Marvel Comics is the brand name and primary imprint of Marvel Worldwide Inc. Marvel Publishing, Inc. and Marvel Comics Group, a publisher of American comic books and related media. In 2009, The Walt Disney Company acquired Marvel Worldwide's parent company. Marvel started in 1939 the common name in the Golden Age was Timely Comics, by the early 1950s, had become known as Atlas Comics; the Marvel era began in 1961, the year that the company launched The Fantastic Four and other superhero titles created by Steve Ditko, Stan Lee, Jack Kirby and many others. The Marvel brand had been used over the years, but solidified as the company's only brand with in a couple of years. Marvel counts among its characters such well-known superheroes as Captain America, Iron Man, the Hulk, Spider-Man, Black Panther, Doctor Strange, the Silver Surfer, Ghost Rider, the Punisher and Deadpool, such teams as the Avengers, the X-Men, the Fantastic Four, the Midnight Sons, the Defenders, the Guardians of the Galaxy, supervillains including Galactus, Doctor Doom, Ultron, Green Goblin, Red Skull, Doctor Octopus and Venom.
Most of Marvel's fictional characters operate in a single reality known as the Marvel Universe, with most locations mirroring real-life places. Pulp-magazine publisher Martin Goodman founded the company known as Marvel Comics under the name Timely Publications in 1939. Goodman, who had started with a Western pulp in 1933, was expanding into the emerging—and by already popular—new medium of comic books. Launching his new line from his existing company's offices at 330 West 42nd Street, New York City, he held the titles of editor, managing editor, business manager, with Abraham Goodman listed as publisher. Timely's first publication, Marvel Comics #1, included the first appearance of Carl Burgos' android superhero the Human Torch, the first appearances of Bill Everett's anti-hero Namor the Sub-Mariner, among other features; the issue was a great success. While its contents came from an outside packager, Inc. Timely had its own staff in place by the following year; the company's first true editor, writer-artist Joe Simon, teamed with artist Jack Kirby to create one of the first patriotically themed superheroes, Captain America, in Captain America Comics #1.
It, proved a hit, with sales of nearly one million. Goodman formed Timely Comics, Inc. beginning with comics cover-dated April 1941 or Spring 1941. While no other Timely character would achieve the success of these three characters, some notable heroes—many of which continue to appear in modern-day retcon appearances and flashbacks—include the Whizzer, Miss America, the Destroyer, the original Vision, the Angel. Timely published one of humor cartoonist Basil Wolverton's best-known features, "Powerhouse Pepper", as well as a line of children's funny-animal comics featuring characters like Super Rabbit and the duo Ziggy Pig and Silly Seal. Goodman hired his wife's cousin, Stanley Lieber, as a general office assistant in 1939; when editor Simon left the company in late 1941, Goodman made Lieber—by writing pseudonymously as "Stan Lee"—interim editor of the comics line, a position Lee kept for decades except for three years during his military service in World War II. Lee wrote extensively for Timely.
Goodman's business strategy involved having his various magazines and comic books published by a number of corporations all operating out of the same office and with the same staff. One of these shell companies through which Timely Comics was published was named Marvel Comics by at least Marvel Mystery Comics #55; as well, some comics' covers, such as All Surprise Comics #12, were labeled "A Marvel Magazine" many years before Goodman would formally adopt the name in 1961. The post-war American comic market saw superheroes falling out of fashion. Goodman's comic book line dropped them for the most part and expanded into a wider variety of genres than Timely had published, featuring horror, humor, funny animal, men's adventure-drama, giant monster and war comics, adding jungle books, romance titles and medieval adventure, Bible stories and sports. Goodman began using the globe logo of the Atlas News Company, the newsstand-distribution company he owned, on comics cover-dated November 1951 though another company, Kable News, continued to distribute his comics through the August 1952 issues.
This globe branding united a line put out by the same publisher and freelancers through 59 shell companies, from Animirth Comics to Zenith Publications. Atlas, rather than innovate, took a proven route of following popular trends in television and movies—Westerns and war dramas prevailing for a time, drive-in movie monsters another time—and other comic books the EC horror line. Atlas published a plethora of children's and teen humor titles, including Dan DeCarlo's Homer the Happy Ghost and Homer Hooper. Atlas unsuccessfully attempted to revive superheroes from late 1953 to mid-1954, with the Human Torch, the Sub-Mariner, Captain America. Atlas did not achieve any breakout hits and, according to Stan Lee, Atlas survived chiefly because it produced work cheaply, at a passable quality; the first modern comic books under the Marvel Comics brand w
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
X-Men: Divided We Stand
"X-Men: Divided We Stand" is a 2008 comic book story line published by Marvel Comics as a follow-up story line to the "Messiah Complex" story arc. The story started with the issues of the X-Men-related titles cover dated April 2008; this included: The Uncanny X-Men. 2, retitled X-Men: Legacy. It launched three ongoing titles - Cable vol. 2, X-Force vol. 3, Young X-Men - and a self-titled, two-issue limited series. Each ongoing series ran a separate story arc with "Divided" providing an overall theme; the arc was followed by "Manifest Destiny". The story deals with several characters trying to adapt to the X-Men's disbandment. Here are the events that have happened in the titles so far: With the team disbanded and Emma Frost have taken a holiday to the Savage Land, but are called to San Francisco by Archangel because a hippie'goddess' has placed the city, as well as Hepzibah, Warpath and Archangel, under her control and in a 60s style illusion. In the title, Nightcrawler and Colossus are traveling through Europe, when they are captured in Russia by the Red Room and interrogated by someone who wants to know why M-Day has left America with the most mutants and Russia with none.
They soon confront Omega Red while in San Francisco Scott and Emma confront Mastermind. They defeat her, freeing their friends and the city, including the mayor, who offers the X-Men a new home in San Francisco. Martinique escapes however, rescued by an anonymous woman, while a headline shows that San Francisco has rejected the Fifty State Initiative in favour of the X-Men; the team is struggling to deal with their own losses. Layla Miller is trapped in the future and Jamie Madrox now bears an M tattoo over his eye, they soon run up against Arcade, who holds Mutant Town hostage while most of the populace contemplates either changing the district's name or leaving altogether. However, an ex-Purifier named Taylor has sabotaged the district and dies, causing bombs to explode throughout Mutant Town. Valerie Cooper is pursuing Madrox and X-Factor in order to recruit them, an offer that Jamie violently rejects. Siryn has discovered that she is pregnant after sleeping with Jamie, intends to give birth to the child.
Rictor leaves the team over guilt due to his dealings with Taylor in Messiah Complex. 5 months in Detroit, a former mutant comes to the renamed XF Investigations for help, meeting with a pregnant Siryn, while Jamie is found by Cooper, who says that she won't stop until they agree. Cyclops gathers Rockslide, Wolf Cub, Blindfold and a new character called Ink to fight the new Brotherhood of Mutants, who are now consisting of former New Mutants Sunspot, Cannonball and Danielle Moonstar. However, Cyclops may not be. Blindfold has had a vision of the team being betrayed and killed while fighting Donald Pierce and Rockslide demands she be added to the team or he won't join, a condition that Cyclops grudgingly accepts. After they fail in training sessions against Brotherhood simulacra, Cyclops sends them after Moonstar and Magma in small teams, each with a specific target. Magma is attacked in Los Angeles and fights back violently, while Moonstar proves superior to the young mutants despite her lack of powers.
However, she is taken down by an unseen force. Ink asks Blindfold after the fight. A flashback sequence shows the origin of how Ink got the tattoo that allows him to use telepathic powers. Another flashback shows Cyclops setting up the team of Wolf Cub and Rockslide to attack the Brotherhood of Mutant members Cannonball and Sunspot; as the attack commences, Cyclops is blindsided by Greymalkin who realizes that Cyclops isn't who he says he is. Back to the members of the Young X-Men, Wolf Cub deals a rather lethal blow to Sunspot, trying to convince the team that they shouldn't be fighting; this attack causes Cannonball to consider all three Young X-Men a threat. Back at the base, Greymalkin reveals that Cyclops is the newly reemerged Donald Pierce; the Acolytes have retrieved Professor X's body, being kept alive by Omega Sentinel. Exodus heals Professor Xavier's damaged mind while Magneto arrives and clashes with his former disciples. Meanwhile and Sebastian Shaw are clashing within the Hellfire Club over an item in Shaw's possession.
Exodus loses a battle to Xavier on the Astral Plane, who goes his own way to repair his mind. Gambit comes to defend him from members of the Assassin's Guild. Together they learn the Guild's other targets, including Juggernaut and Shaw. Rogue is wandering the world, it soon becomes apparent that the targets are linked by their connections to Nathan Milbury and the Black Womb Project. Sinister's psychic essence strikes out at them and takes control of Xavier's body while Gambit and Shaw battle the assassins; the new X-Force are sent after the Purifiers by Cyclops. They soon discover, they have rebuilt Bastion, using Magus to create a'Choir' of anti-mutant leaders including Donald Pierce, Leper Queen, Cameron Hodge and the reanimated forms of William Stryker, Stephen Lang, Bolivar Trask, Graydon Creed. Wolfsbane is wounded after being injected with a large dose of heroin; the team take her to Archangel and Elixir, who help her but she savagely attacks Archangel, ripping off his wings and taking them to Craig.
Using Apocalypse's T-O virus in them, Bastion creates several metal-winged Purifiers. Archangel grows back his metal wings and regains hi
Mike Carey (writer)
Mike Carey known by his pen name M. R. Carey, is a British writer of comic books and films, he is best known for writing the novel The Girl with All the Gifts, as well as its subsequent film adaptation. Carey was born in Liverpool, England, in 1959 – describing his young self as "one of those ominously quiet kids... lived so much inside my own head I only had vestigial limbs". As a child, he maintained an interest in comics and drawing primitive stories to entertain his younger brother, he studied English at St Peter's College, before becoming a teacher. He continued to teach for 15 years before moving on to writing comics. After a series of one-off jobs for independent comics companies, including a biographical comic of Ozzy Osbourne and a fantasy about the band Pantera, Carey gained regular employment at 2000 AD, where he created the original series Th1rt3en and Carver Hale. For the Vertigo imprint of DC Comics Carey went on to write the entire run of the Eisner Award-nominated comic book Lucifer, issues 175 to 215 of Hellblazer, a run on that title only exceeded in length by Garth Ennis and Peter Milligan.
He wrote the original graphic novels The Sandman Presents: The Furies with John Bolton and Hellblazer: All His Engines with Leonardo Manco. He is the ongoing writer of X-Men: Legacy working with artist Scot Eaton, plus Ultimate Fantastic Four for Marvel Comics, he had three recent Vertigo series that have wrapped up: Faker a six-part mini-series with art by Jock. September 2006 saw the long-delayed debut of Wetworks: Worldstorm with Whilce Portacio for Wildstorm Comics, he is one of the first authors on DC's Minx imprint for teenaged girls, his second Minx title being co-written with his daughter, Louise. The Unwritten covers by Yuko Shimizu. In 2008 Carey worked on a number of different titles, including tie-ins to the "Secret Invasion" crossover storyline, that included an eight-page story in the one-shot anthology Secret Invasion: Who Do You Trust?, which features Abigail Brand of S. W. O. R. D. and a four-issue mini-series, Secret Invasion: X-Men. That same year he began writing Queen's Rook, the first of Virgin Comics' Coalition Comix on MySpace, where users could suggest ideas for a comic which would get made.
He wrote "Dark Deception", a crossover story arc that appeared across X-Men: Legacy and Wolverine: Origins, tied into X-Men: Original Sin, he retold the Beast's origin story in X-Men: Origins, wrote an Iceman story in X-Men: Manifest Destiny, a comic book adaptation of Ender's Shadow, the Vertigo Comics series The Unwritten. Carey's first prose novel, The Devil You Know, was released in the UK by Orbit books in April 2006, as a hardcover in the US in July 2007, its sequel, Vicious Circle, was published in October 2006, the following three novels in the series, Dead Men's Boots, Thicker Than Water, The Naming of the Beasts, followed in September 2007, March 2009 and September 2009, respectively. Carey's first feature film, the erotic ghost story Frost Flowers, was reported in June 2006 to be in pre-production, with filming to begin that September under the direction of Andrea Vecchiato, but the project collapsed before production began and the script is in limbo. Carey is working on the TV series The Stranded, the first co-production between Virgin Comics and the Syfy network.
In 2011 he wrote a crossover between X-Men Legacy and New Mutants titled Age of X. In August 2011, Marvel announced Mike Carey's final X-Men-Legacy arc. In January 2014, he had another prose novel published, titled The Girl With All The Gifts, it was released to critical acclaim and was that year announced to be made into a film. Filming began in May 2015, with newcomer Sennia Nanua in the lead role of Melanie, Gemma Arterton as Helen Justineau, Glenn Close as Caroline Caldwell, Paddy Considine as Sergeant Parks. TV veteran Colm McCarthy directed the movie. Titles published by various British and American publishers include: Apocalypse: Toxic! #30–31: "Aquarius: Promised Lands" Malibu: Ozzy Osbourne: "The Comeback" Pantera: "Power in the Darkness" Caliber: Inferno #1–5 collected as Inferno Negative Burn #49: "Suicide Kings" Dr. Faustus Titles published by DC Comics and its Vertigo imprint include: Lucifer: Devil in the Gateway includes: The Sandman Presents: Lucifer #1–3 "A Six-Card Spread" "Born with the Dead" Children and Monsters collects: "The House of Windowless Rooms" "Children & Monsters" A Dalliance with the Damned collects: "Triptych" "A Dalliance with the Damned" "The Thunder Sermon" The Divine Comedy collects: "Paradiso" "The Writing on the Wall" "Purgatorio" "Breaking & Entering" Inferno collects: "Inferno" (wi
Cable is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics in association with X-Force and the X-Men. The character first appeared as a newborn infant in Uncanny X-Men #201 created by writer Chris Claremont, while Cable's adult identity was created by writer Louise Simonson and artist/co-writer Rob Liefeld, first appeared in The New Mutants #87. Nathan Summers is the biological son of the X-Men member Cyclops and Madelyne Pryor though other versions saw him as Jean's son, the half brother of Rachel Summers and Nate Grey, the genetic template for Stryfe, he is from a possible future timeline, having been transported as an infant to the future, where he grew into a warrior, before returning to the present. Josh Brolin portrays Cable in the X-Men film series, beginning with Deadpool 2. Nathan Christopher Charles Summers is the son of Scott Summers, Madelyne Pryor. Writer Chris Claremont, who had written the series since issue #94, revealed Madelyne to be pregnant in X-Men/Alpha Flight #1.
The next depiction of her pregnancy was in The Uncanny X-Men #200, when she goes into premature labor. In the following issue, #201, Nathan first appears as a newborn infant; the character's first appearance as the adult warrior Cable was at the end of The New Mutants #86. He does not appear anywhere in the issue's story; this was followed by a full appearance in The New Mutants #87. At first, Cable was not intended to be the adult version of Nathan Summers, but was created as a result of unrelated editorial concerns. Editor Bob Harras wanted to "shake things up" for the book, felt a new leader was needed, one distinct from the perennial X-Men leader and the New Mutants' first mentor, Professor X; the book's writer, Louise Simonson, thought a military leader would be a good idea, Harras tasked the book's artist, Rob Liefeld, to conceptualize the character. Harras may have suggested the character's bionic eye. Both Simonson and Liefeld each separately conceived of the leader being a time traveler from the future.
Liefeld chose the name Cable for the character. Liefeld explains the creation of the character: I was given a directive to create a new leader for the New Mutants. There was no description besides a ` man of action', the opposite of Xavier. I created the name, much of the history of the character. After I named him Cable, Bob suggested Quinn and Louise had Commander X. Harras and writer/artists Jim Lee and Whilce Portacio, who were writing the X-Men spinoff X-Factor that starred Cyclops and the other four original X-Men, decided that Nathan would be sent into the future and grow up to become Cable. Liefeld, who conceived that Cable and his archenemy Stryfe were one and the same, disliked this idea. In the 1991 X-Factor storyline, Nathan is infected by the villain Apocalypse with a techno-organic virus; because he can only be saved by the technology of the far-future, Scott reluctantly allows Sister Askani, a member of a clan of warriors dedicated to opposing Apocalypse, to take Nathan into the future so that he can be cured, a one-way trip from which she tells him she and Nathan will be unable to return.
In his first adult appearance, Cable is seen in conflict with Stryfe's Mutant Liberation Front, the United States government, Freedom Force. The New Mutants intervene and he asks for their help against the Mutant Liberation Front. Cable sees them as potential soldiers in his war against Stryfe, becomes their new teacher and leader, he comes into conflict with Wolverine, revealed to harbor feud with Cable. Despite this, the two warriors and the New Mutants team up with and Sunfire against the MLF. Cable leads the New Mutants against Cameron Hodge and the Genoshans in the 1990 "X-Tinction Agenda" storyline. With the aid of Domino, Cable reorganizes the New Mutants into X-Force; the New Mutants ended with issue #100, with Cable and other characters appearing the following month in X-Force #1. The X-Force series provided further detail for the character's back story revealing that he was from the future and that he had traveled to the past with the aim of stopping Stryfe's plans as well as preventing Apocalypse's rise to power.
Cable traveled between the 1990s and his future with his ship Graymalkin, which contained a sentient computer program called Professor, the future version of the program built into X-Factor's Ship. In 1992, the character starred in a two issue miniseries, Cable: Blood and Metal, written by Fabian Nicieza, pencilled by John Romita, Jr. and inked by Dan Green, published in October and November of that year. The series explored Cable and the villain Stryfe's ongoing battle with one another, its effect on Cable's supporting cast. Shortly after Blood and Metal, Cable was given his own ongoing series titled Cable. Issue #6 confirmed the character to be Nathan Christopher Summers, the son of Cyclops and Madelyne Pryor, taken to the future in X-Factor #68, introduced by writer Chris Claremont, appeared in Uncanny X-Men #201; the series ran for 107 issues from May 1993 until September 2002 before being relaunched as Soldier X, which lasted 12 more issues until Aug. 2003. The 1994 miniseries The Adventures of Cyclops and Phoenix provided further information on the character's back story.
In the future, Mother Askani, a time-displaced Rachel Summers, pulled the minds of Scott and Jean into the future where, as "Slym" and "Redd", they raised Cable for twelve years. During their time together, the "
Westchester County, New York
Westchester County is a county in the U. S. state of New York. It is the second-most populous county on the mainland of New York, after the Bronx, the most populous county in the state north of New York City. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a population of 949,113, estimated to have increased by 3.3% to 980,244 by 2017. Situated in the Hudson Valley, Westchester covers an area of 450 square miles, consisting of six cities, 19 towns, 23 villages. Established in 1683, Westchester was named after the city of England; the county seat is the city of White Plains, while the most populous municipality in the county is the city of Yonkers, with an estimated 200,807 residents in 2016. The annual per capita income for Westchester was $67,813 in 2011; the 2011 median household income of $77,006 was the fifth highest in New York and the 47th highest in the United States. By 2014, the county's median household income had risen to $83,422. Westchester County ranks second in the state after New York County for median income per person, with a higher concentration of incomes in smaller households.
Westchester County had the highest property taxes of any county in the United States in 2013. Westchester County is one of the centrally located counties within the New York metropolitan area; the county is positioned with Nassau and Suffolk counties, to its south. Westchester was the first suburban area of its scale in the world to develop, due to the upper-middle-class development of entire communities in the late 19th century and the subsequent rapid population growth; because of Westchester's numerous road and mass transit connections to New York City, as well as its shared border with the Bronx, the 20th and 21st centuries have seen much of the county the southern portion, become nearly as densely developed as New York City itself. At the time of European contact in the 16th and 17th centuries, the Native American inhabitants of present-day Westchester County were part of the Algonquian peoples, whose name for themselves was Lenape, meaning the people, they called the region Lenapehoking, which consisted of the area around and between the Delaware and Hudson Rivers.
Several different tribes occupied the area, including The Manhattans, the Weckquaesgeek and Siwanoy bands of the Wappinger in the south, Tankiteke and Kitchawank Wappinger in the north. The first European explorers to visit the Westchester area were Giovanni da Verrazzano in 1524 and Henry Hudson in 1609. Dutch settlers began arriving in the 1620s, followed by settlers from England in the 1640s. Westchester County was one of the original twelve counties of the Province of New York, created by an act of the New York General Assembly in 1683. At the time it included present-day Bronx County, abutted then-Dutchess County to the north. By 1775, Westchester was the richest and most populous county in the colony of New York. Although the Revolutionary War devastated the county, recovery after the war was rapid. In 1788, five years after the end of the war, the county was divided into 20 towns. In 1798, the first federal census recorded a population of 24,000 for the county. Two developments in the first half of the 19th century – the construction of the first Croton Dam and Aqueduct, the coming of the railroad – had enormous impacts on the growth of Westchester.
The Croton Dam and Aqueduct was begun in 1837 and completed in 1842. In the 1840s, the first railroads were built in Westchester, included the New York and Harlem Railroad, the Hudson River Railroad, the New York and New Haven Railroad; the railroads determined the growth of a town, the population shifted from Northern to Southern Westchester. By 1860, the total county population was 99,000, with the largest city being Yonkers; the period following the American Civil War enabled entrepreneurs in the New York area to create fortunes, many built large estates, such as Lyndhurst, in Westchester. During the latter half of the 19th century, Westchester's transportation system and labor force attracted a manufacturing base along the Hudson River and Nepperhan Creek. In 1874, the western portion of the present Bronx County was transferred to New York County, in 1895 the remainder of the present Bronx County was transferred to New York County; these would split from Manhattan to form a county. During the 20th century, the rural character of Westchester would transform into the suburban county known today.
The Bronx River Parkway, completed in 1925, was the first modern, multi-lane limited-access roadway in North America. The development of Westchester's parks and parkway systems supported existing communities and encouraged the establishment of new ones, transforming the development pattern for Westchester. With the need for homes expanding after World War II, multistory apartment houses appeared in the urbanized areas of the county, while the market for single-family houses continued to expand. By 1950, the total County population was 625,816. Major interstate highways were constructed in Westchester during the 1960s; the establishment of these roadways, along with the construction of the Tappan Zee Bridge, led to further growth in the county. Westchester County is located in southern New York known as Downstate, it shares its southern boundary with its northern border with Putnam County. It is bordered on the west
Superhero comics are one of the most common genres of American comic books. The genre rose to prominence in the 1930s and became popular in the 1940s and has remained the dominant form of comic book in North America since the 1960s. Superhero comics feature stories about superheroes and the universes these characters inhabit. Beginning with the introduction of Superman in 1938 in Action Comics #1 — an anthology of adventure features — comic books devoted to superheroes ballooned into a widespread genre, coincident with the beginnings of World War II and the end of the Great Depression. In comics format and costumed heroes like Popeye and The Phantom had appeared in newspaper comic strips for several years prior to Superman; the masked detective The Clock first appeared in the comic book Funny Pages #6. In the Great Depression and World War II era the first Superhero Comics appeared, the most popular being Superman, Captain Marvel, Wonder Woman and Captain America. After World War II superhero comic books declined in popularity, their sales hindered in part by the publication of Seduction of the Innocent and the investigations of The Senate Subcommittee hearings on juvenile delinquency.
By 1954 only three superheroes still had their own titles. Beginning in the 1950s, DC began publishing revised versions of their 1940s superhero characters such as The Flash and Green Lantern with more of a science fiction focus. Marvel Comics followed suit in the 1960s, introducing characters such as Spider-Man, the Fantastic Four, the Hulk, the X-Men and Iron Man who featured more complex personalities which had more dramatic potential. Superhero Comics became much more political and dealt with social issues such as the short-lived run of Green Lantern/Green Arrow by Denny O'Neil and Neal Adams and the Captain America story arc of the superhero's political disillusionment by Steve Englehart; this was supplanted by more sophisticated character driven titles of The Uncanny X-Men by Chris Claremont and John Byrne for Marvel and The New Teen Titans by Marv Wolfman and George Pérez for DC. Anti-Hero becomes popular with appearances of the Punisher, Ghost Rider and a 1980s revival of Daredevil by Frank Miller.
Superhero Comics became darker with the release of landmark deconstructive works such as Watchmen and The Dark Knight Returns, which led to many imitations. In the 1990s, Image Comics released successful new characters including the Anti-Hero Spawn which were predominantly creator owned as opposed to Marvel and DC's which were corporate owned; the Comic Book Mini Series Kingdom Come brought an end to the popularity of the Anti-Hero and encouraged instead a reconstruction of the genre with superhero characters that endeavored to combine artistic and literary sophistication with idealism Superhero film Benton, Mike. Superhero Comics of the Silver Age: The Illustrated History. Taylor History of Comics. Taylor Publishing. P. 226. ISBN 0-87833-746-6. Benton, Mike. Superhero Comics of the Golden Age: The Illustrated History. Taylor History of Comics. Taylor Publishing. P. 202. ISBN 0-87833-808-X. Garrett, Greg. Holy Superheroes!: Exploring the Sacred in Comics, Graphic Novels, Film. Westminster John Knox Press.
P. 216. ISBN 0-664-23191-8. Howe, Sean 2012). Marvel Comics: the Untold Story. First ed. New York: Harper. 485 p. ISBN 978-0-06-199210-0 Jacobs and Gerard Jones; the Comic Book Superheroes, from the Silver Age to the Present. New York: Crown Publishers. Xi, 292 p. ISBN 0-517-55440-2 Klock, Geoff. How to Read Superhero Comics and Why. Continuum International Publishing Group. P. 204. ISBN 0-8264-1418-4. Knowles, Christopher. Our Gods Wear Spandex: The Secret History of Comic Book Heroes. Illustrated by Joseph Michael Linsner. Weiser. P. 256. ISBN 1-57863-406-7. LoCicero, Don. Superheroes and Gods: A Comparative Study from Babylonia to Batman. McFarland & Company. P. 249. ISBN 0-7864-3184-9