X.500 is a series of computer networking standards covering electronic directory services. The X.500 series was developed by the Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunications Union. ITU-T was known as the Consultative Committee for International Telephony and Telegraphy. X.500 was approved first in 1988. The directory services were developed to support requirements of X.400 electronic mail exchange and name lookup. The International Organization for Standardization was a partner in developing the standards, incorporating them into the Open Systems Interconnection suite of protocols. ISO/IEC 9594 is the corresponding ISO identification; the protocols defined by X.500 include DAP DSP DISP DOP Because these protocols used the OSI networking stack, a number of alternatives to DAP were developed to allow Internet clients to access the X.500 Directory using the TCP/IP networking stack. The most well-known alternative to DAP is Lightweight Directory Access Protocol.

While DAP and the other X.500 protocols can now use the TCP/IP networking stack, LDAP remains a popular directory access protocol. The primary concept of X.500 is that there is a single Directory Information Tree, a hierarchical organization of entries which are distributed across one or more servers, called Directory System Agents. An entry consists of a set of attributes, each attribute with one or more values; each entry has a unique Distinguished Name, formed by combining its Relative Distinguished Name, one or more attributes of the entry itself, the RDNs of each of the superior entries up to the root of the DIT. As LDAP implements a similar data model to that of X.500, there is further description of the data model in the article on LDAP. X.520 and X.521 together provide a definition of a set of attributes and object classes to be used for representing people and organizations as entries in the DIT. They are one of the most deployed white pages schema. X.509, the portion of the standard providing for an authentication framework, is now widely used outside of the X.500 directory protocols.

It specifies a standard format for public-key certificates. The current use of X.509v3 certificates outside the Directory structure loaded directly into web browsers was necessary for e-commerce to develop by allowing for secure web based communications which did not require the X.500 directory as a source of digital certificates as conceived in X.500. One should contrast the role of X.500 and X.509 to understand their relationship in that X.509 was designed to be the secure access method for updating X.500 before the WWW, but when web browsers became popular there needed to be a simple method of encrypting connections on the transport layer to web sites. Hence the trusted root certificates for supported certificate authorities were pre loaded into certificate storage areas on the personal computer or device. Added security is envisaged by the scheduled 2011-2014 implementation of the US National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace, a two- to three-year project protecting digital identities in cyberspace.

The WWW e-commerce implementation of X.509v3 bypassed but did not replace the original ISO standard authentication mechanism of binding distinguished names in the X.500 Directory. These packages of certificates can be added or removed by the end user in their software, but are reviewed by Microsoft and Mozilla in terms of their continued trustworthiness. Should a problem arise, such as what occurred with DigiNotar, browser security experts can issue an update to mark a certificate authority as untrusted, but this is a serious removal of that CA from "internet trust". X.500 offers a way to view which organization claims a specific root certificate, outside of that provided bundle. This can function as a "4 corner model of trust" adding another check to determine if a root certificate has been compromised. Rules governing the Federal Bridge policy for revoking compromised certificates are available at The contrast of this browser bundled approach is that in X.500 or LDAP the attribute "caCertificate" can be "bound" to a directory entry and checked in addition to the default pre-loaded bundle of certificates of which end users have never noticed unless an SSL warning message has appeared.

For example, a web site using SSL the DNS site name "" is verified in a browser by the software using libraries that would check to see if the certificate was signed by one of the trusted root certificates given to the user. Therefore, creating trust for users that they had reached the correct web site via HTTPS. However, stronger checks are possible, to indicate that more than the domain name was verified. To contrast this with X.500, the certificate is one attribute of many for an entry, in which the entry could contain anything allowable by the specific Directory schema. Thus X.500 does store the digital certificate, but it is one of many attributes that could verify the organization, such as physical address, a contact telephone number and an email contact. CA Certs or certificate authority certs are loaded into the browser automatically, or in new version updates of browsers, the user is given further choices to import, delete, or develop an individual trust relationship with the loaded Certificate Authorities and determine how the browser will behave if OCSP revocation servers are unreachable.

This is in contrast with the Directory model which associates the attribute caCertificate with a listed certificate authority

Canadian Coast Guard

The Canadian Coast Guard is the coast guard of Canada. Formed in 1962, the coast guard is tasked with marine search and rescue, communication and transportation issues in Canadian waters, such as navigation aids and icebreaking, marine pollution response and providing support for other Canadian government initiatives; the coast guard operates 119 vessels of varying sizes and 22 helicopters, along with a variety of smaller craft. The CCG is headquartered in Ottawa, is a special operating agency within Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Unlike armed coast guards of some other nations, the CCG is a government marine organization without naval or law enforcement responsibilities. Naval operations in Canada's maritime environment are the responsibility of the Royal Canadian Navy. Enforcement of Canada's maritime-related federal statutes may be carried out by peace officers serving with various federal, provincial or municipal law enforcement agencies. Although CCG personnel are neither a naval nor law enforcement force, they may operate CCG vessels in support of naval operations, or they may serve an operational role in the delivery of maritime law enforcement and security services in Canadian federal waters by providing a platform for personnel serving with one or more law enforcement agencies.

The CCG's responsibility encompasses Canada's 202,080-kilometre long coastline, the longest of any nation in the world. Its vessels and aircraft operate over an area of ocean and inland waters covering 2.3 million square nautical miles. "Canadian Coast Guard services support government priorities and economic prosperity and contribute to the safety and security of Canadian waters."The CCG's mandate is stated in the Oceans Act and the Canada Shipping Act. The Oceans Act gives the minister of Fisheries and Oceans responsibility for providing: aids to navigation; the Canada Shipping Act gives the minister powers and obligations concerning: aids to navigation. As a special operating agency within the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, the CCG uses generic identifiers imposed by the Federal Identity Program. However, the CCG is one of several federal departments and agencies that have been granted heraldic symbols; the CCG badge was approved in 1962. Blue symbolizes water, white represents ice, dolphins are considered a friend of mariners.

The motto Saluti Primum, Auxilio Semper translates "Safety First, Service Always". In addition to the Coast Guard Jack, distinctive flags have been approved for use by senior CCG officials including the Honorary Chief Commissioner and the Minister of Transport; the Canadian Coast Guard Auxiliary was granted a flag and badge by the Canadian Heraldic Authority in 2012. A variety of federal departments and the navy performed the work which the CCG does today. Following Confederation in 1867, the federal government placed many of the responsibilities for maintaining aids to navigation, marine safety, search and rescue under the Marine Service of the Department of Marine and Fisheries, with some responsibility for waterways resting with the Canal Branch of the Department of Railways and Canals. Lifeboat stations had been established on the east and west coasts as part of the Canadian Lifesaving Service. On the Pacific coast, the service operated the Dominion Lifesaving Trail which provided a rural communications route for survivors of shipwrecks on the treacherous Pacific Ocean coast off Vancouver Island.

These stations maintained, sometimes sporadically in the earliest days, pulling lifeboats manned by volunteers and motorized lifeboats. After the Department of Marine and Fisheries was split into separate departments, the Department of Marine continued to take responsibility for the federal government's coastal protection services. During the inter-war period, the Royal Canadian Navy performed similar duties at a time when the navy was wavering on the point of becoming a civilian organization. Laws related to customs and revenue were enforced by the marine division of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. A government reorganization in 1936 saw the Department of Marine and its Marine Service, along with several other government departments and agencies, folded into the new Department of Transport. Following the Second World War, Canada experienced a major expansion in ocean commerce, culminating with the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1958; the shipping industry was changing throughout eastern Canada and required an expanded federal government role in the Great Lakes and the Atlantic coast, as well as an increased presence in the Arctic and Pacific coasts for sovereignty purposes.

The government of Prime Minister John Diefenbaker decided to consolidate the duties of the Marine Service of the Department of Transport and on January 26, 1962, the Canadian Coast Guard was formed as a subsidiary of DOT. One of the more notable inheritances at the time of formation was the icebreaker Labrador, transferred from the Royal Canadian Navy. A period of expansion followed the creation of the CCG between the 1960s

Opera Awards (Australia)

The Opera Awards is an singing competition, for professional Australian opera singers. It was established in 1986 with the purpose of assisting and developing professional Australian opera singers; this is achieved through programs of study with selected international educational institutions, engagements with professional opera companies, as well as through introduction and educational opportunities with prominent members of the international operatic community. The Opera Awards consists of a group of awards, including the YMF Australia Award and the Armstrong-Martin Scholarship, amongst others. Major sponsors and supporters of the Awards have included YMF Australia, the Armstrong-Martin Estate, Haas Foundation, The Glyndebourne Festival Opera, the Royal Over-Seas League and the Australian Elizabethan Theatre Trust. In 1986/87, Music & Opera Singers Trust Limited created the'Opera Awards' as a competition within the Australian SInging Competition, as a separate, stand-alone competition in 2001.

The competition provides cash prizes and career opportunities to professional Australian opera singers, enabling the study of grand opera and related music overseas. Since 2007, the primary award within the Opera Awards is the YMF Australia Award, sponsored by YMF Australia; the recipient of the'Opera Awards' receives a group of awards and opportunities which include the YMF Australia Award, the Armstrong-Martin Scholarship, the Haas Foundation Award and the Editorial Resources Prize.'Runners up' receive prizes and opportunities which include The Royal Over-Seas League Music Bursary, the Britten-Pears Young Artists Programme, the Glyndebourne Festival Prize, the 4MBS Classic FM Award. The recipient of the Opera Awards is acknowledged and invited to perform at the Finals Concert of the Australian Singing Competition; the Opera Awards Recipient is defined as the individual who has received the'major award' within the Opera Awards. This has changed over the years: 1986-1997. Opera Awards website Opera Awards YouTube channel Australian Singing Competition website Music & Opera Singers Trust Limited website YMF Australia website