United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States. The National Forest System was created by the Land Revision Act of 1891, abbot Kinney and forester Theodore Lukens were key spokesmen for the effort. In the United States there are 155 National Forests containing almost 190 million acres of land and these lands comprise 8.5 percent of the total land area of the United States, an area about the size of Texas. Some 87 percent of National Forest land lies west of the Mississippi River in the ranges of the Western United States. Alaska has 12 percent of all National Forest lands, the U. S. Forest Service manages all of the United States National Grasslands, and around half of the United States National Recreation Areas. There are two different types of forests within the National Forest system. Those east of the Great Plains in the Midwestern and Eastern United States were primarily acquired by the government since 1891. The land had long been in the domain and sometimes repeatedly logged since colonial times.
These are mostly lands that were kept in the domain, with the exception of inholdings. Land management of these areas focuses on conservation, timber harvesting, livestock grazing, watershed protection, unlike national parks and other federal lands managed by the National Park Service, extraction of natural resources from national forests is permitted, and in many cases encouraged. National Forests are categorized by the U. S. as IUCN Category VI protected areas, the first-designated wilderness areas, and some of the largest, are on National Forest lands. There are management decision conflicts between conservationists and environmentalists, and natural resource extraction companies and lobbies, over the protection and/or use of National Forest lands, many ski resorts and summer resorts operate on leased land in National Forests
Grant County, Wisconsin
Grant County is a county located in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 51,208, Grant County comprises the Platteville, WI Micropolitan Statistical Area. What is now Grant County was largely uninhabited prior to contact with Europeans, the first Frenchmen to reach what is now Grant County were Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet who explored the region in the spring of 1673, when they set out from what would become Green Bay. In 1680 Louis Hennepin passed through the region that would become Grant County, in 1689 Nicholas Perrot passed through the territory and claimed it for the King of France. The first known settlement by a European came in 1725 when a trading post was established by Pierriere Marin, the French would abandon it. In 1783 the British government acknowledged the jurisdiction of the United States over the land east of the Mississippi River, Grant County was created as part of Wisconsin Territory in 1837. It was named after an Indian trader, his first name and eventual fate are all unknown.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,183 square miles. KPVB - Platteville Municipal Airport serves the county and surrounding communities, 73C - Lancaster Municipal Airport enhances county service. The population density was 43 people per square mile, there were 19,940 housing units at an average density of 17 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98. 23% White,0. 52% Black or African American,0. 13% Native American,0. 46% Asian,0. 01% Pacific Islander,0. 14% from other races, and 0. 50% from two or more races. 0. 56% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,52. 0% were of German,9. 2% English,8. 8% Irish,6. 6% American and 6. 4% Norwegian ancestry according to Census 2000. 26. 00% of all households were made up of individuals and 12. 10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.03. In the county, the population was out with 23. 70% under the age of 18,14. 60% from 18 to 24,24. 80% from 25 to 44,21. 60% from 45 to 64.
The median age was 36 years, for every 100 females there were 103.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.00 males, the Wisconsin Secure Program Facility, a Wisconsin Department of Corrections prison for men, is located in Boscobel in Grant County. Boscobel Cuba City Fennimore Lancaster Platteville Glen Haven Kieler Sandy Hook Sinnipee Willard H. Burney, member of the Nebraska House of Representatives B. W. Chicago, J. H. Grant County Official Government Website Grant County map from the Wisconsin Department of Transportation Grant County Health and Demographic Data Grant County Sheriffs Office
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
Since the 19th century, the prevailing scholarly consensus has been that the mounds were constructed by indigenous peoples of the Americas. Sixteenth-century Spanish explorers made contact with living in a number of Mississippian cities, described their cultures. By the time of United States westward expansion two hundred years later, Native Americans were generally not knowledgeable about the civilizations that produced the mounds and study of these cultures and peoples has been based mostly on archaeology and anthropology. At one time, the mound builder was applied to the people believed to have constructed these earthworks. In the 16th through 19th centuries and Americans generally thought that an other than one related to the historic Native Americans had built the mounds. The namesake cultural trait of the Mound Builders was the building of mounds and these burial and ceremonial structures were typically flat-topped pyramids or platform mounds, flat-topped or rounded cones, elongated ridges, and sometimes a variety of other forms.
