Simon Bradstreet was a colonial magistrate, businessman and the last governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Arriving in Massachusetts on the Winthrop Fleet in 1630, Bradstreet was constantly involved in the politics of the colony but became its governor only in 1679, he served on diplomatic missions and as agent to the crown in London, served as a commissioner to the New England Confederation. He was politically comparatively moderate, arguing minority positions in favor of freedom of speech and for accommodation of the demands of King Charles II following his restoration to the throne. Bradstreet was married to Anne, the daughter of Massachusetts co-founder Thomas Dudley and New England's first published poet, he was a businessman, investing in shipping interests. Due to his advanced age Cotton Mather referred to him as the "Nestor of New England", his descendants include Jr. and David Souter. Simon Bradstreet was baptized on March 18, 1603/4 in Horbling, the second of three sons of Simon and Margaret Bradstreet.
His father was the rector of the parish church, was descended from minor Irish nobility. With his father a vocal Nonconformist, the young Simon acquired his Puritan religious views early in life. At the age of 16, Bradstreet entered Cambridge, he studied there for two years, before entering the service of the Earl of Lincoln as an assistant to Thomas Dudley in 1622. There is some uncertainty about whether Bradstreet returned to Emmanuel College in 1623–1624. According to Venn, a Simon Bradstreet attended Emmanuel during this time, receiving an M. A. degree, but genealogist Robert Anderson is of the opinion that this was not the same individual. During one of Bradstreet's stints at Emmanuel he was recommended by John Preston as a tutor or governor to Lord Rich, son of the Earl of Warwick. Rich would have been 12 in 1623, Preston was named Emmanuel's master in 1622. Bradstreet took over Dudley's position when the latter moved temporarily to Boston in 1624. On Dudley's return several years Bradstreet briefly served as a steward to the Dowager Countess of Warwick.
In 1628 he married Dudley's daughter Anne, when she was 16. In 1628, Dudley and others from the Earl of Lincoln's circle formed the Massachusetts Bay Company, with a view toward establishing a Puritan colony in North America. Bradstreet became involved with the company in 1629, in April 1630, the Bradstreets joined the Dudleys and colonial Governor John Winthrop on the fleet of ships that carried them to Massachusetts Bay. There they founded the capital of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. After a brief stay in Boston, Bradstreet made his first residence in Newtowne, near the Dudleys in what is now Harvard Square. In 1637, during the Antinomian Controversy, he was one of the magistrates that sat at the trial of Anne Hutchinson, voted for her banishment from the colony. In 1639 he was granted land near that of John Endecott, he lived there for a time, moving in 1634 to Ipswich before becoming one of the founding settlers of Andover in 1648. In 1666 his Andover home was destroyed by fire because of "the carelessness of the maid".
He had varied business interests, speculating in land, investing with other colonists in a ship involved in the coasting trade. In 1660 he purchased shares in the Atherton Company, a land development company with interests in the "Narragansett Country", he became one of its leading figures, serving on the management committee, publishing handbills advertising its lands. When he died he owned more than 1,500 acres of land in five communities spread across the colony, he was known to own two slaves, a woman named her daughter Billah. Bradstreet was involved in colonial politics; when the council met for the first time in Boston, Bradstreet was selected to serve as colonial secretary, a post he would hold until 1644. He was politically moderate, arguing against legislation and judicial decisions punishing people for speaking out against the governing magistrates. Bradstreet was outspoken in opposition to the witch hysteria that infested his home town of Salem, culminating in numerous trials in 1692.
He served for many years as a commissioner representing Massachusetts to the New England Confederation, an organization that coordinated matters of common interest among most of the New England colonies. He was chosen as an assistant, serving on the council that dominated the public affairs of the colony, but did not reach higher office until 1678, when he was first elected deputy governor under John Leverett, he was against military actions against some of the colony's foreign neighbors, opposing official intervention in a French Acadian dispute in the 1640s, spoke against attacking the New Netherland during the First Anglo-Dutch War. Bradstreet was sent on a number of diplomatic missions, dealing with settlers, other English colonies, the Dutch in New Amsterdam. In 1650 he was sent to Hartford, where the Treaty of Hartford was negotiated to determine the boundary between the English colonies and New Amsterdam. In the following years he negotiated an agreement with settlers in York and Kittery to bring them under Massachusetts jurisdiction.
Following the 1660 restoration of Charles II to the throne of England, colonial authorities again became concerned about preserving their charter rights. Bradstreet in 1661 headed a legislative committee to "consider and debate such matters touching their patent rights, privileges, duty to his Majesty, as should to them seem proper." The
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
San Bernardino, California
San Bernardino is a city located in the Riverside–San Bernardino metropolitan area and that serves as the county seat of San Bernardino County, United States. As one of the Inland Empire's anchor cities, San Bernardino spans 81 square miles on the floor of the San Bernardino Valley and as of 2017 has a population of 216,995. San Bernardino is the 17th-largest city in California and the 102nd-largest city in the United States. San Bernardino is home to numerous diplomatic missions for the Inland Empire, being one of four cities in California with numerous consulates; the governments of Guatemala and Mexico have established their consulates in the downtown area of the city. California State University, San Bernardino is located in the northwestern part of the city; the university hosts the Coussoulis Arena. Other attractions in San Bernardino include ASU Fox Theatre, the McDonald's Museum, located on the original site of the world's first McDonald's, California Theatre, the San Bernardino Mountains, San Manuel Amphitheater, the largest outdoor amphitheater in the United States.
In addition, the city is home to the Inland Empire 66ers baseball team. In August 2012, San Bernardino became the largest city to file for protection under Chapter 9 of the U. S. Bankruptcy code. San Bernardino's case was filed on August 1. On December 2, 2015, a terrorist attack left 14 people dead and 22 injured; the city of San Bernardino, occupies much of the San Bernardino Valley, which indigenous tribespeople referred to as "The Valley of the Cupped Hand of God". The Tongva Indians called the San Bernardino area Wa'aach in their language. Upon seeing the immense geological arrowhead-shaped rock formation on the side of the San Bernardino Mountains, they found the hot and cold springs to which the "arrowhead" seemed to point. Politana was the first Spanish settlement in the San Bernardino Valley, named for Bernardino of Siena. Politana was established May 20, 1810, as a mission chapel and supply station by the Mission San Gabriel in the ranchería of the Guachama Indians that lived on the bluff, now known as Bunker Hill, near Lytle Creek.
Two years the settlement was destroyed by superstitious local tribesmen, following powerful earthquakes that shook the region. Several years the Serrano and Mountain Cahuilla rebuilt the Politana rancheria, in 1819 invited the missionaries to return to the valley, they established the San Bernardino de Sena Estancia. Serrano and Cahuilla people inhabited Politana until long after the 1830s decree of secularization and the 1842 inclusion into the Rancho San Bernardino land grant of the José del Carmen Lugo family; the city of San Bernardino is one of the oldest communities in the state of California, in its present-day location, was not settled until 1851, after California became a state. The first Anglo-American colony was established by pioneers associated with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or Mormons. Following the Mormon colonists purchase of Rancho San Bernardino, the establishment of the town of San Bernardino in 1851, San Bernardino County was formed in 1853 from parts of Los Angeles County.
Mormon colonists developed irrigated, commercial farming and lumbering, supplying agricultural produce and lumber throughout Southern California. The city was incorporated in 1857; that year, most of the colonists were recalled by Brigham Young in 1857 due to the Utah War. Once regarded in early California, news of the Mountain Meadows Massacre poisoned attitudes toward the Mormons; some Mormons would stay in San Bernardino and some returned from Utah, but a real estate consortium from El Monte and Los Angeles bought most of the lands of the old rancho and of the departing colonists. They sold these lands to new settlers who came to dominate the culture and politics in the county and San Bernardino became a typical American frontier town. Many of the new land owners disliked the sober Mormons, indulging in drinking at saloons now allowed in the town. Disorder and violence in the vicinity became common, reaching a climax in the 1859 Ainsworth - Gentry Affair. In 1860 a gold rush began in the mountains nearby with the discovery of gold by William F. Holcomb in Holcomb Valley early 1860.
Another strike followed in the upper reach of Lytle Creek. By the 1860s, San Bernardino had became an important trading hub in Southern California; the city on the Los Angeles – Salt Lake Road, became the starting point for the Mojave Road from 1858 and Bradshaw Trail from 1862 to the mines along the Colorado River and within the Arizona Territory in the gold rush of 1862-1864. Near San Bernardino is a formed arrowhead-shaped rock formation on the side of a mountain, it measures 1375 feet by 449 feet. According to the Native American legend regarding the landmark arrowhead, an arrow from Heaven burned the formation onto the mountainside in order to show tribes where they could be healed. During the mid-19th century, "Dr." David Noble Smith claimed that a saint-like being appeared before him and told of a far-off land with exceptional climate and curative waters, marked by a gigantic arrowhead. Smith's search for that unique arrowhead formation began in Texas, ended at Arrowhead Springs in California in 1857.
By 1889, word of the springs, along with the hotel on the site had grown considerably. H
Fenny Compton is a village and parish in Warwickshire, about eight miles north of Banbury. In the 2001 census the parish had a population of 797, its name comes from the Anglo-Saxon Fennig Cumbtūn meaning "marshy farmstead in a valley". The Parish church of St. Peter and St. Clare was built in the 14th century and is a Grade II* listed building; the village has a doctor's consulting-room, a small Co-op Food store, a popular local pub located centrally and another pub on the outskirts. The old part of the village has many notable buildings including the Woad House, Knotts Cottage, the Red House, the Old School House and the Hollies. Fenny Compton is small but had two stations, one on the Great Western Railway route from Oxford to Birmingham, the other being on the Stratford-upon-Avon and Midland Junction Railway route from Bicester to Broom; the GWR station and SMJ station were built alongside each other controlled by a joint signal box. The Fenny Compton Railway Station closed in 1964 apart from the railway line from Fenny Compton to CAD Kineton.
The village was struck by an F0/T1 tornado on 23 November 1981, as part of the record-breaking nationwide tornado outbreak on that day. Banburyshire http://www.fennycompton.com https://web.archive.org/web/20050901200128/http://www.bmsgh.org/parish/warw/tyaiw/fennycompton.html http://www.warwickshirerailways.com/index.htm
Hartford is the capital city of Connecticut. It was the seat of Hartford County until Connecticut disbanded county government in 1960; the city is nicknamed the "Insurance Capital of the World", as it hosts many insurance company headquarters and is the region's major industry. It is the core city in the Greater Hartford area of Connecticut. Census estimates since the 2010 United States Census have indicated that Hartford is the fourth-largest city in Connecticut, behind the coastal cities of Bridgeport, New Haven, Stamford. Hartford is among the oldest cities in the United States, it is home to the nation's oldest public art museum, the oldest publicly funded park, the oldest continuously published newspaper, the second-oldest secondary school. It is home to the Mark Twain House, where the author wrote his most famous works and raised his family, among other significant sites. Mark Twain wrote in 1868, "Of all the beautiful towns it has been my fortune to see this is the chief." Hartford was the richest city in the United States for several decades following the American Civil War.
