Oxon Cove Park and Oxon Hill Farm
Oxon Cove Park and Oxon Cove Farm is a national historic district that includes a living farm museum operated by the National Park Service, located at Oxon Hill, Prince George's County, Maryland. It is part of National Capital Parks-East, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2003. The park provides an excellent resource for environmental studies, wildlife observing and other recreational activities made possible by easy access to the Potomac River. Fourteen buildings and two structures are located in the historic district and associated with the property's sequential development as a plantation, an institutional agricultural complex, a farm museum; the Oxon Hill Farm includes the Mount Welby home, Farm Museum, barns, a stable, feed building, livestock buildings and a visitor activity barn. Farm animals include cows and chickens. Visitors can learn about the workings of a farm; the Farm Museum building displays historical farm equipment dating from the late 19th century.
The district includes a hexagonal frame outbuilding. From the 1890s to 1950s, under the ownership of St. Elizabeth's Hospital, the site was used as a therapeutic treatment center for the mentally ill known as Godding Croft; the Oxon Cove Farm historic district is located on the crest of a ridge overlooking the Potomac River, north of I-95. The principal dwelling, known as "Mount Welby," is a c. 1807-1811 two-story three-bay brick structure laid in Flemish bond with Italianate detailing and sheltered by a shed roof, visible to motorists crossing the interstate Woodrow Wilson Bridge. The house was built by Irish immigrant Dr. Samuel DeButts, it was entrusted to the National Park Service in 1959 in order to protect its resources from increased development. From 1891 to 1950, the property was used as a therapeutic farm by St. Elizabeths Hospital, was known as Godding Croft; the house is operated as a historic house museum, with exhibits about period life in the early 19th century for the owners and slaves on the plantation.
Other exhibits focus on the home's role at Godding Croft. Open-air museum National Park Service, National Capital Parks - East, Oxon Cove Park and Oxon Hill Farm website Oxon Cove Farm, Prince George's County, Inventory No.: PG:76A-13, including photo in 1988, at Maryland Historical Trust website M-NCPPC Inventory of Historic Sites.
Fort Washington Park
Fort Washington, located near the community of Fort Washington, was for many decades the only defensive fort protecting Washington D. C; the original fort, overlooking the Potomac River, was completed in 1809, was begun as Fort Warburton, but renamed in 1808. During the War of 1812, the fort was destroyed by its own garrison during a British advance; the current historic fort—maintained by the National Park Service—was constructed in 1824. It is a stone structure with a good cannon shot down the Potomac River; the fort was extensively remodeled in the 1890s. The Fort was turned over to the U. S. Department of the Interior in 1946 after its last military personnel departed; the expansive grounds of the present Fort Washington Park, with its extensive hiking/bicycle paths and river view, are a scenic venue for picnicking and outdoor recreation. Historical re-enactments are held periodically at the Fort, there is a small museum. In 2006, repairs were done to shore up the crumbling outer wall, in preparation for the 200th anniversary.
The Fort Washington Light, located below the fort, was established in 1857. The current tower, standing 28 feet tall, was constructed in 1882. Native Americans of the Piscataway tribe had long lived in the area where Piscataway Creek meets the Potomac River in southern Maryland and understood the defensive value of the promontory above the river there; when Governor Leonard Calvert first explored the area in 1634, he "found the surrounding heights covered with Indians, to the number of about five hundred, in hostile array." After securing peace with the Piscataway, in 1645 an act for the defense of the province established a garrison of 100 men at the same site at the mouth of Piscataway creek. In 1661, Edward Digges, former Colonial Governor of Virginia established The Manor of Warburton on 1200 acres bounded by Piscataway Creek, the Potomac River and Swan Creek, his heirs continued to live on the property throughout the Colonial period. When George Washington built Mount Vernon, it was directly across the river from Warburton Manor.
Washington would visit with the Digges family, or pass through Warburton after crossing the river on his way to Upper Marlboro or Annapolis, Maryland. Through these visits, from his vantage point at Mount Vernon, Washington became familiar with the Warburton location and came to understand its defensive advantages on the Potomac River. In 1794, as President, he directed Secretary of War Henry Knox to construct a fortification on the site, with a budget not to exceed $3,000; the money authorized was instead spent trying to construct a fort at Jones Point, on the Virginia side of the river. In 1798 Washington again urged that a fort be built at Digges Point. In 1805, when Congress was contemplating a second coastal fortification system, the Secretary of War directed Lieutenant Colonel Jonathan Williams to evaluate Digges Point for a "circular battery, say of twelve cannon." Captain George Bomford was assigned to the work and the plans of Fort Madison at Annapolis were used for the Potomac fort.
It was soon discovered. Colonel Williams directed Captain Bomford to lay out the work again but on a reduced scale; the barracks was shifted to one wing shortened to accommodate the new design. Work commenced on April 14, 1808 and was completed on December 1, 1809, it was anticipated that 120 artillerymen would be assigned to the post as a wartime garrison and gunboats from the Navy Yard would support the fort. Captain Bomford described the fort as "an enclosed work of masonry comprehending a semi elliptical face with a circular flank on the side next to the Potomac." There were quarters for two companies and a total of 15 cannon. On the bluff above the fort, a masonry tower could house six additional cannons. Captain Bomford reported "Fort Washington was an attempt to adopt a standardized plan to an unsuitable site, it violated a fundamental rule in the art of fortifications—the fort must suit its site." When completed, it was the only fortification on the Potomac River. Perpendicular earthen walls stood 14 feet above the bottom of the ditch that surrounded the river side of the fort.
A tower facing the river contained six cannon. Although it mounted twelve or fifteen guns which commanded the river below its position, the American Brigadier General William H. Winder, commanding the military district around Washington, feared that a determined naval force could blast its way past the fort, it would have Washington at its mercy. A survey the previous year noted that the fort blockhouse was only able to resist musket fire, could be destroyed by a cannon as small as a twelve-pounder, its garrison consisted of 49 men under Captain Samuel T. Dyson, of the United States Army's Corps of Artillery, elements of the U. S. 9th and 12th Infantry Regiments. On June 18, 1812, in response to British impressment of American sailors and other grievances, the United States declared war on the United Kingdom. At the time, Britain was at war with Napoleonic France and, with their fleet thus engaged, there was little activity along or against the American coasts. A British squadron did make an attempt to ascend the Potomac in July 1813, but turned back after meeting some resistance from militia and encountering treacherous shoals.
As concern for the security of Washington rose, Major Pierre L'Enfant was sent to evaluate the fort and reported "the whole original design was bad and it is impossible to make a perfect work of it by any alterations." The Secretary of the Navy ordered an additional water battery of 9 guns to be built and manned by seamen under Lieutenant Decius Wadsworth. At this time, the name
The Appalachian National Scenic Trail known as the Appalachian Trail or the A. T. is a marked hiking trail in the Eastern United States extending between Springer Mountain in Georgia and Mount Katahdin in Maine. The trail is about 2,200 miles long, though the exact length changes over time as parts are modified or rerouted; the Appalachian Trail Conservancy describes the Appalachian Trail as the longest hiking-only trail in the world. More than 2 million people are said to take a hike on part of the trail at least once each year; the idea of the Appalachian Trail came about in 1921. The trail itself was completed in 1937 after more than a decade of work, although improvements and changes continue, it is maintained by 31 trail clubs and multiple partnerships, managed by the National Park Service, United States Forest Service, the nonprofit Appalachian Trail Conservancy. Most of the trail is in forest or wild lands, although some portions traverse towns and farms, it passes through 14 states: Georgia, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine.
Thru-hikers attempt to hike the trail in its entirety in a single season. The number of thru-hikes per year has increased with 715 northbound and 133 southbound thru-hikes reported for 2017. Many books, documentaries and fan organizations are dedicated to the pursuit; some hike from one end to the other turn around and thru-hike the trail the other way, known as a "yo-yo". An extension known as the International Appalachian Trail continues northeast, crossing Maine and cutting through Canada to Newfoundland, with sections continuing in Greenland, through Europe, into Morocco. Other separate extensions continue the southern end of the Appalachian range in Alabama and continue south into Florida, creating what is known as the Eastern Continental Trail; the Appalachian Trail, the Continental Divide Trail, the Pacific Crest Trail form what is known as the Triple Crown of Hiking in the United States. The trail was conceived by Benton MacKaye, a forester who wrote his original plan—called "An Appalachian Trail, A Project in Regional Planning"—shortly after the death of his wife in 1921.
MacKaye's idea detailed a grand trail that would connect a series of farms and wilderness work/study camps for city-dwellers. In 1922, at the suggestion of Major William A. Welch, director of the Palisades Interstate Park Commission, his idea was publicized by Raymond H. Torrey with a story in the New York Evening Post under a full-page banner headline reading "A Great Trail from Maine to Georgia!" The idea was adopted by the new Palisades Interstate Park Trail Conference as their main project. On October 7, 1923, the first section of the trail, from Bear Mountain west through Harriman State Park to Arden, New York, was opened. MacKaye called for a two-day Appalachian Trail conference to be held in March 1925 in Washington, D. C; this meeting inspired the formation of the Appalachian Trail Conference. A retired judge named Arthur Perkins and his younger associate Myron Avery took up the cause. In 1929, a member of the Connecticut Forest and Park Association and its Blue Blazed Trails committee, found Ned Anderson, a farmer in Sherman, who took on the task of mapping and blazing the Connecticut leg of the trail.
It ran from Dog Tail Corners in Webatuck, New York, which borders Kent, Connecticut, at Ashley Falls, 50 miles through the northwest corner of the state, up to Bear Mountain at the Massachusetts border. Anderson's efforts helped spark renewed interest in the trail, Avery was able to bring other states on board. Upon taking over the ATC, Avery adopted the more practical goal of building a simple hiking trail, he and MacKaye clashed over the ATC's response to a major commercial development along the trail's path. Avery reigned as Chairman of the ATC from 1932 to 1952. Avery became the first to walk the trail end-to-end, though not as a thru-hike, in 1936. In August 1937, the trail was completed to Sugarloaf Mountain in Maine, the ATC shifted its focus toward protecting the trail lands and mapping the trail for hikers. Many of the trail's present highlights were not part of the trail in 1937: Roan Mountain, North Carolina and Tennessee. Except for places where the Civilian Conservation Corps was brought in, the original trail climbed straight up and down mountains, creating rough hiking conditions and a treadway prone to severe erosion.
The ATC's trail crews and volunteer trail-maintaining clubs have relocated or rehabilitated miles of trail since that time. In 1936, a 121-day Maine to Georgia veteran's group funded and supported thru-hike was reported to have been completed, with all but three miles of the new trail cleared and blazed, by six Boy Scouts from New York City and their guides; the completed thru-hike was much recorded and accepted by the Appalachian Long Distance Hikers Association. In 1938, the trail sustained major damage from a hurricane; this happened right before the start of World War II
Roland Park, Baltimore
Roland Park is the first planned "suburban" community in North America, located in Baltimore, Maryland. It was developed between 1920 as an upper-class streetcar suburb; the early phases of the neighborhood were designed by Edward Bouton and Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. Jarvis and Conklin, a Chicago investment firm, purchased 500 acres of land near Lake Roland in 1891 and founded the Roland Park Company with $1 million in capital. Not long after, the Panic of 1893 forced Jarvis and Conklin to sell the Roland Park Company to the firm of Stewart and Young. Despite the dire economics after 1893, Stewart and Young continued investment in the development; the Roland Park Company hired Kansas City developer Edward H. Bouton as the general manager and George Edward Kessler to lay out the lots for the first tract, they hired the Olmsted Brothers to lay out the second tract, installed expensive infrastructure, including graded-streets, gutters and constructed the Lake Roland Elevated Railroad. The company consulted George E Jr. to advise them on the installation of a sewer system.
Bouton placed restrictive covenants on all lots in Roland Park. These included setback proscriptions against any business operations. Bouton and the Roland Park Company intended to include covenants to exclude blacks from the development, but on advice of counsel did not include them in the deeds; the Roland Park Company would insert these covenants into deeds in Guilford and Northwood. It was a modern development, electricity for lighting throughout the neighborhood as well as gas for cooking and lighting. Water came from artesian wells dug up to 500 feet, nearly 50,000 feet of water mains were constructed, in addition to 50,000 feet of roadways, 100,000 feet of sidewalks. Bouton and some Baltimore investors purchased the interests of Roland Park and reorganized the company in 1903. Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. cited Roland Park as a model residential subdivision to his Harvard School of Design students. Duncan McDuffie, developer of St. Francis Wood in San Francisco, called Roland Park "an ideal residential district."
Jesse Clyde Nichols had found inspiration in Roland Park when he was planning the Country Club District of Kansas City. Nichols continued to refer to Roland Park as an ideal residential development when he counselled other residential developers. Roland Park Shopping Center is a single building strip of stores which opened in 1907 to serve the community, located at the corner of Upland Road and Roland Avenue, it has been credited by Guinness World Records as the world's first shopping center. Since it had only six stores, despite it being an important milestone, larger shopping centers such as the Country Club Plaza in Kansas City, Missouri have received more attention as being "first," depending on what definition is used; the neighborhood is within the bounds of Baltimore City Public Schools and is assigned to Roland Park Elementary/Middle School, a K-8 school that earned the Blue Ribbon for Academic Excellence from the state department of education. There are several private schools in the neighborhood: Friends School of Baltimore, Gilman School, Roland Park Country School, the Bryn Mawr School, Cathedral School, Boys' Latin School of Maryland.
In addition, St. Mary's Seminary and University is located in Roland Park. There is a branch of the Enoch Pratt Free Library in Roland Park; the Baltimore Light Rail's Cold Spring Lane Station is within walking distance of much of the neighborhood, just across the Jones Falls Expressway to the west. Roland Park Historic District, Baltimore City, including undated photo, at Maryland Historical Trust, accompanying map Community of Roland Park History of Roland Park Baltimore, Maryland, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary Historical Marker Database, Roland Park, includes photos Roland Park: Most Fashionable and Pretentious Suburb - Ghosts of Baltimore blog
Antietam National Battlefield
Antietam National Battlefield is a National Park Service protected area along Antietam Creek in Sharpsburg, Washington County, northwestern Maryland. It commemorates the American Civil War Battle of Antietam that occurred on September 17, 1862; the area, situated on fields among the Appalachian foothills near the Potomac River, features the battlefield site and visitor center, a national military cemetery, stone arch Burnside's Bridge and a field hospital museum. In the Battle of Antietam, General Robert E. Lee's first invasion of the North ended on this battlefield in 1862. Established as Antietam National Battlefield Site August 30, 1890, the park was transferred from the War Department August 10, 1933, redesignated November 10, 1978. Along with all historic areas administered by the National Park Service, the battlefield was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. Additional documentation on the site was recorded by the National Park Service on February 27, 2009.
Antietam National Cemetery, which adjoins the park, covers 11.36 acres and contains more than 4,976 interments. The cemetery was commissioned in 1865, interments begun in 1867 after an arduous process of identifying the dead, only successful in about 40% of cases. Civil War era burials in this cemetery consist of only Union soldiers; the cemetery contains the graves of veterans and their wives from the Spanish–American War, both World Wars, the Korean War. The cemetery was closed to additional interments in 1953. Two exceptions have been made, the first in 1978 for Congressman Goodloe Byron and the second in 2000 for the remains of USN Fireman Patrick Howard Roy, killed in the attack on the USS Cole; the cemetery was placed under the War Department on July 14, 1870. The gatehouse at the cemetery's entrance was the first building designed by Paul J. Pelz architect of the Library of Congress; the Antietam National Battlefield Visitor Center contains museum exhibits about the battle and the Civil War.
The Visitor Center was constructed in 1962 as part of the Mission 66 plan. A 26-minute orientation film narrated by James Earl Jones is shown on the half-hour; the visitor center is open seven days a week from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. except on Thanksgiving and New Year's Day. Park rangers offer interpretive talks. An audio tour is available for purchase to accompany the self-guided 8.5-mile driving tour of the battlefield with eleven stops. Park Grounds are open daylight hours. There is a park entrance fee of $10.00 per vehicle. The entrance fee is valid for three days; the Pry House Field Hospital Museum is located in the house that served as Union Commander General George B. McClellan's headquarters during the battle. Exhibits focus on period medical care of the wounded, as well as information about the Pry House; the museum is sponsored by the National Museum of Civil War Medicine. The Civil War Trust and its federal and local partners, including the Save Historic Antietam Foundation, have acquired and preserved 461 acres of the overall battlefield, including the "epicenter" tract, a 44.4-acre privately owned parcel in the heart of the battlefield park between the Cornfield and the Dunker Church.
The land known as the Wilson farm, was purchased by the Trust in 2015 for about $1 million. The preservation organization has since removed the postwar house and barn that stood on the property along Hagerstown Pike and returned the land to its wartime appearance; the Battle began at dawn on September 17, 1862, when Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker began the Union artillery bombardment of the Confederate positions of Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson in the Miller cornfield. Hooker's troops drove the Confederates from their positions. Around 7 a.m. Jackson pushed the Union troops back. Union Maj. Gen. Joseph K. Mansfield sent his men into the fray and regained some of the ground lost to the Confederates; as the fighting in the cornfield was coming to a close, Maj. Gen. William H. French was moving his Federals forward to support Maj. Gen. John Sedgwick and veered into Confederate Maj. Gen. D. H. Hill's troops posted in the Sunken Road. Fierce fighting continued here for four hours before the Union troops took the road.
On the southeast side of town, Union Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside's XI Corps had been trying to cross Antietam Creek since mid-morning, being held up by only 500 Georgia sharpshooters. Around 1 p.m. they crossed Burnside's Bridge and took the heights. After a 2-hour lull to reform the Union lines, they advanced up the hill, driving the Confederates back towards Sharpsburg, but for the timely arrival of Maj. Gen. A. P. Hill's division from Harpers Ferry, Burnside would have entered Sharpsburg. Instead, the Union troops were driven back to the heights above the bridge; the battle was over with the Union sitting on three sides. During the night of the 18th, General Lee pulled his troops back across the Potomac River, leaving the battle and the town to General McClellan. During this battle 23 thousand died and missing on both sides during the battle. Among the lost was a young man named Klien Cook, aged only 16, he lived his short life in southern Mississippi. Not only adults, but many young men just like him were los
Hampden is a neighborhood located in northern Baltimore, United States. Triangular in shape, it is bounded to the east by the neighborhood Wyman Park, to the north by Roland Park at 40th and 41st Street, to the west by the Jones Falls Expressway, to the south by the neighborhood Remington; the Homewood campus of the Johns Hopkins University is a short distance to the east. Named for English politician John Hampden, Hampden was settled as a residential community for workers at the mills that had sprung up along the Jones Falls. Many of its residents came to the area from the Appalachian hill country of Kentucky, West Virginia, western Pennsylvania, due to the abundance of jobs the mills provided; this influx cemented the image of the neighborhood for the decades that followed as both white and working-class. For many years it was an isolated community. Beginning in the early 1990s, the neighborhood was discovered by artists and others, who began reclaiming the neighborhood. Many new residents were attracted by the creation of an artist studio and office space known as the Mill Centre, located in the southernmost region of Hampden between Falls Road and Mill Road.
Over the past decade, housing prices in Hampden have skyrocketed and the area's commercial center on a four-block stretch of West 36th Street, known as The Avenue, has seen trendy boutiques, art galleries, a yoga studio, an upscale winebar, assorted specialty shops occupy storefronts, either vacant or in a state of disrepair. The community of Wyman Park, as well as the actual park, are located to the east; the Woodberry station on the Baltimore Light Rail system is just on the other side of the Jones Falls Expressway and is within walking distance of much of the neighborhood. A new, high-end mixed-use development at Clipper Mill, directly in front of the Woodberry Light Rail station, has spurred additional economic activity in the area. Baltimore has in recent years embraced certain aspects of old Hampden's traditional culture; the neighborhood is home to the annual "Hon Festival" and named after the term "Hon," a. HonFest features attendees who tease their hair into the enormous beehive hairdos of the 1960s.
The festival features a contest to find the best "Bawlmerese," a variation of Baltimore's unique traditional accent. This accent is more commonplace in areas like Dundalk and Essex. In March 2011, the Special English service of Voice of America broadcast Hey, Ready to Learn How They Talk in Baltimore?, An Extended Lesson in Bawlmerese by Baltimore native Steve Ember. Hampden's 34th Street near the southern end of the neighborhood celebrates the Christmas holiday every year with the "Miracle on 34th Street" where home owners on both sides of the street decorate their houses with thousands of lights and Christmas decorations, attracting visitors from all over the world to see the spectacle. Another great Christmas street is Roland Avenue. One house in particular, 3548 has an extraordinary "Nightmare Before Christmas" themed display that has lights synchronized to music; this house is known around the neighborhood as "The Halloween House". Hampden received its most prominent nationwide exposure in 1998, when Baltimore native John Waters filmed his movie Pecker there.
Starring Hollywood actors like Edward Furlong, Christina Ricci, Martha Plimpton, Lili Taylor, the film depicted a elaborate & fictional view of Hampden and its young residents. Additionally, the novelist Philipp Meyer grew up on Hampden's 36th Street during the late 1970s and 1980s; as Hampden was a center of mills and factories, much of its original structures were built to house workers. Small two story row houses, made out of brick or stone, were built to hold families of mill workers. Larger houses, many built with stone, were built for upper level staff. One can find more modern housing. In the 20th century, apartment complexes were built around north of Hampden. There are few areas amenable to further development in the neighborhood, a factor in the rising housing costs in the area. Hampden was forecasted to "see the most home value appreciation in 2013" in the city; this has led to many rehab projects of existing housing stock. However, a large mixed-use development began construction in late 2013 in North Hampden, at the site of the Rotunda Shopping Center.
The size and scale of this development has created some controversy in this neighborhood concerning congestion in car traffic and parking as nearly 400 new apartments and numerous businesses, including a high-end movie theatre, will open in 2015. Local Hampden landmarks include an original branch of the Enoch Pratt Free Library, Burgee Hess Funeral Home, St. Thomas Aquinas Catholic Church, St. Luke's Lutheran Church, Hampden School #55. Hampden first came into being in 1802 as a cluster of houses built for workers who manned the newly erected flour and cotton mills along the Jones Falls Stream Valley; the creation of such mills helped spur the growth of the port of Baltimore, which exported the grains milled in Hampden. In 1810, the first cotton mill was opened on the Jones Falls by Washington Manufacturing Company in what is now Mount Washington; the most important mills and factories in the area included the Mt. Vernon Mills, the Hooper Mills, the Poole & Hunt Foundry. Many residents were lived in neighborhood rowhouses.
The mills we
National Trails System
The National Trails System was created by the National Trails System Act, codified at 16 U. S. C. § 1241 et seq. The Act created a series of National trails "to promote the preservation of, public access to, travel within, enjoyment and appreciation of the open-air, outdoor areas and historic resources of the Nation." The Act authorized three types of trails: the National Scenic Trails, National Recreation Trails and connecting-and-side trails. The 1968 Act created two national scenic trails: the Appalachian and the Pacific Crest. In 1978, as a result of the study of trails that were most significant for their historic associations, a fourth category of trail was added: the National Historic Trails. Since 1968, over forty trail routes have been studied for inclusion in the system. Of these studied trails, twenty-one have been established as part of the system. Today, the National Trails System consists of 30 National Scenic and Historic Trails and over 1,000 National Recreation Trail and two connecting-and-side trails, with a total length of more than 50,000 miles.
These National Trails are more than just for hiking, many are open for horseback riding, mountain biking, camping and/or scenic driving. As Congressionally established long-distance trails, each one is administered by a federal agency, either the Bureau of Land Management, United States Forest Service, or National Park Service. Two of the trails are jointly administered by the BLM and the NPS; these agencies acquire lands to protect key sites and viewsheds. More than not, they work in partnership with the states, local units of government, land trusts and private landowners, to protect lands and structures along these trails, enabling them to be accessible to the public. National Recreation Trails and connecting-and-side trails do not require Congressional action, but are recognized by actions of the Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of Agriculture. All of the National Trails are supported by private non-profit organizations that work with the various federal agencies under the Partnership for the National Trails System.
The Act is codified as 16 U. S. C. §§ 1241–1251. However, it has been amended numerous times since its passage, most on October 18, 2004. National Scenic Trails are established to provide access to spectacular natural beauty and to allow the pursuit of healthy outdoor recreation; the National Scenic Trail system provides access to the crest of the Appalachian Mountains in the east, on the Appalachian Trail, to the Rocky Mountains of the west on the Continental Divide Trail. These provide access to viewing the subtle beauties of the southern wetlands and Gulf Coast on the Florida Trail, wandering the North Woods from New York to North Dakota on the North Country Trail, or experiencing the vast diversity of landscapes of the southwest on the Arizona National Scenic Trail. Of the eleven national scenic trails, Natchez Trace, Potomac Heritage are official units of the NPS. National Historic Trails are designated to protect the remains of significant overland or water routes to reflect the history of the nation.
They represent the earliest travels across the continent on the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail. They commemorate the forced displacement and hardships of the Native Americans, on the Trail of Tears. There are 19 Historic Trails. Most of them are scenic routes instead of non-motorized trails. National Historic Trails were authorized under the National Parks and Recreation Act of 1978, amending the National Trails System Act of 1968 The act established a category of trails known as connecting and side trails. To date, only two national side trails have been designated, both in 1990: The Timms Hill Trail, which connects the Ice Age Trail to Wisconsin's highest point, Timms Hill, the 86-mile Anvik Connector, which joins the Iditarod Trail to the village of Anvik, Alaska. Timms Hill Trail Anvik Connector The first National Geologic Trail was established by the Omnibus Public Land Management Act of 2009. Ice Age Floods National Geologic Trail National Historic Trails Interpretive Center Recreational Trail Program Protected areas of the United States List of long-distance footpaths Long-distance trails in the United States Karen Berger, Bill McKibben & Bart Smith: America's Great Hiking Trails: Appalachian, Pacific Crest, Continental Divide, North Country, Ice Age, Potomac Heritage, Natchez Trace, Pacific Northwest, New England.
Rizzoli, 2014, ISBN 978-0789327413 About the Partnership for National Trails System PNTS Find a Trail Historic Trail Facts National Trails System Text of the National Trails System Act