AsusTek Computer Inc. is a Taiwan-based multinational computer and phone hardware and electronics company headquartered in Beitou District, Taiwan. Its products include desktops, netbooks, mobile phones, networking equipment, monitors, WIFI routers, motherboards, graphics cards, optical storage, multimedia products, wearables, servers and tablet PCs; the company is an original equipment manufacturer. Asus is the world's 5th-largest PC vendor by 2017 unit sales. Asus appears in BusinessWeek's "InfoTech 100" and "Asia's Top 10 IT Companies" rankings, it ranked first in the IT Hardware category of the 2008 Taiwan Top 10 Global Brands survey with a total brand value of $1.3 billion. Asus has a primary listing on the Taiwan Stock Exchange under the ticker code 2357 and a secondary listing on the London Stock Exchange under a ticker code ASKD; the company is referred to as "Asus" or Huáshuò in Chinese According to the company website, the name Asus originates from Pegasus, the winged horse of Greek mythology.
Only the last four letters of the word were used in order to give the name a high position in alphabetical listings. The company's slogan/tagline was "Rock Solid. Heart Touching" "Inspiring Innovation. Persistent Perfection." It is "In Search of Incredible." Rock Solid. Heart Touching Inspiring Innovation. Persistent Perfection In Search of Incredible Asus was founded in Taipei in 1989 by T. H. Tung, Ted Hsu, Wayne Hsieh and M. T. Liao, all four having worked at Acer as hardware engineers. At this time, Taiwan had yet to establish a leading position in the computer-hardware business. Intel Corporation would supply any new processors to more established companies like IBM first, Taiwanese companies would have to wait for six months after IBM received their engineering prototypes. According to the legend, the company created a prototype for a motherboard using an Intel 486, but it had to do so without access to the actual processor; when Asus approached Intel to request a processor to test it, Intel itself had a problem with its own 486 motherboard.
Asus solved Intel's problem and it turned out that Asus' own motherboard worked without the need for further modification. Since Asus was receiving Intel engineering samples ahead of its competitors. In September 2005, Asus released the first PhysX accelerator card. In December 2005, Asus entered the LCD TV market with the TLW32001 model. In January 2006, Asus announced that it would cooperate with Lamborghini to develop the VX laptop series. On 9 March 2006, Asus was confirmed as one of the manufacturers of the first Microsoft Origami models, together with Samsung and Founder Technology. On 8 August 2006, Asus announced a joint venture with Gigabyte Technology. On 5 June 2007, Asus announced the launch of the Eee PC at COMPUTEX Taipei. On 9 September 2007, Asus indicated support for Blu-ray, announcing the release of a BD-ROM/DVD writer PC drive, BC-1205PT. ASUS subsequently released several Blu-ray based notebooks. In January 2008, Asus began a major restructuring of its operations, splitting into three independent companies: Asus.
In the process of the restructuring, a criticized pension-plan restructuring zeroed out the existing pension balances. The company paid out all contributions made by employees. On 9 December 2008, the Open Handset Alliance announced that Asus had become one of 14 new members of the organization; these "new members will either deploy compatible Android devices, contribute significant code to the Android Open Source Project, or support the ecosystem through products and services that will accelerate the availability of Android-based devices."On 1 June 2010, Asus spun off Pegatron Corp. In October 2010, Asus and Garmin announced that they would be ending their smartphone partnership as a result of Garmin deciding to exit the product category; the two companies had produced six Garmin-ASUS branded smartphones over the prior two years. In December 2010, Asus launched the world's thinnest notebook, the Asus U36, with Intel processor voltage standard Intel core i3 or i5 with a thickness of only 19 mm.
In January 2013, Asus ended production of its Eee PC series due to declining sales caused by consumers switching to tablets and Ultrabooks. Asus has its headquarters in Beitou District, Taiwan; as of 2009 Asus had manufacturing facilities in Taiwan, mainland China and the Czech Republic. The Asus Hi-Tech Park, located in Suzhou, covers 540,000 m2. Asus operates around 50 service sites across 32 countries and has over 400 service partners worldwide. Asus' products include 2-in-1s, tablet computers, desktop computers, personal digital assistants, computer monitors, graphics cards, sound cards, DVD disc drives, computer networking devices, computer cases, computer components and computer cooling systems. One of Asus main lineup is the Vivo lineup consisting of laptops, All-in-Ones, Stick PCs, Mini PCs, computer mouse and tablets. Asus launched many Android-based smartphones, p
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
GeForce is a brand of graphics processing units designed by Nvidia. As of the GeForce 20 series, there have been fifteen iterations of the design; the first GeForce products were discrete GPUs designed for add-on graphics boards, intended for the high-margin PC gaming market, diversification of the product line covered all tiers of the PC graphics market, ranging from cost-sensitive GPUs integrated on motherboards, to mainstream add-in retail boards. Most GeForce technology has been introduced into Nvidia's line of embedded application processors, designed for electronic handhelds and mobile handsets. With respect to discrete GPUs, found in add-in graphics-boards, Nvidia's GeForce and AMD's Radeon GPUs are the only remaining competitors in the high-end market. Along with its nearest competitor, the AMD Radeon, the GeForce architecture is moving toward general-purpose graphics processor unit. GPGPU is expected to expand GPU functionality beyond the traditional rasterization of 3D graphics, to turn it into a high-performance computing device able to execute arbitrary programming code in the same way a CPU does, but with different strengths and weaknesses.
The "GeForce" name originated from a contest held by Nvidia in early 1999 called "Name That Chip". The company called out to the public to name the successor to the RIVA TNT2 line of graphics boards. There were over 12,000 entries received and 7 winners received a RIVA TNT2 Ultra graphics card as a reward. Launched on August 31, 1999, the GeForce 256 was the first consumer-level PC graphics chip shipped with hardware transform and shading although 3D games utilizing this feature did not appear until later. Initial GeForce 256 boards shipped with SDR SDRAM memory, boards shipped with faster DDR SDRAM memory. Launched in April 2000, the first GeForce2 was another high-performance graphics chip. Nvidia moved to a twin texture processor per pipeline design, doubling texture fillrate per clock compared to GeForce 256. Nvidia released the GeForce2 MX, which offered performance similar to the GeForce 256 but at a fraction of the cost; the MX was a compelling value in the low/mid-range market segments and was popular with OEM PC manufacturers and users alike.
The GeForce 2 Ultra was the high-end model in this series. Launched in February 2001, the GeForce3 introduced programmable vertex and pixel shaders to the GeForce family and to consumer-level graphics accelerators, it had good overall performance and shader support, making it popular with enthusiasts although it never hit the midrange price point. The NV2A developed for the Microsoft Xbox game console is a derivative of the GeForce 3. Launched in February 2002, the then-high-end GeForce4 Ti was a refinement to the GeForce3; the biggest advancements included enhancements to anti-aliasing capabilities, an improved memory controller, a second vertex shader, a manufacturing process size reduction to increase clock speeds. Another member of the GeForce 4 family, the budget GeForce4 MX, was based on the GeForce2, with the addition of some features from the GeForce4 Ti, it lacked pixel shaders. Most of these models used the AGP 4× interface, but a few began the transition to AGP 8×. Launched in 2003, the GeForce FX was a huge change in architecture compared to its predecessors.
The GPU was designed not only to support the new Shader Model 2 specification but to perform well on older titles. However, initial models like the GeForce FX 5800 Ultra suffered from weak floating point shader performance and excessive heat which required infamously noisy two-slot cooling solutions. Products in this series carry the 5000 model number, as it is the fifth generation of the GeForce, though Nvidia marketed the cards as GeForce FX instead of GeForce 5 to show off "the dawn of cinematic rendering". Launched in April 2004, the GeForce 6 added Shader Model 3.0 support to the GeForce family, while correcting the weak floating point shader performance of its predecessor. It implemented high dynamic range imaging and introduced SLI and PureVideo capability; the seventh generation GeForce was launched in June 2005 and was the last Nvidia video card series that could support the AGP bus. The design was a refined version of GeForce 6, with the major improvements being a widened pipeline and an increase in clock speed.
The GeForce 7 offers new transparency supersampling and transparency multisampling anti-aliasing modes. These new anti-aliasing modes were enabled for the GeForce 6 series as well; the GeForce 7950GT featured the highest performance GPU with an AGP interface in the Nvidia line. This era began the transition to the PCI-Express interface. A 128-bit, 8 ROP variant of the 7950 GT, called the RSX'Reality Synthesizer', is used as the main GPU in the Sony PlayStation 3. Released on November 8, 2006, the eighth-generation GeForce was the first GPU to support Direct3D 10. Manufactured using a 90 nm process and built around the new Tesla microarchitecture, it implemented the unified shader model. Just the 8800GTX model was launched, while the GTS variant was released months into the product line's life, it took nearly six months for mid-range and OEM/mainstream cards to be integrated into the 8 series; the die shrink down to 65 nm and a revision to the G80 design, codenamed G92, were implemented into the 8 series with the 8800GS, 8800GT and 8800GTS-512, first released on October
A video card is an expansion card which generates a feed of output images to a display device. These are advertised as discrete or dedicated graphics cards, emphasizing the distinction between these and integrated graphics. At the core of both is the graphics processing unit, the main part that does the actual computations, but should not be confused as the video card as a whole, although "GPU" is used to refer to video cards. Most video cards are not limited to simple display output, their integrated graphics processor can perform additional processing, removing this task from the central processor of the computer. For example, Nvidia and AMD produced cards render the graphics pipeline OpenGL and DirectX on the hardware level. In the 2010s, there has been a tendency to use the computing capabilities of the graphics processor to solve non-graphic tasks; the graphics card is made in the form of a printed circuit board and inserted into an expansion slot, universal or specialized. Some have been made using dedicated enclosures, which are connected to the computer via a docking station or a cable.
Standards such as MDA, CGA, HGC, Tandy, PGC, EGA, VGA, MCGA, 8514 or XGA were introduced from 1982 to 1990 and supported by a variety of hardware manufacturers. 3dfx Interactive was one of the first companies to develop a GPU with 3D acceleration and the first to develop a graphical chipset dedicated to 3D, but without 2D support. Now the majority of modern video cards are built with either AMD-sourced or Nvidia-sourced graphics chips; until 2000, 3dfx Interactive was an important, groundbreaking, manufacturer. Most video cards offer various functions such as accelerated rendering of 3D scenes and 2D graphics, MPEG-2/MPEG-4 decoding, TV output, or the ability to connect multiple monitors. Video cards have sound card capabilities to output sound – along with the video for connected TVs or monitors with integrated speakers. Within the industry, video cards are sometimes called graphics add-in-boards, abbreviated as AIBs, with the word "graphics" omitted; as an alternative to the use of a video card, video hardware can be integrated into the motherboard, CPU, or a system-on-chip.
Both approaches can be called integrated graphics. Motherboard-based implementations are sometimes called "on-board video". All desktop computer motherboards with integrated graphics allow the disabling of the integrated graphics chip in BIOS, have a PCI, or PCI Express slot for adding a higher-performance graphics card in place of the integrated graphics; the ability to disable the integrated graphics sometimes allows the continued use of a motherboard on which the on-board video has failed. Sometimes both the integrated graphics and a dedicated graphics card can be used to feed separate displays; the main advantages of integrated graphics include cost, compactness and low energy consumption. The performance disadvantage of integrated graphics arises because the graphics processor shares system resources with the CPU. A dedicated graphics card has its own random access memory, its own cooling system, dedicated power regulators, with all components designed for processing video images. Upgrading to a dedicated graphics card offloads work from the CPU and system RAM, so not only will graphics processing be faster, but the computer's overall performance may improve.
Both AMD and Intel have introduced CPUs and motherboard chipsets which support the integration of a GPU into the same die as the CPU. AMD markets CPUs with integrated graphics under the trademark Accelerated Processing Unit, while Intel markets similar technology under the "Intel HD Graphics and Iris" brands. With the 8th Generation Processors, Intel announced the Intel UHD series of Integrated Graphics for better support of 4K Displays. Although they are still not equivalent to the performance of discrete solutions, Intel's HD Graphics platform provides performance approaching discrete mid-range graphics, AMD APU technology has been adopted by both the PlayStation 4 and Xbox One video game consoles; as the processing power of video cards has increased, so has their demand for electrical power. Current high-performance video cards tend to consume a great deal of power. For example, the thermal design power for the GeForce GTX TITAN is 250 watts; when tested while gaming, the GeForce GTX 1080 Ti Founder's Edition averaged 227 watts of power consumption.