Today, it is one of the poorest cities in the nation, with 3 out of every 10 families living below the poverty threshold. In sharp contrast, the Greater Hartford metropolitan area is ranked 32nd of 318 metropolitan areas in total economic production and 8th out of 280 metropolitan statistical areas in per capita income. Hartford coordinates certain Hartford-Springfield regional development matters through the Knowledge Corridor economic partnership. Various tribes lived around Hartford, all part of the Algonquin people; these included the Podunks east of the Connecticut River. The first Europeans known to have explored the area were the Dutch under Adriaen Block, who sailed up the Connecticut in 1614. Dutch fur traders from New Amsterdam returned in 1623 with a mission to establish a trading post and fortify the area for the Dutch West India Company; the original site was located on the south bank of the Park River in the present-day Sheldon/Charter Oak neighborhood. This fort was called Fort Hoop or the "House of Hope."
In 1633, Jacob Van Curler formally bought the land around Fort Hoop from the Pequot chief for a small sum. It was home to a couple families and a few dozen soldiers; the fort was abandoned by 1654. The Dutch outpost and the tiny contingent of Dutch soldiers who were stationed there did little to check the English migration, the Dutch soon realized that they were vastly outnumbered; the House of Hope remained an outpost, but it was swallowed up by waves of English settlers. In 1650, Peter Stuyvesant met with English representatives to negotiate a permanent boundary between the Dutch and English colonies; the English began to arrive in 1636, settling upstream from Fort Hoop near the present-day Downtown and Sheldon/Charter Oak neighborhoods. Puritan pastors Thomas Hooker and Samuel Stone, along with Governor John Haynes, led 100 settlers with 130 head of cattle in a trek from Newtown in the Massachusetts Bay Colony and started their settlement just north of the Dutch fort; the settlement was called Newtown, but it was changed to Hartford in 1637 in honor of Stone's hometown of Hertford, England.
The etymology of Hartford is the ford where harts cross, or "deer crossing." The Seal of the City of Hartford features a male deer. The fledgling colony along the Connecticut River was outside of the jurisdiction of the Massachusetts Bay Colony's charter and had to determine how it was to be governed. Therefore, Hooker delivered a sermon that inspired the writing of the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, a document ratified January 14, 1639 which invested the people with the authority to govern, rather than ceding such authority to a higher power. Historians suggest that Hooker's conception of self-rule embodied in the Fundamental Orders inspired the Connecticut Constitution, the U. S. Constitution. Today, one of Connecticut's nicknames is the "Constitution State."The original settlement area contained the site of the Charter Oak, an old white oak tree in which colonists hid Connecticut's Royal Charter of 1662 to protect it from confiscation by an English governor-general. The state adopted the oak tree as the emblem on the Connecticut state quarter.
The Charter Oak Monument is located at the corner of Charter Oak Place, a historic street, Charter Oak Avenue. Throughout the 19th century, Hartford's residential population, economic productivity, cultural influence, concentration of political power continued to grow; the advance of the Industrial Revolution in Hartford in the mid-1800s made this city by late century one of the wealthiest per capita in United States. On December 15, 1814, delegates from the five New England states gathered at the Hartford Convention to discuss New England's possible secession from the United States. During the early 19th century, the Hartford area was a center of abolitionist activity, the most famous abolitionist family was the Beechers; the Reverend Lyman Beecher was an important Congregational minister known for his anti-slavery sermons. His daughter Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin.
Thomas Dudley was a colonial magistrate who served several terms as governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Dudley was the chief founder of Newtowne Cambridge and built the town's first home, he provided land and funds to establish the Roxbury Latin School, signed Harvard College's new charter during his 1650 term as governor. Dudley was a devout Puritan, opposed to religious views not conforming with his. In this he was more rigid than other early Massachusetts leaders like John Winthrop, but less confrontational than John Endecott; the son of a military man who died when he was young, Dudley saw military service himself during the French Wars of Religion, acquired some legal training before entering the service of his kinsman the Earl of Lincoln. Along with other Puritans in Lincoln's circle, Dudley helped organize the establishment of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, sailing with Winthrop in 1630. Although he served only four one-year terms as governor of the colony, he was in other positions of authority.
