A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
West Virginia Route 16
West Virginia Route 16 is a north–south route located in the U. S. State of West Virginia; the southern terminus of the route is at the Virginia state line in Bishop, McDowell County, where the route continues south as Virginia State Route 16. The northern terminus is at West Virginia Route 2 in St. Marys, Pleasants County, on the south bank of the Ohio River. WV 16 continues into Virginia and North Carolina ending in Waxhaw, south of Charlotte and just north of the South Carolina border; the total length of highway is just under 475 miles long
West Virginia's 3rd congressional district
West Virginia's 3rd congressional district is a U. S. congressional district in southern West Virginia. The district covers the state's second largest city, includes Bluefield and Beckley, has a long history of coal mining and farming; the district is represented by Republican Carol Miller. The modern district has grown in geographic size over the years, as it contains the area of the state that has lost the most population. Most of the congressmen listed below prior to the 1992 election cycle represented other parts of the state, as most of the modern 3rd District's history is found in the obsolete 4th, 5th, 6th Districts; the modern 3rd District began to take shape in the 1960s. For much of its history, the 4th district had been focused on Huntington and the mill towns and farm communities north of that city along the Ohio River, while the 5th and 6th Districts were focused on the safely Democratic coal fields. In the 1970 redistricting, the 5th was eliminated, most of its territory was merged into the 4th to form what is now the western half of the modern 3rd.
In the 1990 redistricting the old 4th was renumbered as the 3rd and took in what is now the eastern half of its current shape from a previous version of the 2nd District. The current major areas of the district include the industrial and university city of Huntington, the coal producing southwestern part of the state, the more conservative farm and timber region of the southeastern part of the state. 2010 Census figures again showed a major population loss, Mason County was transferred from the 2nd to the 3rd District. This will not change the character of the district in a significant way. Despite the strength of Democrats at the local and state level, in presidential elections the district has followed the increasing Republican trend in West Virginia. While Bill Clinton twice carried the district handily in three-way races, Al Gore just narrowly won the district in 2000 with 51% of the vote. George W. Bush won the district in 2004 with 53% of the vote, John McCain carried the district in 2008 with 55.76% of the vote, continuing the district, the state's rightward shift despite a large shift towards the Democrats nationally in 2008.
In 2012, the district shifted towards the Republicans yet again, with Republican Mitt Romney defeating President Barack Obama 65.0% to 32.8% in the district. In 2016, the district shifted further towards the Republican Party, with Republican Donald Trump defeating Democrat Hillary Clinton, by a massive margin of 72.5% to 23.3%. Election results from presidential races: The Third District as formed in 1863 included Kanawha, Mason, Cabell, Wayne, Boone, Nicholas, Roane and McDowell counties, it was the successor of Virginia's 12th congressional district. In 1882, the district was reformed of Logan, Wyoming, McDowell, Raleigh, Kanawha, Clay, Greenbrier, Summers, Webster and Upshur counties. In 1902, Wyoming, McDowell, Raleigh and Mercer were removed. In 1916 the district was, more or less, renumbered as the new 6th District, the 3rd was reconstituted as Ritchie, Harrison, Gilmer, Upshur, Clay and Webster counties. In 1934, Fayette was added. In 1952, Wirt was added. In 1962, the district was again broken up and reconstituted as Boone, Kanawha and Raleigh.
In 1972, Raleigh was removed and Ritchie, Gilmer, Mason, Roane, Putnam and Boone were added. In 1982, Lewis was added; the district's current configuration dates from the 1990 round of redistricting. From 1992 to 2002, it consisted of Boone, Fayette, Lincoln, Logan, McDowell, Mingo, Pocahontas, Summers, Wayne and Wyoming. In 2002, Nicholas was added. For the 2012 cycle, Mason was added. West Virginia's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
West Virginia Route 97
West Virginia Route 97 is an east–west state highway in the U. S. state of West Virginia. The western terminus of the route is at U. S. Route 52 and West Virginia Route 80 in Hanover; the eastern terminus is at exit 42 of the West Virginia Turnpike in Mabscott. West Virginia Route 16, which runs concurrent with WV 97 between Sophia and Mabscott, continues north into Beckley on Robert C. Byrd Drive, the right-of-way of both WV 16 and WV 97. State Route 97 connects U. S. Highway 52 in the western end of Wyoming County with the county seat of Pineville and goes on to State Route 54 in Maben. Following the linkage of Interstate 64 to the West Virginia Turnpike south of Beckley, the state continued State Route 97 signage across existing State Route 54 to State Route 16 in Sophia and on to the junction with the Turnpike's newly constructed South Valley Drive exit number 42; as a main thoroughfare in Wyoming County, Route 97 serves the coal industry and its workers, the heavy truck traffic following brought many accidents and made maintenance nearly impossible.
The last 20 years have brought improvements and widening to the road, it could soon lose much traffic to the Coalfields Expressway, a highway that will link the Turnpike to Pineville and Buchanan County, Virginia. Twin Falls Resort State Park R. D. Bailey Dam and Lake
Mercer County, West Virginia
Mercer County is a county on the southeastern border of the U. S. state of West Virginia. At the 2010 census, the population was 62,264, its county seat is Princeton. The county was established in the state of Virginia by act of its General Assembly on 17 March 1837, using lands taken from Giles and Tazewell counties. Mercer County is part of WV-VA Micropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 421 square miles, of which 419 square miles is land and 1.7 square miles is water. The West Virginia Turnpike, now part of Interstate 77, begins in Princeton. Raleigh County Summers County Giles County, Virginia Bland County, Virginia Tazewell County, Virginia McDowell County Wyoming County Bluestone National Scenic River At the census of 2000, there were 62,980 people, 26,509 households, 17,946 families residing in the county; the population density was 150 people per square mile. There were 30,143 housing units at an average density of 72 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 92.56% White, 5.82% Black or African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.46% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.10% from other races, 0.85% from two or more races. 0.45% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 26,509 households out of which 26.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.00% were married couples living together, 11.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.30% were non-families. 28.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.85. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.10% under the age of 18, 9.80% from 18 to 24, 26.20% from 25 to 44, 25.50% from 45 to 64, 17.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $26,628, the median income for a family was $33,524.
Males had a median income of $29,243 versus $19,013 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,564. About 14.70% of families and 19.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.90% of those under age 18 and 12.70% of those age 65 or over. The county is part of the WV-VA micropolitan area; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 62,264 people, 26,603 households, 17,313 families residing in the county. The population density was 148.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 30,115 housing units at an average density of 71.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 91.6% white, 6.1% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.2% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 16.4% were Irish, 14.2% were German, 12.0% were English, 11.2% were American. Of the 26,603 households, 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.6% were married couples living together, 12.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.9% were non-families, 30.1% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.83. The median age was 42.5 years. The median income for a household in the county was $32,131 and the median income for a family was $42,517. Males had a median income of $37,423 versus $25,778 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,431. About 16.0% of families and 22.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.5% of those under age 18 and 11.4% of those age 65 or over. Mercer County's political history is typical of West Virginia, it was supportive of remaining with Confederate Virginia when the state was created and voted Democratic in the first few post-Civil War elections. However, the influence of coal industry executives turned the county towards the GOP during the "System of 1896"; as with most of West Virginia, extensive unionization caused the county to swing to the Democratic Party during most of the twentieth century, but an rapid swing towards the Republican Party has occurred since 2000, due to declining unionization, along with regional views on environmental and cultural issues that are at odds with the national Democratic party.
The Mercer County Public School System has nineteen elementary schools, including Athens, Bluefield Intermediate, Brushfork, Glenwood Elementary, Lashmeet-Matoaka, Memorial, Mercer County Early Learning - Bluefield and Princeton sites, Montcalm, Princeton Primary, Straley, Sun Valley and Whitethorne. There are six middle school facilities including Princeton Middle, Bluefield Middle, Montcalm Middle, PikeView Middle, Glenwood Middle. There are four high school facilities, including Princeton Senior, Bluefield High, Montcalm High and PikeView High; the Mercer County Technical Education Center, being transitioned into a comprehensive technical high school. Mercer County Schools educates 9200 students; the professional and service staff number about 1200. Higher educational institutions include Bluefield State College, located in Bluefield. Mercer County is protected by seven agencies. Five agencies protect the incorporated areas of the county, but t
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Raleigh County, West Virginia
Raleigh County is a county in the U. S. state of West Virginia. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 78,859, its county seat is Beckley. The county is named for Sir Walter Raleigh. Raleigh County is included in West Virginia Metropolitan Statistical Area. Raleigh County was formed on January 23, 1850 from portions of Fayette County a part of Virginia. Alfred Beckley said that he named the county for Sir Walter Raleigh, the "enterprising and far-seeing patron of the earliest attempts to colonize our old Mother State of Virginia"; the county was the scene in 1914 of the Eccles Mine Disaster, the second-worst coal mining disaster in West Virginia history. The death toll was at least 180. More the Upper Big Branch Mine disaster of 2010, which killed 29 occurred in Raleigh County. Longtime Senator Robert Byrd's home town was Sophia; the New River flows northwestward along the county's east border. The county terrain consists of wooded hills, carved with drainages; the terrain slopes to the west.
The county has a total area of 609 square miles, of which 605 square miles is land and 4.0 square miles is water. Little Beaver State Park New River Gorge National River As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 79,220 people, 31,793 households, 22,096 families in the county; the population density was 131/sqmi. There were 35,678 housing units at an average density of 59/sqmi; the racial makeup of the county was 89.63% White, 8.52% Black or African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.72% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.12% from other races, 0.80% from two or more races. 0.92% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. This number is around 0.3% based on a 2006 Census Estimate by the US Census Bureau. There were 31,793 households out of which 28.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.30% were married couples living together, 11.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.50% were non-families. 27.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.88. The county population contained 21.50% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 28.60% from 25 to 44, 25.70% from 45 to 64, 15.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 96.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,181, the median income for a family was $35,315. Males had a median income of $33,000 versus $20,672 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,233. About 14.60% of families and 18.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.70% of those under age 18 and 10.50% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 78,859 people, 31,831 households, 21,322 families in the county; the population density was 130/sqmi. There were 35,931 housing units at an average density of 59.4/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 88.5% white, 8.2% black or African American, 0.9% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.4% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.3% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 41.8% were American, 9.1% were English, 8.6% were German, 8.5% were Irish. Of the 31,831 households, 29.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.2% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.0% were non-families, 28.6% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age was 41.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $38,036 and the median income for a family was $49,837. Males had a median income of $42,405 versus $27,347 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,457. About 14.5% of families and 17.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.1% of those under age 18 and 10.2% of those age 65 or over. Raleigh County voters have tended to vote Republican in recent decades. In 67% of national elections since 1980, the county selected the Republican Party candidate.
Beckley Lester Mabscott Sophia Coal camps in Raleigh County, West Virginia National Register of Historic Places listings in Raleigh County, West Virginia New River Coalfield Little Beaver State Park Upper Big Branch mine explosion Winding Gulf Coalfield Beckley-Raleigh County Chamber of Commerce Raleigh County Government Raleigh County Board of Education History of Raleigh County Flag