They were generally built as part of villages that arose from more dense populations, with a specialization of skills. The early earthworks built in Louisiana c.3500 BCE are the ones known to be built by a hunter-gatherer culture. The best-known flat-topped pyramidal structure, which at over 100 feet tall is the largest pre-Columbian earthwork north of Mexico, is Monks Mound at Cahokia in present-day Collinsville, Illinois. At its peak about 1150 CE, Cahokia was a settlement with 20, 000-30,000 people. Some effigy mounds were constructed in the shapes or outlines of culturally significant animals, the most famous effigy mound, Serpent Mound in southern Ohio, ranges from 1 to just over 3 feet tall. 20 feet wide, over 1,330 feet long, many different tribal groups and chiefdoms, involving an array of beliefs and unique cultures over thousands of years, built mounds as expressions of their cultures. The general term, mound builder, covered their shared architectural practice of earthwork mound construction and this practice, believed to be associated with a cosmology that had a cross-cultural appeal, may indicate common cultural antecedents.
The first mound building was a marker of political and social complexity among the cultures in the Eastern United States. Watson Brake in Louisiana, constructed about 3500 BCE during the Middle Archaic period, is the oldest dated mound complex in North America and it is one of eleven mound complexes from this period found in the Lower Mississippi Valley. We can conclude that these mound builders were very organized people, hundreds or even thousands of workers had to dig up tons of earth with the hand tools available. Then the dirt had to be moved long distances. The most complete reference for these earthworks is Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, written by Ephraim G. Squier and it was published in 1848 by the Smithsonian
A natural monument is a natural or natural/cultural feature of outstanding or unique value because of its inherent rarity, representative of aesthetic qualities or cultural significance. They are generally quite small protected areas and often have high visitor value and this is a lower level of protection than level II and level I. The European Environment Agencys guidelines for selection of a natural monument are, the area should be large enough to protect the integrity of the feature and its immediately related surroundings
Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest
The Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest is a 1,530, 647-acre U. S. National Forest in northern Wisconsin in the United States. Much of the old growth forest in this region was destroyed by logging in the part of the 20th century. Some of the trees grow there today were planted by the Civilian Conservation Corps in the 1930s. The Chequamegon National Forest comprises three units in the part of the state totaling 865,825 acres. In descending order of area, it is located in parts of Bayfield, Price, Taylor. Forest headquarters are in Park Falls, there are local ranger district offices in Glidden, Medford, Park Falls, and Washburn. Moquah Barrens Research Natural Area is located with the Chequamegon, lying within the Chequamegon are two officially designated wilderness areas of the National Wilderness Preservation System. They are the Porcupine Lake Wilderness and the Rainbow Lake Wilderness, the Nicolet National Forest covers 664,822 acres of northeastern Wisconsin. It is located in parts of Forest, Florence, Langlade, there are local ranger district offices in Eagle River, Florence and Laona.
Bose Lake Hemlock Hardwoods and the Franklin Lake Campground are located in the Nicolet, lying within the Nicolet are three wildernesses—the Blackjack Springs Wilderness, the Headwaters Wilderness, and the Whisker Lake Wilderness. Remote areas of uplands, wetlands, rivers, pine savannas and many glacial lakes are found throughout these forests. Native tree species include Acer saccharum, Acer rubrum, and Acer spicatum, white and black oaks, beech, basswood and paper, and river birch. Coniferous trees, including red and jack pine, white spruce, eastern hemlock are present as this is the westernmost limit of its distribution. Tamarack/black spruce bogs, cedar swamps and alder thickets are common, raspberries, cranberries, ferns, mosses and mushrooms grow here, as well as many more shrubs and wildflowers. White-tailed deer are numerous and many are hit by motorists on roads in northern Wisconsin year-round, black bears, raccoons, beavers, river otters, chipmunks, pheasants and wild turkeys are popular game in these northern woods.
Elk and wolves have been reintroduced and there have been sightings of moose, brook trout, rainbow trout, and brown trout are found in many miles of excellent streams. Walleye and largemouth bass, northern pike, a record muskellunge, Wisconsins state fish, was caught in these waters. The beauty and recreational opportunities of these majestic forests draw thousands of tourists to the Chequamegon-Nicolet area every year and these national forests are best known for recreation, including camping, fishing, cross country skiing, and snowmobiling
Driftless Area National Wildlife Refuge
Driftless Area National Wildlife Refuge is a United States National Wildlife Refuge in northeastern Iowa, southwestern Wisconsin and northwestern Illinois. It is a collection of parcels in the vicinity of the Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife. The refuge was established in 1989 to help the recovery of two listed species, the endangered Iowa Pleistocene Snail and threatened plant Northern Wild Monkshood. Although the refuge was established to protect the snail and flower, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service manages the refuge as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system. Currently, the refuge consists of nine sites totaling 811.99 acres in four counties of Iowa only, in descending order of land area they are Clayton, Dubuque and Allamakee counties. Portions of Iowa, Wisconsin and Illinois contain unusual geology, the karst region, referred to as the Driftless Area, escaped the last glaciers leaving the Paleozoic-age bedrock subject to erosion. In addition to the topography of steep slopes and cliffs.