Dudley's daughter Anne Bradstreet was a prominent early American poet. One of the gates of Harvard Yard, which existed from 1915 to 1947, was named in his honor, Harvard's Dudley House is named for the family, as is the town of Dudley, Massachusetts. Thomas Dudley was born in Yardley Hastings, a village near Northampton, England, on 12 October 1576, to Roger and Susanna Dudley, his father, a captain in the English army, was killed in battle. It was for some time believed he was killed in the 1590 Battle of Ivry, but this is unlikely because Susanna Dudley was found to be widowed by 1588; the 1586 battle of Zutphen has been suggested as the occasion of Roger Dudley's death. The family has long asserted connections to the Sutton-Dudleys of Dudley Castle. Like many other young men of good birth Thomas Dudley became a page, in his case in the household of William, Baron Compton at nearby Castle Ashby, he raised a company of men following a call to arms by Queen Elizabeth, served in the English army led by Sir Arthur Savage fighting with King Henry IV of France during the French Wars of Religion.
He fought the Spanish at the Siege of Amiens in 1597 which in September surrendered and was the final action of the war. After he was discharged from his military service, Dudley returned to Northamptonshire, he entered the service of Sir Augustine Nicolls, a relative of his mother's, as a clerk. Nicolls, a lawyer and a judge, was recognized for his honesty at a time when many judges were susceptible to bribery and other malfeasance, he was sympathetic to the Puritan cause. After Nicolls' sudden death in 1616, Dudley took a position with Theophilus Clinton, 4th Earl of Lincoln, serving as a steward responsible for managing some of the earl's estates. Although there is a blood connection, the reason for the appointment may be that Dudley's soldier grandfather Henry had served under Edward Clinton, 1st Earl of Lincoln; the earl's estate in Lincolnshire was a center of Nonconformist thought, Dudley was recognized for his Puritan virtues by the time he entered the earl's service. According to Cotton Mather's biography of Dudley, he disentangled a legacy of financial difficulties bequeathed to the earl, the earl came to depend on Dudley for financial advice.
Dudley's services were not pecuniary in nature: he is said to have had an important role in securing the engagement of Clinton to Lord Saye's daughter. In 1622, Dudley acquired the assistance of Simon Bradstreet, drawn to Dudley's daughter Anne; the two were married six years when she was 16. Dudley was out of Lincoln's service between about 1624 and 1628. During this time he lived with his growing family in Boston, where he was a parishioner at St Botolph's Church, where John Cotton preached; the Dudleys were known to be back on Lincoln's estate in 1628, when his daughter Anne came down with smallpox and was treated there. In 1628 Dudley and other Puritans decided to form the Massachusetts Bay Company, with a view toward establishing a Puritan colony in North America. Dudley's name does not appear on the land grant issued to the company that year, but he was certainly involved in the formative stages of the company, whose investors and supporters included many individuals in the Earl of Lincoln's circle.
The company sent a small group of colonists led by John Endecott to begin building a settlement, called Salem, on the shores of Massachusetts Bay. The company acquired a royal charter in April 1629, that year made the critical decision to transport the charter and the company's corporate governance to the colony; the Cambridge Agreement, which enabled the emigrating shareholders to buy out those that remained behind, may have been written by Dudley. In October 1629 John Winthrop was elected governor, John Humphrey was chosen as his deputy. However, as the fleet was preparing to sail in March 1630, Humphrey decided he would not leave England and Dudley was chosen as deputy governor in his place. Dudley and his family sailed for the New World on the Arbella, the flagship of the Winthrop Fleet, on 8 April 1630 and arrived in Salem Harbour on 22 June. Finding conditions at Salem inadequate for establishing a larger colony and Dudley led forays into the Charles River watershed, but were unable to agree on a si
Brigham Young was an American religious leader and settler. He was the second president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1847 until his death in 1877, he founded Salt Lake City and he served as the first governor of the Utah Territory. Young led the foundings of the precursors to the University of Utah and Brigham Young University. Young had many nicknames, among the most popular being "American Moses", like the biblical figure, Young led his followers, the Mormon pioneers, in an exodus through a desert, to what they saw as a promised land. Young was dubbed by his followers the "Lion of the Lord" for his bold personality and was commonly called "Brother Brigham" by Latter-day Saints. A polygamist, Young had 55 wives, he instituted a church ban against conferring the priesthood on men of black African descent, led the church during the Utah War against the United States. Young was born to John Young and Abigail "Nabby" Howe, a farming family in Whitingham and worked as a travelling carpenter and blacksmith, among other trades.
Young was first married in 1824 to Miriam Angeline Works. Though he had converted to the Methodist faith in 1823, Young was drawn to Mormonism after reading the Book of Mormon shortly after its publication in 1830, he joined the new church in 1832 and traveled to Upper Canada as a missionary. After his wife died in 1832, Young joined many Mormons in establishing a community in Kirtland, Ohio. Young was ordained a member of the original Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in 1835, he assumed a leadership role within that organization in taking Mormonism to the United Kingdom and organizing the exodus of Latter Day Saints from Missouri in 1838. In 1844, while in jail awaiting trial for treason charges, Joseph Smith, president of the church, was killed by an armed mob. Several claimants to the role of church president emerged during the succession crisis. Before a large meeting convened to discuss the succession in Nauvoo, Sidney Rigdon, the senior surviving member of the church's First Presidency, argued there could be no successor to the deceased prophet and that he should be made the "Protector" of the church.
Young opposed this motion. Smith had earlier recorded a revelation which stated the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles was "equal in authority and power" to the First Presidency, so Young claimed that the leadership of the church fell to the Twelve Apostles; the majority in attendance were persuaded that the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles was to lead the church with Young as the Quorum's president. Many of Young's followers would reminisce that while Young spoke to the congregation, he looked or sounded like Smith, which they attributed to the power of God. Young was ordained President of the Church in December 1847, three and a half years after Smith's death. Rigdon became the president of a separate church organization based in Pittsburgh and other potential successors emerged to lead what became other denominations of the movement. Repeated conflict led Young to relocate his group of Latter-day Saints to the Salt Lake Valley, part of Mexico. Young organized the journey that would take the Mormon pioneers to Winter Quarters, Nebraska, in 1846 to the Salt Lake Valley.
By the time Young arrived at the final destination, it had come under American control as a result of war with Mexico, although U. S. sovereignty would not be confirmed until 1848. Young arrived in the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847, a date now recognized as Pioneer Day in Utah. Young's expedition was one of one of the best organized westward treks. On August 22, 29 days after arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, Young organized the Mormon Tabernacle Choir. After three years of leading the church as the President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, Young reorganized a new First Presidency and was declared president of the church on December 27, 1847; as colonizer and founder of Salt Lake City, Young was appointed the territory's first governor and superintendent of American Indian affairs by President Millard Fillmore on February 3, 1851. During his time as prophet, Young directed the establishment of settlements throughout present-day Utah, Arizona, Nevada and parts of southern Colorado and northern Mexico.
Under his direction, the Mormons built roads and bridges, irrigation projects. Young was one of the first to subscribe to Union Pacific stock, for the construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad. Young established Fillmore as the territory's first capital. Young organized a board of regents to establish a university in the Salt Lake Valley, it was established on February 1850, as the University of Deseret. In 1851, Young and several federal officials, including territorial Secretary Broughton Harris, became unable to work cooperatively. Harris and the others departed Utah without replacements being named, these individuals became known as the Runaway Officials of 1851. Young supported slavery and its expansion into Utah, led the efforts to legalize and regulate slavery in the 1852 Act in Relation to Service, based on his beliefs on slavery. In 1856, Young organized an efficient mail service. In 1858, following the events of the Utah War, he stepped down to Alfred Cumming. Young was the longest-serving President of the LDS Church in history.