for much of the last two years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of reforms in 1978, China has become one of the worlds fastest-growing major economies. As of 2016, it is the worlds second-largest economy by nominal GDP, China is the worlds largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a nuclear weapons state and has the worlds largest standing army. The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U. N. Security Council in 1971. China is a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the BCIM, the English name China is first attested in Richard Edens 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.
The demonym, that is, the name for the people, Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn, and perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit Cīna. Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata, there are, other suggestions for the derivation of China. The official name of the state is the Peoples Republic of China. The shorter form is China Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó and it was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to Chinas Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing
Xinzhou is a prefecture-level city occupying the north-central section of Shanxi province, Peoples Republic of China. China National Highway 208 Wutaishan Airport Xinzhou has numerous schools, including Xin Zhou Yi Zhong Xue. Another public high school of interest is the laboratory high school. It functions as an extension of the Xin Zhou Teachers University, a third type of high school is the Xin Zhou Shi Yan Zhong Xue. This school was initiated as a public-private partnership, the experimental school runs a small primary school program which is populated almost exclusively by the children of Yi Zhong Xue and Shi Yan Zhong Xue faculty members
Hebei is a province of China in the North China region. Its one-character abbreviation is 冀, named after Ji Province, a Han Dynasty province that included what is now southern Hebei, the name Hebei literally means north of the river, referring to its location entirely to the north of the Huang He 黄河. Hebei was formed in 1928 after the government dissolved the province of Chihli. Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities, which each other, were carved out of Hebei. The province borders Liaoning to the northeast, Inner Mongolia to the north, Shanxi to the west, Henan to the south, Bohai Bay of the Yellow Sea is to the east. A common alternate name for Hebei is Yānzhào, after the state of Yan, plains in Hebei were the home of Peking man, a group of Homo erectus that lived in the area around 200,000 to 700,000 years ago. Neolithic findings at the prehistoric Beifudi site date back to 7000 and 8000 BC, during the Spring and Autumn period, Hebei was under the rule of the states of Yan in the north and Jin in the south.
Also during this period, a people known as Dí invaded the plains of northern China. During the Warring States period, Jin was partitioned, and much of its territory within Hebei went to Zhao, the Qin Dynasty unified China in 221 BC. The Han Dynasty ruled the area under two provinces, Youzhou Province in the north and Jizhou Province in the south, Hebei came under the rule of the Kingdom of Wei, established by the descendants of Cao Cao. After the invasions of nomadic peoples at the end of the Western Jin Dynasty, the chaos of the Sixteen Kingdoms. Hebei, firmly in North China and right at the frontier, changed hands many times, being controlled at various points in history by the Later Zhao, Former Yan, Former Qin. The Northern Wei reunified northern China in 440, but split in half in 534, with Hebei coming under the eastern half, the Sui Dynasty again unified China in 589. During the Tang Dynasty, the area was formally designated Hebei for the first time, during the earlier part of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Hebei was fragmented among several regimes, though it was eventually unified by Li Cunxu, who established the Later Tang.
During the Northern Song Dynasty, the sixteen ceded prefectures continued to be an area of hot contention between Song China and the Liao Dynasty. The Southern Song Dynasty that came after abandoned all of North China, including Hebei, the Mongol Yuan Dynasty divided China into provinces but did not establish Hebei as a province. Rather, the area was administrated by the Secretariat at capital Dadu. When the Manchu Qing Dynasty came to power in 1644, they abolished the southern counterpart, during the Qing Dynasty, the northern borders of Zhili extended deep into what is now Inner Mongolia, and overlapped in jurisdiction with the leagues of Inner Mongolia
Taiyuan is the capital and largest city of Shanxi province in North China. It is one of the main manufacturing bases of China, throughout its long history, Taiyuan was the capital or provisional capital of many dynasties in China, hence the name Lóngchéng. The two Chinese characters of the name are 太 and 原, referring to the location where the Fen River leaves the mountains. Throughout its long history, the city had various names, including Bīngzhōu, during the Tang dynasty and subsequent Five Dynasties, the status of the city of Taiyuan was elevated to be the Northern Capital, hence the name Běidū, and Běijīng. Taiyuan is an ancient city with more than 2500 years of urban history and it was the capital or secondary capital of Zhao, Former Qin, Eastern Wei, Northern Qi, Northern Jin, Later Tang, Later Jin, Later Han, Northern Han. Its strategic location and rich history make Taiyuan one of the economic, military, from about 859 BC the area around modern-day Taiyuan was occupied by the Rong people.
In 662 BC the Rong were driven out by the Di people, during the Spring and Autumn period, the state of Jin emerged to the south of Taiyuan. In 541 BC, the Jin army led by General Xun Wu, drove out the Di Tribes, during the Battle of Jinyang in 453 BC, Zhi Yao diverted the flow of the Fen River to inundate the city of Jinyang, caused significant damage to the Zhao. Later, Zhao Xiangzi alerted Wei and Han, who decided to ally with Zhao. On the night of May 8,453 BC, Zhao troops broke the dams of the Fen River and let the flood the Zhi armies. After the Tripartition of Jin in 403 BC, the state of Jin, was chosen as the capital of Zhao, by Zhao Ji. Later, the capital of Zhao was moved to Handan, in 248 BC, the state of Qin attacked Zhao under General Mengao, and obtained the area around Jinyang from Zhao. Qin set up the Commandery of Taiyuan, with the city of Jinyang as its administrative center, in 246 BC, there was an uprising in Jinyang, and it was quickly quelled by Mengao. In 221 BC, Qin conquered the rest of China, Qin established thirty-six commanderies on its territory, and Taiyuan was one of them.
In 202 BC, Emperor Gaozu Liu Bang established the Han dynasty, King Xin of Han moved the capital from Jinyang to Mayi with the approval from the emperor Gaozu. However, King Xin of Han conspired with the Xiongnu against Gaozu, in 196 BC, King Xin of Han was killed after he lost a battle. And the vassal state of Han was replaced by the state of Dai. During the tumultuous Three Kingdoms, the population of Taiyuan decreased significantly due to constant warfares, Taiyuan was ruled by Gongsun Zan, Yuan Shao, and by Cao Cao, and was part of Cao Wei afterwards
The North peak, called Beitai Ding or Yedou Feng, is the highest of these, and is the highest point in northern China. As host to over 53 sacred monasteries, Mount Wutai is home to many of Chinas most important monasteries and temples and it was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2009. Mount Wǔtái is one of the Four Sacred Mountains in Chinese Buddhism, each of the four mountains are viewed as the bodhimaṇḍa of one of the four great bodhisattvas. Wǔtái is the home of the Bodhisattva of wisdom, Mañjuśrī or Wénshū in Chinese, Mañjuśrī has been associated with Mount Wutai since ancient times. There are said to have been pilgrimages from India and other Asian countries to Wutai Shan by the seventh century, Wutai was the first of the four mountains to be identified and is often referred to as first among the four great mountains. It was identified on the basis of a passage in the Avataṃsaka Sūtra, in this chapter, Mañjuśrī is said to reside on a clear cold mountain in the northeast. This served as charter for the identity and its alternate name Clear Cool Mountain.
The bodhisattva is believed to appear on the mountain, taking the form of ordinary pilgrims, monks. Mount Wutai has a relationship with Tibetan Buddhism. Mount Wutai is home to some of the oldest existent wooden buildings in China that have survived since the era of the Tang Dynasty and this includes the main hall of Nanchan Temple and the East Hall of Foguang Temple, built in 782 and 857, respectively. They were discovered in 1937 and 1938 by a team of historians including the prominent early 20th century historian Liang Sicheng. The architectural designs of buildings have since been studied by leading sinologists and experts in traditional Chinese architecture. Steinhardt classified these buildings according to the hall featured in the Yingzao Fashi Chinese building manual written in the 12th century. Nanshan Temple 38. 9815°N113. 5738°E /38.9815,113.5738 is a temple in Mount Wǔtái. The whole temple comprises seven terraces, divided into three parts, the lower three terraces are named Jile Temple 極樂寺), the middle terrace is called Shande Hall, the upper three terraces are named Youguo Temple.
Other major temples include Xiantong Temple, Tayuan Temple and Pusading Temple, outer Mount Wutai temples include, Yanqing Temple, Nanchan Temple, Mimi Temple, Foguang Temple, Yanshan Temple, Zunsheng Temple, Guangji Temple, etc. A giant statue of Maha Manjushree was presented to the Buddhists of China by foreign minister of Nepal Ramesh Nath Pandey in 2005, the Wutaishan Airport in nearby Dingxiang County, opened in December 2015. Chinas Holy Mountain, An Illustrated Journey into the Heart of Buddhism by Christoph Baumer, nomads on Pilgrimage, Mongols on Wutaishan, 1800-1940