Certain slopes, usually north facing, are covered with a layer that allows ice-cooled air to exit from underground cracks. Upland sinkholes contribute to the air flow regime and are an important component of a system called an algific talus slopes. Even on a day when the outside air temperature is 90 °F. Although the slopes will freeze in winter, the temperatures are moderated and these slopes remain cool throughout the year and are home to rare species of plants and animals. In the summer, air is drawn down through sinkholes, flows over very cold groundwater and is released out vents on the slopes, summer temperatures on the slopes range from 42 °F to 55 °F. In winter, the air is drawn into the vents, because of the cool temperatures and moist conditions, unusual plants for this part of the country grow on the slopes. Typically growing in a more northern climate, balsam fir, Showy ladys slipper. These cold microclimates of the slopes allow the plants and animals to survive. A tiny land snail, the Iowa Pleistocene snail, is smaller than a shirt button, considered a glacial relict species, it has survived only on these small areas where temperature and food are suitable.
The snail was known only from records and thought to be extinct until 1955. Because of the nature of the habitat and the small size of the total population
Gravel Island National Wildlife Refuge
Gravel Island National Wildlife Refuge is a National Wildlife Refuge located off the Door Peninsula in Wisconsin. Founded in 1913, the refuge consists of two Lake Michigan islands, that act as nesting grounds for bird species. The refuge is part of the Wisconsin Islands Wilderness Area, and it is inhabited by large colonies of shore birds and home to a pair of great black-backed gulls, one of farthest westward breeding sites of the species. In the years before the founding, multiple expeditions were made to the Islands. One Ornithologist named Henry L. Ward, then-curator of the Milwaukee Public Museum visited the area numerous times to study the herring gull populations. In 1906 and 1907 while visiting Gravel Island, he noted very large colonies of herring gulls as well as Caspian terns, observed their behavior and collected specimens from the island. In 1913, under executive order the refuge was formed from Gravel Island, upon its formation it became the 29th refuge in the U. S and third in the great lakes region.
In 1970 the refuge became part of the Wisconsin Islands Wilderness Area, many studies have been performed at the refuge since the 1970s, and in recent times efforts have focused on migrating habits and tagging of the birds. In 2009 the refuge became part of a Comprehensive Conservation Planning program which will manage the refuge more efficiently. The plan will allow for continuity in refuge management, make sure that the refuge is consistent with the policies of the National Wildlife Refuge System. The refuge covers 28 acres which comes from two islands, Spider Island spanning 23 acres and Gravel Island at a size of 4 acres. The refuge is located off the east side of the Door Peninsula in Lake Michigan near Porte des Morts or Deaths Door, the islands are made of mainly limestone, with little to no vegetation growing on them. They were shaped by years of receding water, powerful pre-glacial rivers, as a result, the islands are mainly flat and stick up only a few yards above the lake. Spider island had a birch-cedar-tamarack forest until the late 1970s, the trees of Spider island have now fallen over or been washed away and no permanent vegetation is known on Gravel island.
The refuge is home for to an array of bird species that either use the islands as nesting grounds or a place of shelter. The great black-backed gull is known to have a breeding colony on Gravel Island. In 1994 the species was discovered on Spider Island, making it the westernmost breeding on record at the time, large colonies of herring gulls and double-crested cormorants are found on both islands, while a colony of Caspian terns can be found on Gravel Island. Scattered populations of waterfowl nest on Spider Island, these include the Canada goose, American black duck and mallard
Timms Hill is the highest natural point in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. Located in north-central Wisconsin in Timms Hill County Park in the Town of Hill in Price County and it is less than 1 mile south of Highway 86, about midway between Ogema and Spirit and about 23 miles west of Tomahawk. A public lookout tower on top offers outstanding views of the surrounding area, visible to the southeast is Rib Mountain,44 miles away by line of sight. The ten-mile Timms Hill Trail connects to the Ice Age Trail, list of U. S. states by elevation Timms Hill
The Driftless Area or Paleozoic Plateau is a region in the American Midwest noted mainly for its deeply carved river valleys. While primarily in southwestern Wisconsin, it includes areas of southeastern Minnesota, northeastern Iowa, the region includes elevations ranging from 603 to 1,719 feet at Blue Mound State Park and covers an area of 16,203 square miles. The regions peculiar terrain is the result of its having escaped glaciation in the last glacial period, retreating glaciers leave behind silt, sand and boulders called drift. The northern and eastern lobes were in part diverted around the area by the Watersmeet Dome, the Green Bay and Lake Michigan lobes were partially blocked by the bedrock of the Door Peninsula, which presently separates Green Bay from Lake Michigan. In earlier phases of the Wisconsinan, the Driftless Area was totally surrounded by ice, in the adjacent glaciated regions, the glacial retreat left behind drift, which buried all former topographical features. Surface water was forced to carve out new stream beds, the region is characterized by an eroded plateau with bedrock overlain by varying thicknesses of loess.
Most characteristically, the valleys are deeply dissected. The bluffs lining this reach of the Mississippi River currently climb to nearly 600 feet, in Minnesota, Pre-Illinoian-age till was probably removed by natural means prior to the deposition of loess. The sedimentary rocks of the walls date to the Paleozoic Era and are often covered with colluvium or loess. In the east, the Baraboo Range, an ancient, profoundly eroded monadnock, the area has not undergone much tectonic action, as all the visible layers of sedimentary rock are approximately horizontal. Karst topography is found throughout the Driftless area and this is characterized by caves and cave systems, disappearing streams, blind valleys, underground streams, sinkholes and cold streams. Disappearing streams occur where surface waters sinks down into the earth through fractured bedrock or a sinkhole, either joining an aquifer, blind valleys are formed by disappearing streams and lack an outlet to any other stream. Sinkholes are the result of the collapse of the roof of a cave, disappearing streams can re-emerge as large cold springs.
Cold streams with cold springs as their sources are noted as superb trout habitat, the Mississippi River passes through the Driftless Area between and including Pool 2 and Pool 13. As rivers and streams approach their confluence with the Mississippi, their canyons grow progressively steeper and deeper, the change in elevation above sea level from ridgetops lining a stream to its confluence with the Big River can reach well past 650 feet in only a few miles. The Waukon Municipal Airport is reliably established as being 1,281 feet above sea level, the Army Corps of Engineers maintains a river level in Pool 9 of about 619 feet above sea level, which covers Lansing. Maps and signs issued by the Iowa Department of Transportation indicate Waukon and this is a drop of more than 660 feet in less than 20 miles. The role of isostatic rebound on the process of stream incision in the area is not clearly understood, there are many small towns in the Driftless Area, especially in river valleys, at or upstream from the Mississippi
Aztalan State Park
Aztalan State Park is a Wisconsin state park in the Town of Aztalan, Jefferson County, Wisconsin at latitude N 43°4 and longitude W 88°52. Established in 1952, it was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1964, the park covers 172 acres along the Crawfish River. Aztalan is the site of an ancient Mississippian culture settlement that flourished during the 10th to 13th centuries, the indigenous people constructed massive earthwork mounds for religious and political purposes. They were part of a culture with important settlements throughout the Mississippi River valley. Their trading network extended from the Great Lakes to the Gulf Coast, Aztalan was first settled around 900 by a Native American culture known as the Middle Mississippian Tradition. The chief center of a Middle Mississippian settlement is at Cahokia, in present-day Illinois and this was not surpassed by Europeans in North America until after 1800. These settlements are characterized by the construction of mounds, there are elements of the Woodland culture found here.
The residents had long-distance trading relationships with other settlements, linked by their use of the rivers for transportation, sometime between the years 1200 and 1300, the Aztalan settlement was abandoned. Archeologists and historians surmise they may have outgrown environmental resources, or encountered more warfare from other cultures, the Little Ice Age occurred soon after 1300 and may have contributed to farming difficulties, putting too much stress on the local chiefdoms. Most of the lived in circular or rectangular houses which they built between the river and the Eastern secondary wall. The placement of the structures suggests that the layout was planned, the dwellings were built around a central ceremonial plaza likely used for rituals and public gatherings, as has been found at other similar locations. Posts for the frames were either placed in individual holes. Walls were completed with wattle and daub, a mixture of grass and clay. The doorway usually faced south to keep out the north winds.
Inside, a single family slept on beds, covered with tamarack boughs, deer skins. Sometimes a fire was kept in the middle of the house, pits dug in the earthen floor of the house held stored foods such as corn and seeds in woven bags. Perishable foods like meat were stored outside prior to cooking. Pits outside were used for garbage and community resources
Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge
It is in part a wetland, and is a significant element of the Mississippi Flyway. Consisting of backwaters away from the Mississippi and Trempealeau River and it is part of the Driftless Area, a portion of North American which remained ice free during the last ice age, creating in part the deep gorge of the Mississippi, quite visible from this refuge. It is a prairie, where big bluestem, indiangrass. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish, media related to Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge at Wikimedia Commons Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge