Kirke La Shelle
Kirke La Shelle was an American journalist and theatrical producer. He was known for his association with such successful productions as The Wizard of the Nile, The Princess Chic, Beside the Bonnie Brier Bush, The Earl of Pawtucket, The Virginian, The Education of Mr. Pipp and The Heir to the Hoorah. La Shelle’s career as a playwright and producer was brief due to an illness that led to his demise at the age of forty-two. Milton Kirk LaShells was born at Wyoming, Illinois the son of Sarah Williams and James Ralph LaShells, his father, the son of a prominent Philadelphia lawyer, settled in Stark County around 1844 where he farmed and worked as a tradesman. La Shelle’s mother was a native of Vermont, his father lost Harriet, in May 1850 to tuberculosis. The same fate befell La Shelle's mother. James LaShells relocated to Biggs, California where he died in 1888 at the age of 80. In his early teens La Shelle began his newspaper career as a printer's apprentice with the Wyoming Post Herald. While still in his teens La Shelle joined the printing department of the Chicago Telegraph and rose to be a foreman with the same division at the Chicago Morning News.
La Shelle became a newspaper reporter, drama critic and would, during the 1880s, go on to hold a number of reporting and editorial positions with several Chicago area newspapers. In the early 1880s La Shelle spent a year or two in Bismarck, Dakota Territory as editor of the Bismarck Tribune and founding editor of an evening paper called the Daily Advertiser. By 1884 La Shelle returned to Chicago, where he continued working on Chicago papers and at some point composed poetry that appeared in The Ladies Home Journal. In 1891 La Shelle left the dramatic desk of The Chicago Mail to join the English actor E. S. Willard as his business manager and advance man for an upcoming American tour. From 1892 to 1895 La Shelle served as general manager and director of the Bostonians, a theatrical troupe known as the Boston Ideal Opera Company, it was during this period that La Shelle first met with success as a producer when the Bostonians presented the comic opera Robin Hood. In 1895 La Shelle partnered with Arthur F. Clarke, the Bostonians’ former business manager and advance man, to back the Frank Daniels’ Comic Opera Company.
Their first production The Wizard of the Nile, a comic operetta by Victor Herbert and Harry B. Smith, proved to be a huge success that earned its producers a fortune. La Shelle and Clarke followed with Daniels’ successful productions of the comic operas The Idol's Eye, by Smith and Herbert, The Ameer, written by La Shelle in collaboration with Frederic Ranken, Miss Simplicity from R. A. Barnet and Harry Lawson Heartz. In 1899 La Shelle directed a touring company headed by Wilton Lackaye that presented a stage adaptation of the Charles Lever novel, Charles O'Malley, the Irish Dragoon; that same year La Shelle wrote the book and lyrics for The Princess Chic, a comic opera composed by Julian Edwards. The Princess Chic debuted at Boston’s Columbia Theatre on January 16, 1900, with Minnie Methot in the title rôle, before making its Broadway premier at the Casino Theatre some three weeks later. After closing early in March 1900 The Princess Chic embarked on a road tour that, over the next several seasons, would see the Princess Chic of Normandy played by Christie MacDonald, who had assumed the rôle in Boston after Methot withdrew due to a nagging injury, Marguerite Sylva, Maude Lillian Berrl and Vera Michelena.
In 1899 La Shelle produced the successful Augustus Thomas drama Arizona and, in 1901, The Bonnie Brier Bush, a drama adapted by playwright James MacArthur from the novel Beside the Bonnie Brier Bush by Ian Maclaren. Two years he produced Augustus Thomas' 1903 hit comedy The Earl of Pawtucket, the following year he produced Checkers, a comedy by Henry Blossom. La Shelle produced and shared the writing credits with Owen Wister on their successful 1904 stage adaptation of the author’s popular novel The Virginian. In 1905 he produced The Education of Mr. Pipp, a comedy Augustus Thomas based on a series of drawings by Charles Dana Gibson and, what would prove to be his final project, The Heir to the Hoorah, a comedy by Paul Armstrong. On June 15, 1893, La Shelle married, in an Illinois native; the couple had two children, Mazie Maria and Kirke, born between 1898 and 1901. In 1904 La Shelle’s health began to decline and was diagnosed to be diabetic. La Shelle suffered two accidents early in May 1905 while at his summer residence in Bellport, Long Island—a badly cut foot from a lawn mower and serious burns to his face while attempting to repair a hot water pipe.
The stress from these events were thought to have aggravated the diabetes that led to his death on May 16, 1905. La Shelle was laid to rest at a small cemetery near his summer home in Bellport. Serving as his pallbearers were Frank Vanderlip, theatre manager Harry Hamlin, artist Lawrence Mazzanovich, author Henry L. Wilson, Digby Bell, author Ray Brown, writer William Eugene Lewis and friend J. Louis White. Not long after her husband’s death Mazie La Shelle, as president, J. Louis White, as secretary, formed the Kirke La Shelle Co. to continue to produce and protect his intellectual properties. On June 8, 1908 she married the noted architect, Richard Howland Hunt at Frank Vanderlip’s country estate in Scarborough, New York. Media related to Kirke La Shelle at Wikimedia Commons
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
The Wyoming Valley is a historic industrialized region of Northeastern Pennsylvania, once famous for fueling the industrial revolution in the United States with its many anthracite coal mines. As a metropolitan area, it is known as the Scranton/Wilkes-Barre metropolitan area, after its principal cities and Wilkes-Barre, is the 97th-largest metropolitan area in the United States and the 4th largest in Pennsylvania, it makes up its own unique physiographic province, the Anthracite Valley, in the geology of Pennsylvania. Greater Pittston makes up the center of the valley. Scranton is the most populated city in the metropolitan area with a population of 77,114; the city of Scranton has grown in population after the 2015 mid term census while Wilkes-Barre has declined in population. Wilkes-Barre is still the second most populated city in the metropolitan area and Hazleton is third; the airports for this area are Wilkes-Barre/Scranton International Airport and the Wilkes-Barre Wyoming Valley Airport.
The valley is a part of the ridge-and-valley or folded Appalachians. The Susquehanna River occupies the southern part of the valley, notable for its deposits of anthracite; these have been extensively mined. Deep mining of anthracite has declined throughout the greater Coal Region, due to the greater economics of strip mining. Parts of the local mines had shut down because some coal beds were on fire and had to be sealed; the Pocono Mountains, a ridgeline away, are visible from higher elevations to the east and to the southeast of the Wyoming Valley. The name Wyoming derives from the Lenape Munsee name xwé:wamənk, meaning "at the smaller river hills."According to the Jesuit Relation of 1635, the Wyoming Valley was inhabited by the Scahentoarrhonon people, an Iroquoian-speaking group. By 1744, it was inhabited by Lenape, Mahican and others, pushed out of eastern areas by the Iroquois Confederacy. From the 1740s to the 1760s, the valley was the site of Moravian mission work among the Native Americans living there.
They envisioned a settlement for Christian Indians. But the violence of the French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, drove these settlers away with David Zeisberger, the Moravian "Apostle to the Indians." Pennsylvania's and Connecticut's conflicting claims to the territory — King Charles II of England had granted the land to the colony of Connecticut in 1662, to William Penn in 1681 — led to military skirmishes known as the Pennamite Wars. After Yankee settlers from Connecticut founded the town of Wilkes-Barre in 1769, armed bands of Pennsylvanians tried without success to expel them in 1769-70, again in 1775; the Yankee-Pennamite Wars were settled in the 1780s. The disputed land was granted to Pennsylvania; the Wyoming Valley became part of Northumberland County. However, Connecticut settlers wanted to create a new state in Northeastern Pennsylvania. Massachusetts businessman Timothy Pickering was sent to the region to politically examine the situation; this led to the Pennsylvania Assembly passing a resolution.
This ended the idea of creating a new state. On September 25, 1786, Luzerne County was formed from part of Northumberland County, it was named after a French soldier and diplomat during the 18th century. When it was founded, Luzerne County occupied a large portion of Northeastern Pennsylvania. From 1810 to 1878, it was divided into several smaller counties; the counties of Bradford, Lackawanna and Wyoming were all formed from parts of Luzerne County. During the American Revolutionary War, the Battle of Wyoming took place in the valley on July 3, 1778, in which more than 300 Revolutionaries died at the hands of Loyalists and their Iroquois allies; the incident was depicted by the Scottish poet Thomas Campbell in his 1809 poem Gertrude of Wyoming. At the time, rebel colonists believed that Joseph Brant, a Mohawk chief, had led the Iroquois forces. Colonists determined that Brant had not been present at this conflict; the popularity of the poem may have led to the state of Wyoming being named after the valley.
The Scranton–Wilkes-Barre–Hazleton, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area covers Lackawanna and Wyoming counties. It had a combined population of 558,166 in 2015; the counties adjacent to the "Wyoming Valley" include Monroe County, Susquehanna County, Wayne County, Columbia County, Bradford County, Carbon County, Sullivan County and Schuylkill County. The area has the highest percentage of non-Hispanic whites of any U. S. metropolitan area with a population over 500,000, with 96.2% of the population stating their race as white alone and not claiming Hispanic ethnicity. When metropolitan areas were first defined in 1950, Scranton and Wilkes-Barre were in separate metropolitan areas. Lackawanna County was defined as the Scranton Standard Metropolitan Area, while Luzerne County was defined as the Wilkes-Barre–Hazleton Standard Metropolitan Area; the two metropolitan areas were merged after the 1970 census as the Northeast Pennsylvania Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area, with Monroe County added as a component.
It was renamed the Scranton/Wilkes-Barre Metropolitan Statistical Area after the 1980 census, Columbia and Wyoming counties were added. Hazleton was added as a primary city
Stark County, Illinois
Stark County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 5,994, its county seat is Toulon. Stark County is part of IL Metropolitan Statistical Area. Stark County was formed in 1839 out of Putnam counties, it was named for General Colonel John Stark, who served in the American Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He became known as the "Hero of Bennington" for his exemplary service at the Battle of Bennington in 1777. In the latter part of April, 1829 a solitary laden wagon was wending its way from the hospitable home of Mr. French, at Prince's Grove, about a half mile north-west of the present town of Princeville, towards Spoon River crossing that stream at a point since known as Boardman's Ford, or, as others think, near the seat of Cox's Mill, moving on towards section fifteen in what has since been known as Essex Township; the weather was balmy considering the season. The prairie burnt over by the Indians in the fall was green with sprouting grass.
Accompanying this vehicle were as it might seem a guard of good men, true. They were neither hunters or warriors, they feared no enemy, sought not the "spoils of war", it was a peaceable expedition and its leader was the occupant of the wagon, Isaac B. Essex in the strength of his manhood, with him came his young wife and infant child to found a home in the wilderness; the "neighbors" were Daniel Prince, Stephen French, Simon Reed, Frank Thomas and two Baptist ministers, Elders Silliman and Allen. The former of these two was the father of the much respected Toulon townsman Minott Silliman, the first treasurer of Stark county, and these men had come so far to raise a cabin! Mr. Essex had been out and made a claim in 1828, in the fall of that year cut the logs and split the clap-boards for his house all of which were on the northeast quarter of section fifteen, they now proceeded to get them in shape on the proposed building site. They all camped in the woods the first night, but towards sundown of the second day, the cabin was raised, the roof on, as Mr. Essex graphically said "we cut a log out and moved in."This was emphatically the first pioneer cabin, the first home of non-Native American settlers within the present limits of Stark County.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 288 square miles, of which 288 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles is water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Toulon have ranged from a low of 10 °F in January to a high of 84 °F in July, although a record low of −26 °F was recorded in January 1999 and a record high of 104 °F was recorded in July 1983. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.41 inches in February to 4.46 inches in June. Illinois Route 17 Illinois Route 91 Illinois Route 40 Illinois Route 93 Bureau County Marshall County Peoria County Knox County Henry County As of the 2010 census, there were 5,994 people, 2,425 households, 1,673 families residing in the county; the population density was 20.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,674 housing units at an average density of 9.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.7% white, 0.5% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.3% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 33.5% were German, 15.5% were Irish, 13.8% were English, 10.8% were American, 9.8% were Swedish. Of the 2,425 households, 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.6% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.0% were non-families, 26.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.93. The median age was 43.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $49,195 and the median income for a family was $62,681. Males had a median income of $44,931 versus $29,621 for females; the per capita income for the county was $25,311. About 7.6% of families and 11.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.0% of those under age 18 and 4.8% of those age 65 or over. Toulon Wyoming Bradford La Fayette Stark County is divided into these townships: National Register of Historic Places listings in Stark County This article incorporates text from Stark County and Its Pioneers, by Shallenberger, Eliza Hall, a publication from 1876 now in the public domain in the United States.
Stark County Website The Stark County News Wyoming IL Chamber of Commerce Wyoming IL Lions Club Tanners Orchard
A war artist is an artist who depicts scenes or aspects of war through their art. The art might be a pictorial record. War artists explore the visual and sensory dimensions of war absent in written histories or other accounts of warfare. A war artist creates a visual account of the impact of war by showing how men and women are waiting, fighting, celebrating, or destroyed, as in Vasily Vereshchagin's 1871 painting, The Apotheosis of War; the works produced by war artists illustrate and record many aspects of war and the individual's experience of war, whether allied or enemy, service or civilian, military or political, social or cultural. The role of the artist and his work is to embrace the causes and consequences of conflict, has an educational purpose. Artists record military activities in ways that the written word can not, their art distills the experiences of the men and women who endured it. The artists and their artwork affect. For example, Australian war artists who grew up between the two world wars were influenced by the artwork which depicted the First World War, there was a precedent and format for them to follow.
Official war artists have been appointed by governments for information or propaganda purposes and to record events on the battlefield, but there are many other types of war artists. These can include combatants who are artists and choose to record their experiences, non-combatants who are witnesses of war, prisoners of war who may voluntarily record the conditions or be appointed war artists by senior officers. In New Zealand, the title of appointed "war artist" changed to "army artist" after the two world wars. In the United States, the term "combat artist" has come to be used to mean the same thing. William Simpson was an artist-correspondent who sent artwork to London from the front during the Crimean War. Alfred Waud was an American civil war pictorial newspaper illustrator. Ogata Gekkō and Tsuguharu Foujita created woodblock prints for Japanese publications. Ronald Searle recorded life in Japanese POW camps. Emmanuel Leutze's 1851 studio painting of Washington Crossing the Delaware is incorrect, Leutze was born decades after the event his painting depicts, but this work has become an icon of popular culture.
The American panorama created by artists whose work focuses on war began with a visual account of the American Revolutionary War. The war artist or combat artist captures instantaneous action and conflates earlier moments of the same scene within one compelling image. Artists are unlike the objective camera lens, which records no more. In 1917 the American military designated American official war artists who were sent to Europe to record the activities of the American Expeditionary Forces. In World War II, the Navy Combat Art Program ensured that active-duty artists developed a record of all phases of the war and all major naval operations; the official war artist continued to be supported in some military engagements. Teams of soldier-artists during the Vietnam War created pictorial accounts and interpretations for the annals of army military history. In 1992 the Army Staff Artist Program was attached to the United States Army Center of Military History as a permanent part of the Museum Division's Collections Branch.
The majority of combat artists of the 1970s were selected by George Gray, chairman of NACAL, Navy Air Cooperation and Liaison committee. Some of their paintings will be selected for the Navy Combat Art Museum in the capital by Charles Lawrence, director. In January 1978 the U. S. Navy chose a seascape specialist team: they asked Patricia Yaps and Wayne Dean, both of Milford, Connecticut, to capture air-sea rescue missions off of Key West while they were based at the nearby Naval Air Station Key West, they were among 78 artists selected that year to create works of art depicting Navy subjects. Selected artistsA select list of representative American artists includes: Soldier Artist Participants in the U. S. Army Vietnam Combat Artists Program CAT I, 15 Aug – 15 Dec 1966, Roger A. Blum, Robert C. Knight, Ronald E. Pepin, Paul Rickert, Felix R. Sanchez, John O. Wehrle, supervisor, Frank M. Sherman CAT II, 15 Oct 1966 – 15 Feb 1967, Augustine G. Acuna, Alexander A. Bogdanovich, Theodore E. Drendel, David M. Lavender, Gary W. Porter, supervisor, Carolyn M. O'Brien CAT III, 16 Feb – 17 June 1967, Michael R. Crook, Dennis O. McGee, Robert T. Myers, Kenneth J. Scowcroft, Stephen H. Sheldon, supervisor, C. Bruce Smyser CAT IV, 15 Aug – 31 Dec 1967, Samuel E. Alexander, Daniel T. Lopez, Burdell Moody, James R. Pollock, Ronald A. Wilson, technical supervisor, Frank M. Thomas CAT V, 1 Nov 1967 – 15 March 1968, Warren W. Buchanan, Philip V. Garner, Phillip W. Jones, Don R. Schol, John R. Strong, technical supervisor, Frank M. Thomas CAT VI, 1 Feb – 15 June 1968, Robert T. Coleman, David N. Fairrington, John D. Kurtz IV, Kenneth T. McDaniel, Michael P. Pala CAT VII, 15 Aug – 31 Dec 1968, Brian H. Clark, William E. Flaherty Jr. William C.
Harrington, Barry W. Johnston, Stephen H. Randall, supervisor, Fitzallen N. Yow CAT VIII, 1 Feb
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti