Palestinian political violence
Palestinian political violence refers to acts of violence or terror motivated by Palestinian nationalism. These political objectives include self-determination in and sovereignty over Palestine, the "liberation of Palestine" and recognition of a Palestinian state, either in place of both Israel and the Palestinian territories, or in the Palestinian territories. Periodically directed toward more limited goals such as the release of Palestinian prisoners in Israel, another key aim is to advance the Palestinian right of return. Palestinian groups that have been involved in politically motivated violence include the Palestinian Liberation Organization, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – General Command, the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine, the Abu Nidal Organization, the Palestinian Islamic Jihad, Hamas; the PLO renounced terrorism in 1988, Fatah says it no longer engages in terrorism, although the Authority continues to incentivize terrorism by awarding large stipends to the families of Palestinians killed or arrested while committing acts of terrorism via the Palestinian Authority Martyr's Fund, payouts that absorb 7% of the Authority's national budget.
The PFLP-GC has been internationally inactive. The Abu Nidal organization exists only in name. Tactics have included hostage taking, plane hijackings, stone throwing, stabbing and bombings. Several of these groups are considered terrorist organizations by the United States government and the European Union. Palestinian political violence has targeted Israelis, Lebanese, Egyptians and citizens of other countries; the attacks have taken place within and outside Israel and have been directed at both military and civilian targets. Israeli statistics state that 3,500 Israelis have been killed and 25,000 have been wounded as a result of Palestinian violence since the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948; these figures include soldiers as well as civilians, including those killed in exchanges of gunfire. Israeli statistics listing'hostile terrorist attacks' include incidents in which stones are thrown. Suicide bombings constituted just 0.5% of Palestinian attacks against Israelis in the first two years of the Al Aqsa Intifada, though this percentage accounted for half of the Israelis killed in that period.
Personal grievances, trauma, or revenge against Israel are maintained to form an important element in motivating attacks against Israelis. In protest against the Balfour Declaration, which proposed Palestine as a homeland for the Jewish people, its implementation under a League of Nations Mandate for Great Britain, both Muslim and Christian, from November 1918 onwards, began to organize in opposition to Zionism. By the end of Ottoman rule, the Jewish population of Palestine was 56,000 or one-sixth of the population. Hostility to Jewish immigration led to incidents, such as the riots of April 1920, the Jaffa riots of 1921, the 1929 Palestine riots, until a general Arab revolt broke out for three years, in 1936–1939, crushed, with the loss of 5,000 lives, by the British army. After the passing of the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine in 1947 which called for the establishment of independent Arab and Jewish States, a Palestinian Civil War broke out. On the declaration of the state of Israel, 15 May 1948, a full-scale war, involving the intervention of neighbouring Arab states, took place, with casualties of 6,000 Israelis and, according to the 1958 survey by Arif al-Arif, 13,000 Palestinians and the exodus, through expulsion, or panicked flight, of 700,000 Arab Palestinians who subsequently became refugees.
In the Six-Day War, a further 280,000–360,000 Palestinians became refugees, the remaining Palestinian territories were occupied from Jordan and from Egypt, began to be settled by Jewish and Israeli settlers, while the Palestinians were placed under military administration. While Palestinian militancy was fragmented into several groups, the PLO led, united, most factions, while conducting military campaigns that varied from airplane hijackings, militant operations and civil protest. In 1987, a mass revolt, of predominantly civil resistance, called the First Intifada, leading to the Madrid Conference of 1991, subsequently to the Oslo I Accord, which produced an interim understanding allowing a new Palestinian authority, the Palestinian National Authority to exercise limited autonomy in 3% of the West Bank, parts of the Gaza Strip not used or earmarked for Israeli settlement. Frustration over the perceived failure of the peace talks to yield a Palestinian state led to the outbreak of the Al Aqsa Intifada in September 2000, which ended in 2005, coincident with the Israeli withdrawal from Gaza.
The rise of Hamas, the use of Palestinian rocketry and Israel's control of Gaza's borders, has led to further chronic violence, culminating in a further two conflicts, the Gaza War of 2008–09 and Operation Pillar of Defense in 2012. It is estimated that since 1920, when the first riots against Jews broke out, 90,785 Arabs including Palestinians have died, some 67,602 been wounded in all wars and conflicts between Israel and its neighbors. On the other hand, 24,841 Jews and Israelis have died and 35,356 have been wounded during the same period. Since 1967, some reports estimate that some 40% of the male population of the West Bank and Gaza have been arrested or detained in Israeli prisons for political or military reasons. Around 400 Palestinian'infiltrators' were killed by Israeli Security Forces each year in 1951, 1952 and 1953.
Status of Jerusalem
The status of Jerusalem is disputed in both international law and diplomatic practice, with both the Israelis and Palestinians claiming Jerusalem as their capital city. The dispute has been described as "one of the most intractable issues in the Israel–Palestine conflict", with conflicting claims to sovereignty over the city or parts of it, access to its holy sites; the main dispute revolves around the legal status of East Jerusalem and the Old City of Jerusalem, while broader agreement exists regarding future Israeli presence in West Jerusalem in accordance with Israel's internationally recognised borders. The majority of United Nations member states hold the view that the final status of Jerusalem should be resolved through negotiation, have therefore favored locating their embassies in Tel Aviv prior to a final status agreement. However, in recent years the international consensus to abstain from expressing a viewpoint on the city's final status has shown signs of fragility, with Russia, the United States and Australia adopting new policy positions.
Furthermore, the proposal that Jerusalem should be the future capital of both Israel and Palestine has gained international support, with endorsements coming from both the United Nations and the European Union. From the end of the Ottoman–Mamluk War in 1517 until the First World War, Jerusalem was part of the Ottoman Empire. Since the 1860s, Jews have formed the largest religious group in the city and since around 1887, Jews have been in the majority. In the 19th century, European powers vied for influence in the city on the basis of extending protection over Christian churches and Holy Places. A number of these countries established consulates in Jerusalem. In 1917 and following the First World War, Great Britain was in control of Jerusalem; the principal Allied Powers recognized the unique spiritual and religious interests in Jerusalem among the world's three great monotheistic religions as "a sacred trust of civilization", stipulated that the existing rights and claims connected with it be safeguarded in perpetuity, under international guarantee.
However, the Arab and Jewish communities in Palestine were in mortal dispute and Britain sought United Nations assistance in resolving the dispute. In November 1947, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine, which called for the partition of Palestine into Arab and Jewish states, with Jerusalem being established as a corpus separatum, or a "separated body" with a special legal and political status, administered by the United Nations. Jewish representatives accepted the partition plan, while representatives of the Palestinian Arabs and the Arab states rejected it, declaring it illegal. In May 1948, the Jewish community in Palestine issued the declaration of the establishment of the State of Israel. Israel became a member of the United Nations the following year and has since been recognised by most countries; the countries recognizing Israel did not recognize its sovereignty over Jerusalem citing the UN resolutions which called for an international status for the city.
With the declaration of the establishment of the State of Israel and the subsequent invasion by surrounding Arab states, the UN proposal for Jerusalem never materialised. The 1949 Armistice Agreements left Jordan in control of the eastern parts of Jerusalem, while the western sector was held by Israel; each side recognised the other's de facto control of their respective sectors. The Armistice Agreement, was considered internationally as having no legal effect on the continued validity of the provisions of the partition resolution for the internationalisation of Jerusalem. In 1950, Jordan annexed East Jerusalem as part of its larger annexation of the West Bank. Though the United Kingdom and Pakistan recognized Jordanian rule over East Jerusalem, no other country recognized either Jordanian or Israeli rule over the respective areas of the city under their control. Following the Six-Day War of 1967, Israel declared that Israeli law would be applied to East Jerusalem and enlarged its eastern boundaries doubling its size.
The action was deemed unlawful by other states. It was condemned by the UN Security Council and General Assembly which described it as an annexation and a violation of the rights of the Palestinian population. In 1980, Israel passed the Jerusalem Law, which declared that "Jerusalem and united, is the capital of Israel"; the Security Council declared the law null and void in Resolution 478, which called upon member states to withdraw their diplomatic missions from the city. The UN General Assembly has passed numerous resolutions to the same effect. Israel took control of West Jerusalem during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, while Jordan had taken control of East Jerusalem. Israel rejected corpus separatum at the Lausanne Conference of 1949 and instead indicated a preference for a division of Jerusalem into Jewish and Arab zones, international control and protection only for holy places and sites. In 1949, as the UN General Assembly began debating the implementation of its decision of 29 November 1947 regarding the establishment of Jerusalem as a separate international entity under the auspices of the United Nations, Israel declared Jerusalem Israel's "eternal capital".
After Israel conquered East Jerusalem from Jordan in 1967 during the Six-Day War, which it characterised as self-defence, Israel argued that it had the stronger right to the city. Israel argued that Jordan had no rights to any land west of the Jordan River, had taken the West Bank and East Jerusalem by an act of aggression and therefore ne
Benjamin "Bibi" Netanyahu is an Israeli politician serving as the 9th and current Prime Minister of Israel since 2009 holding the position from 1996 to 1999. Netanyahu is currently a member of the Knesset and the Chairman of the Likud party, he is the first Israeli Prime Minister born in Israel after the establishment of the state. Born in Tel Aviv to secular Jewish parents, Netanyahu joined the Israel Defense Forces shortly after the Six-Day War in 1967, became a team leader in the Sayeret Matkal special forces unit. Netanyahu took part in many missions, including Operation Inferno, Operation Gift and Operation Isotope, during which he was shot in the shoulder. Netanyahu fought on the front lines in the War of Attrition and the Yom Kippur War in 1973, taking part in special forces raids along the Suez Canal, leading a commando assault deep into Syrian territory. Netanyahu achieved the rank of captain before being discharged. After graduating from MIT with Bachelor of Science and Master of Science degrees, Netanyahu was recruited as an economic consultant for the Boston Consulting Group.
Netanyahu returned to Israel in 1978 to found the Yonatan Netanyahu Anti-Terror Institute, named after his brother Yonatan Netanyahu, who died leading Operation Entebbe. Netanyahu served as the Israeli ambassador to the United Nations from 1984 to 1988, he became the leader of Likud in 1993 and won the 1996 elections, becoming Israel's youngest-ever Prime Minister, serving his first term from June 1996 to July 1999. Netanyahu moved from the political arena to the private sector after being defeated in the 1999 election for prime minister by Ehud Barak. Netanyahu returned to politics in 2002 as Foreign Affairs Minister and Finance Minister in Ariel Sharon's governments, but he departed the government over disagreements regarding the Gaza disengagement plan; as Minister of Finance, Netanyahu engaged in a major reform of the Israeli economy, credited by commentators as having improved Israel's subsequent economic performance. Netanyahu retook the Likud leadership in December 2005, after Sharon left to form a new party, Kadima.
In December 2006, Netanyahu became the official Leader of the Opposition in the Knesset and Chairman of Likud. Following the 2009 parliamentary election, in which Likud placed second and right-wing parties won a majority, Netanyahu formed a coalition government, he won electoral victory in the 2013 elections for the third time, in the 2015 elections for a fourth time. Netanyahu has been elected Prime Minister of Israel four times, matching David Ben-Gurion for most premierships, he is the only prime minister in Israel's history to have been elected three times in a row. Netanyahu is the second longest-serving Prime Minister in Israel's history after David Ben-Gurion. Since December 2016 Netanyahu had been under investigation by police and prosecutors for a number of alleged corruption scandals, culminating in the Israeli attorney general announcing his intent to file indictments in 2019. Netanyahu was born in 1949 in Tel Aviv, Israel, to Tzila Segal, born in Petah Tikva in the Ottoman Empire's Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem, a Warsaw-born father, Prof. Benzion Netanyahu.
He was the middle of three children. He discovered via a DNA test, he was raised and educated in Jerusalem, where he attended Henrietta Szold Elementary School. A copy of his evaluation from his 6th grade teacher Ruth Rubenstein indicated that Netanyahu was courteous and helpful. Between 1956 and 1958, again from 1963 to 1967, his family lived in the United States in Cheltenham Township, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Philadelphia, where he attended and graduated from Cheltenham High School and was active in a debate club. To this day, he speaks fluent English, with a noticeable Philadelphia accent. After graduating from high school in 1967, Netanyahu returned to Israel to enlist in the Israel Defense Forces, he trained as a combat soldier and served for five years in an elite special forces unit of the IDF, Sayeret Matkal. He took part in numerous cross-border assault raids during the 1967–70 War of Attrition, rising to become a team-leader in the unit, he was wounded in combat on multiple occasions.
He was involved in many other missions, including Operation Inferno, the rescue of the hijacked Sabena Flight 571 in May 1972 in which he was shot in the shoulder. After completing his army service in 1972, Netanyahu returned to the United States in late 1972 to study architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he returned to Israel in October 1973 to serve in the Yom Kippur War in the Sayeret Matkal commando unit. While there, he fought in special forces raids along the Suez Canal against the Egyptian forces, before leading a commando attack deep inside Syrian territory, whose mission remains classified today, he returned to the United States and under the name Ben Nitay, completed an SB degree in architecture in February 1975 and earned an SM degree from the MIT Sloan School of Management in June 1976. Concurrently, he was studying towards a doctorate in political science, until his studies were broken off by the death of his brother in Operation Entebbe. At MIT, Netanyahu studied a double-load, completing an SM in only two and a half years, despite taking a break to fight in the Yom Kippur War, while completing a thesis in a graduate course at Harvard.
Professor Groisser at MIT recalled: "He did super
Madeleine Jana Korbel Albright is an American politician and diplomat. She is the first female United States Secretary of State in U. S. history, having served from 1997 to 2001 under President Bill Clinton. Along with her family, Albright immigrated to the United States in 1948 from Czechoslovakia, her father, diplomat Josef Korbel, settled the family in Denver, she became a U. S. citizen in 1957. Albright graduated from Wellesley College in 1959 and earned a PhD from Columbia University in 1975, writing her thesis on the Prague Spring, she worked as an aide to Senator Edmund Muskie before taking a position under Zbigniew Brzezinski on the National Security Council. She served in that position until the end of President Jimmy Carter's singular term in 1981. After leaving the National Security Council, Albright joined the academic faculty of Georgetown University and advised Democratic candidates regarding foreign policy. After Clinton's victory in the 1992 presidential election, she helped assemble his National Security Council.
In 1993, Clinton appointed her to the position of U. S. Ambassador to the United Nations, she held that position until 1997, when she succeeded Warren Christopher as Secretary of State, serving until Clinton left office in 2001. Albright has served as chair of the Albright Stonebridge Group since 2009, is the Michael and Virginia Mortara Endowed Distinguished Professor in the Practice of Diplomacy at Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service. In May 2012, she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by U. S. President Barack Obama. Secretary Albright serves as a director on the board of the Council on Foreign Relations. Born Marie Jana Korbelová in 1937 in the Smíchov district of Prague, she is the daughter of Anna and Josef Korbel, a Czech diplomat. At the time of her birth, Czechoslovakia had been independent for less than 20 years, having gained independence from the Austria-Hungary empire after World War I, her father was a supporter of the early Czech democrats, Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk and Edvard Beneš.
Marie Jana had a younger brother John. When Marie Jana was born, her father was serving as a press-attaché at the Czechoslovak Embassy in Belgrade; the signing of the Munich Agreement in September 1938 and the German occupation of Czechoslovakia by Adolf Hitler's troops forced the family into exile because of their links with Beneš. In 1941, Josef and Anna converted from Judaism to Catholicism. Marie Jana and her siblings were raised in the Roman Catholic faith. In 1997, Albright said her parents never told her or her two siblings about their Jewish ancestry and heritage; the family moved to Britain where her father worked for Beneš's Czechoslovak government-in-exile. Her family first lived on Kensington Park Road in Notting Hill, but moved to Beaconsfield Walton-on-Thames, on the outskirts of London, they kept a large metal table in the house, intended to shelter the family from the recurring threat of Nazi air raids. While in England, Marie Jana was one of the children shown in a documentary film designed to promote sympathy for all war refugees in London.
After the defeat of the Nazis in the European Theatre of World War II and the collapse of Nazi Germany and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, the Korbel family returned to Prague. They were given a luxurious apartment in the Hradčany district.. Korbel was appointed as Czechoslovakian Ambassador to Yugoslavia, the family moved to Belgrade. Yugoslavia was governed by the Communist Party, Korbel was concerned his daughter would be exposed to Marxism in a Yugoslav school, she was taught by a governess and sent to the Prealpina Institut pour Jeunes Filles finishing school in Chexbres, on Lake Geneva in Switzerland. She learned to speak French while in Switzerland and changed her name from "Marie Jana" to "Madeleine"; the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia took over the government in 1948, with support from the Soviet Union. As an opponent of communism, Korbel was forced to resign from his position, he obtained a position on a United Nations delegation to Kashmir. He sent his family to the United States, by way of London, to wait for him when he arrived to deliver his report to the U.
N. Headquarters located in Lake Success, New York. Albright's family emigrated from the United Kingdom on the SS America, departing Southampton on November 5, 1948, arriving at Ellis Island in New York Harbor on November 11, 1948; the family settled in Great Neck on Long Island. Korbel applied for political asylum, arguing that as an opponent of Communism, he was under threat in Prague. With the help of Philip Moseley, a professor of Russian at Columbia University in New York City, Korbel obtained a position on the staff of the political science department at the University of Denver in Colorado, he became dean of the university's school of international relations and taught future U. S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. In 2008 the school was named as the Josef Korbel School of International Studies in his honor. Albright spent her teen years in Denver, in 1955 graduated from the Kent Denver School in Cherry Hills Village, a suburb of Denver, she was its first president. She attended Wellesley College, in Wellesley, Massachusetts, on a full scholarship, majoring in political science, graduated in 1959.
The topic of her senior thesis was former Czechoslovaki
Geneva Initiative (2003)
The Geneva Initiative known as the Geneva Accord, is a draft Permanent Status Agreement to end the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, based on previous official negotiations, international resolutions, the Quartet Roadmap, the Clinton Parameters, the Arab Peace Initiative. The document was finished on 12 October 2003; the Accord was prepared in secret for over 2 years before the 50-page document was launched on 1 December 2003, at a ceremony in Geneva, Switzerland. Among its creators were formal negotiators and architects of previous rounds of Israeli-Palestinian negotiations, including former Israeli minister and politician Yossi Beilin and former Palestinian Authority minister Yasser Abed Rabbo. Both noted that the Geneva accord did not obligate either of their respective governments though Abed Rabbo was a minister at the time of writing; the Initiative got broad international support, but was criticised by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon. In September 2009, a detailed expanded version of the plan was released.
The annexes serve as a supplement to the Geneva Accord, outlining the practical measures required for successful implementation of the two-state solution. They cover key issues including security, border crossings, the Implementation and Verification Group, water management, environmental concerns, the economy, the division of Jerusalem; the Geneva Initiative addresses and presents a comprehensive solution to all issues vital to ensuring the end of the conflict and the realization of the national visions of both parties. It would give the Palestinians all of the West Bank and Gaza Strip drawing Israel's borders close to what existed prior to the Israeli control of territory at the culmination of the 1967 war; the plan has much similarity with the 2000 Camp David Summit and Taba Summit proposals, Olmert's 2008 Napkin map. Only settlements along the Green Line would be annexed by Israel with mutual land swaps, including Ma'ale Adumim, Pisgat Ze'ev and Giv'at Ze'ev. In the Geneva Initiative, Ariel would be dismantled and the Palestinians be given more sovereignty over East Jerusalem.
Jerusalem would be divided administratively, with East Jerusalem serving as the capital of the Palestinian state and West Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. A Multinational Force would play an important role. In return for removing most of the Israeli settlements, the Palestinians would limit their "right of return" of refugees to Israel to a number specified by the Israeli government and will put an end to any further claims and demands from Israel; the key concepts included in the Geneva Accord include: A mutual Israeli–Palestinian declaration of an end to the conflict and future claims. Mutual recognition of both nations and their right to an independent state. Complete Israeli withdrawal to the 1967 borders, with a limited number of settlement blocs on the basis of a 1:1 land swap. A comprehensive solution to the issue of the Palestinian refugees based on the Clinton Parameters. Jewish Jerusalem as Israel’s capital and Arab Jerusalem as Palestine’s capital with Jewish areas under Israeli sovereignty and Arab areas under Palestinian sovereignty.
A non-militarized Palestinian state and detailed security arrangements. The proposal for the Palestinian refugee problem is modeled after UNGAR 194, UNSC Resolution 242, the Arab Peace Initiative, it outlines a compensation plan for recognition of "Refugeehood" and loss of property and a remuneration plan for states that have hosted Palestinian refugees. The Geneva Accord outlines multiple options and modalities for refugees to exercise a choice of permanent place of residence in accordance with clauses set forth in the document, some of which include the option to elect to remain in their present host countries, or relocate to third countries, among them Israel, at the sovereign discretion of third countries; the Geneva Accord bases the International Border between the States of Palestine and Israel on the June 4th 1967 lines, in accordance with UNSC Resolution 242 and UNSC Resolution 338, with reciprocal modifications in the form of landswaps on a 1:1 basis. Israel will annex several areas densely populated by Jewish settlements near the Green Line.
In return for areas annexed by Israel from the West Bank, the Palestinians will receive territory of equal area and quality adjacent to the Gaza Strip. The State of Israel will assume responsibility for resettling the Israelis living in what would be determined as Palestinian sovereign territory such as Ariel and other settlements; the sharing of Jerusalem will be addressed along the Clinton Parameters. Jewish Jerusalem will serve as Arab Jerusalem as Palestine's capital; each state would be sovereign over the neighborhoods predominately inhabited by its respective community. The Old City will be open and free to movement and the parties will commit to safeguarding the character and freedom of worship in the city; the Implementation and Verification Group will act as an impartial international presence to monitor and verify the preservation of cultural heritage in the Old City in accordance with UNESCO World Heritage List rules. The IVG will establish an Old City Policing Unit to perform policing duties to defuse local tensions and resolve disputes.
An Implementation and Verification Group will be established to facilitate, assist in, guarantee and resolve disputes relating to the implementation of the agreement. Under the authority of the IVG would be a Multinational Force which will serve to provide security guarantees to the Parties, act as a deterrent, oversee the implementation of the relevant provisio
Water supply and sanitation in the State of Palestine
The water resources of Palestine are controlled by Israel and the division of groundwater is subject to provisions in the Oslo II Accord. The water quality is worse in the Gaza strip when compared to the West Bank. About a third to half of the delivered water in the Palestinian territories is lost in the distribution network; the lasting blockade of the Gaza Strip and the Gaza War have caused severe damage to the infrastructure in the Gaza Strip. Concerning wastewater, the existing treatment plants do not have the capacity to treat all of the produced wastewater, causing severe water pollution; the development of the sector depends on external financing. The region of Israel/Palestine is "water-stressed", like many other countries in the region, macroanalysts consider working out how to share water resources the "single most important problem" for Middle Eastern peoples. One third of all water consumed in Israel was by the 1990s drawn from groundwater that in turn came from the rains over the West Bank, the struggle over this resource has been described as a zero-sum game.
According to Human Rights Watch Israel's confiscation of water violates the Hague Regulations of 1907, which prohibit an occupying power from expropriating the resources of occupied territory for its own benefit. In the wake of 1967, Israel abrogated Palestinian water rights in the West Bank, with Military Order 92 of August of that year invested all power over water management to the military authority, though under international law Palestinians were entitled to a share. Both of Israel's own acquifers originate in West Bank territory and its northern cities would run dry without them. According to John Cooley, West Bank Palestinian farmers' wells, which in Ottoman, British and Egyptian law were a private resource owned by villages, were a key element behind Israel's post-1967 strategy to keep the area and in order to protect "Jewish water supplies" from what was considered "encroachment" many existing wells were blocked or sealed, Palestinians were forbidden to drill new wells without military authorization, impossible to obtain, restrictive quotas on Palestinian water use were imposed.
527 known springs in the West Bank furnish Palestinians with half of their domestic consumption. The historic wells furnishing Palestinian villages have been expropriated for the exclusive use of settlements: thus the major well servicing al-Eizariya was taken over by Ma'ale Adumim in the 1980s, while most of its land was stripped from them leaving the villagers with 2,979 of their original 11,179 dunams. Most of the Israeli water carrier Mekorot's drillings in the West Bank are located in the Jordan Valley, where Palestinians ended up by 2008 drawing 44% less water than what they accessed before the Interim Agreement of 1995. Under those Oslo Accords Israel obtained 80% of the West Bank's waters, with the remaining 20% Palestinian, a percentage which, did not concede the Palestinians any "ownership right". Of their agreed on allocation for 2011 of 138.5 MCM, Palestinians managed to extract only 87 MCM, given the difficulties in obtaining Israeli permits, the shortfall caused by the drying up of half of Palestinian wells has to be offset by buying water from Israel, with the net effect that per capita Palestinian water use has declined 20%.
The World Health Organization's minimum consumption per capita of water is 100 litres per diem Model Palestinian new town urban developments, like the city of Rawabi, have been hampered by restrictions on their access to water. Since the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the issue of the development of the area's water resources, has been a critical issue in regional conflict and negotiations involving Syria and Israel. After the Six-Day War, when Israel occupied the Palestinian territories, water use and sanitation have been linked to developments in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict; the water and land resources in the West Bank in particular are considered to constitute the major obstacle to the resolution of conflict in the area. Palestinians claim they have a legal right to ownership, or claim to use of three water sources in the area:the groundwater reservoir of the Mountain Aquifer, the Gaza Strip Coastal Aquifer and the Jordan River to the amount of 700 MCM/Y, over 50% of natural water resources between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River.
In 1995, the Palestinian Water Authority was established by a presidential decree. One year its functions and responsibilities were defined through a by-law, giving the PWA the mandate to manage water resources and execute the water policy; the 1995 Oslo II Accord allows the Palestinians in the West Bank the use of up to 118 million cubic meters water per year. 80 mcm was supposed to come from to drill new wells. However, the PWA was able to drill new wells for only 30 mcm at the expense of the existing springs and wells. In the Oslo II Accord, the Israelis are allotted four times the Palestinian portion or 80% of the joint-aquifer resources. However, 94% of the Western Aquifer was allotted to the Israelis for use within Israel; the allowed quantities have not been adapted after the end of the supposed five years interim period. The parties established the Joint Water Committee to carry out the provisions of the concerning article 40 of Annex III. According to a World Bank report, Israel extracted 80% more water from the West Bank than agreed in the Oslo Accord, while Palestinian abstractions were within the agreed range.
Contrary to expectations under Oslo II, the water extracted by Palestinians in the West Bank has dropped between 1999 and 2007. Due to the Israeli over-extraction, aquifer levels are near ″the point where irreversible damage is done to the