While CPU and power supply makers have moved toward higher efficiency, power demands of GPUs have continued to rise, so video cards may have the largest power consumption in a computer. Although power supplies are increasing their power too, the bottleneck is due to the PCI-Express connection, limited to supplying 75 watts. Modern video cards with a power consumption of over 75 watts include a combination of six-pin or eight-pin sockets that connect directly to the power supply. Providing adequate cooling becomes a challenge in such computers. Computers with multiple video cards may need power supplies in the 1000–1500 W range. Heat extraction becomes a major design consideration for computers with two or more high-end video cards. Video cards for desktop computers come in one of two size profiles, which can allow a graphics card to be added to small-sized PCs; some video cards are not of usual size, are thus categorized as being low profile. Video card profiles are based on height only, with low-profile cards taking up less than the height of a
Ontario is a city located in southwestern San Bernardino County, California, 35 miles east of downtown Los Angeles and 23 miles west of downtown San Bernardino, the county seat. Located in the western part of the Inland Empire metropolitan area, it lies just east of Los Angeles County and is part of the Greater Los Angeles Area; as of the 2010 Census, the city had a population of 163,924, up from 158,007 at the 2000 census, making it the county's fourth most populous city after San Bernardino and Rancho Cucamonga. The city is home to the Ontario International Airport, the 15th busiest airport in the United States by cargo carried. Ontario handles the mass of freight traffic between the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach and the rest of the country, it is the home of Ontario Mills and former home of the Ontario Motor Speedway. It takes its name from the Ontario Model Colony development established in 1882 by the Canadian engineer George Chaffey and his brothers William Chaffey and Charles Chaffey.
They named the settlement after their home province of Ontario. The area, now Ontario was part of the lands used for hunting and foraging by the semi-nomadic Tongva Native Americans, who were known to roam as far south as the western San Bernardino Mountains. At the time of Mexican and of American settlement, active Native American settlements were scattered across the entire valley. Remains of a Serrano village were discovered in the neighboring foothills of the present-day city of Claremont. Juan Bautista de Anza is said to have passed through the area on his 1774 expedition, to this day a city park and a middle school bear his name. Following the 1819 establishment of San Bernardino Asistencia, which may have served as an outpost of the San Gabriel mission, it became part of a large, vaguely identified area called "San Antonio". In 1826, Jedediah Smith passed through what is now Upland on the first overland journey to the West coast of North America via the National Old Trails Road; the 1834 secularization of California land holdings resulted in the land's transferral to private hands.
In 1881, the Chaffey brothers and William, purchased the land and the water rights to it. They engineered a drainage system channeling water from the foothills of Mount San Antonio down to the flatter lands below that performed the dual functions of allowing farmers to water their crops and preventing the floods that periodically afflict them, they created the main thoroughfare of Euclid Avenue, with its distinctive wide lanes and grassy median. The new "Model Colony" was conceived as a dry town, early deeds containing clauses forbidding the manufacture or sale of alcoholic beverages within the town; the two named the town "Ontario" in honor of the province of Ontario in Canada, where they were born. Ontario attracted ailing Easterners seeking a drier climate. To impress visitors and potential settlers with the "abundance" of water in Ontario, a fountain was placed at the Southern Pacific railway station, it was turned on when passenger trains were approaching and frugally turned off again after their departure.
The original "Chaffey fountain", a simple spigot surrounded by a ring of white stones, was replaced by the more ornate "Frankish Fountain", an Art Nouveau creation now located outside the Ontario Museum of History and Art. Agriculture was vital to the early economy, many street names recall this legacy; the Sunkist plant remains as a living vestige of the citrus era. The Chaffey brothers left to found the settlements of Mildura and Renmark, which met with varying success. Charles Frankish continued their work at Ontario. Mining engineer John Tays refined the design of the novel "mule car", used from 1887 for public transportation on Euclid Avenue to 24th Street. At that point, the two mules were loaded onto a platform at the rear of the car and allowed to ride, as gravity propelled the trolley back down the avenue to the downtown Ontario terminus. Soon replaced by an electric streetcar, the mule car is commemorated by a replica in an enclosure south of C Street on the Euclid Avenue median. Ontario was incorporated as a city in 1891, North Ontario broke away in 1906, calling itself Upland.
Ontario grew at an astronomical rate. The population of 20,000 in the 1960s again grew 10 times more by the year 2007. Ontario was viewed as an "Iowa under Palm trees", with a solid Midwestern/Mid-American foundation, but it had a large German and Swiss community. Tens of thousands of European immigrants came to work in agriculture, in the early 1900s the first Filipinos and Japanese farm laborers arrived to display nursery ownership skills. Ontario has over two centuries of Hispanic residents, starting from the Californio period of Spanish colonial and Mexican rule in the 1840s. However, the first wave of Mexican settlers was in the 1880s brought as workers in the railroad industry and another wave from the Mexican Revolution of the 1910s. Mexican Americans resided in the city's poorer central side facing Chino. In the years following Ontario's founding, the economy was driven by its reputation as a health resort. Shortly thereafter, citrus farmers began taking advantage of Ontario's rocky soil to plant lemon and orange groves.
Agricultural opportunities attracted vintners and olive growers. The Graber Olive House, which continues to produce olives, is a city historical landmark and one of the
Radeon HD 4000 series
The Radeon R700 is the engineering codename for a graphics processing unit series developed by Advanced Micro Devices under the ATI brand name. The foundation chip, codenamed RV770, was announced and demonstrated on June 16, 2008 as part of the FireStream 9250 and Cinema 2.0 initiative launch media event, with official release of the Radeon HD 4800 series on June 25, 2008. Other variants include enthusiast-oriented RV790, mainstream product RV730, RV740 and entry-level RV710, its direct competition was nVidia's GeForce 200 series. This article is about all products under the brand "Radeon HD 4000 Series". All products implement TeraScale 1 microarchitecture; the RV770 extends the R600's unified shader architecture by increasing the stream processing unit count to 800 units, which are grouped into 10 SIMD cores composed of 16 shader cores containing 4 FP MADD/DP ALUs and 1 MADD/transcendental ALU. The RV770 retains the R600's 4 Quad ROP cluster count, they are faster and now have dedicated hardware-based AA resolve in addition to the shader-based resolve of the R600 architecture.
The RV770 has 10 texture units, each of which can handle 4 addresses, 16 FP32 samples, 4 FP32 filtering functions per clock cycle. RV770 features a 256-bit memory controller and is the first GPU to support GDDR5 memory, which runs at 900 MHz giving an effective transfer rate of 3.6 GHz and memory bandwidth of up to 115 GB/s. The internal ring bus from the R520 and R600 has been replaced by the combination of a crossbar and an internal hub; the SIP block UVD 2.0-2.2 implemented on the dies of all Radeon HD 4000 Series Desktop gpus, 48xx series is using uvd 2.0, 47xx-46xx-45xx-43xx series is using uvd 2.2. Support is available for Microsoft Windows at release, for Linux with Catalyst 8.10. The free and open-source driver requires Linux kernel 3.10 in combination with Mesa 9.1 ), offering full hardware MPEG-2, H.264/MPEG-4 AVC and VC-1 decoding and the support for dual video streams, the Advanced Video Processor saw an upgrade with DVD upscaling capability and dynamic contrast feature. The RV770 series GPU supports xvYCC color space output and 7.1 surround sound output over HDMI.
The RV770 GPU supports an Accelerated Video Transcoding feature, which has video transcoding functions being assisted by the GPU, through stream processing. This generation of dual-GPU design retains the use of a PCI Express bridge, PLX PEX 8647 with a power dissipation of 3.8 watts inclusive of PCI Express 2.0 support, allowing two GPUs on the same PCI Express slot with doubled bandwidth over the past generation of product. Subsequent generations of dual-GPU design feature an interconnect for inter-GPU communications through the implementation of a CrossFire X SidePort on each GPU, giving extra 5 GB/s full-duplex inter-GPU bandwidth; these two features increase total bandwidth for dual-GPU designs to 21.8 GB/s. OpenCL accelerates 100 and more. Open CL 1.0 to 1.1 are supported for all Chips with RV7xx. The Radeon HD 4850 was announced on June 19, 2008 while the Radeon HD 4870 was announced on June 25, 2008, they are both based on the RV770 GPU, packing 956 million transistors and being produced on a 55 nm process.
The Radeon HD 4850 uses GDDR3 memory, while the Radeon HD 4870 uses GDDR5 memory. Another variant, the Radeon HD 4830 was updated on October 23, 2008, featuring the RV770 LE GPU with a 256-bit GDDR3 memory interface, 640 shader processors; the RV770 LE is a RV770 with some functional units disabled. Dual GPU products using two RV770 GPUs, codenamed R700, were announced. One product named Radeon HD 4870 X2, featuring 2×1GB GDDR5 memory, was released on August 12, 2008, while another dual-GPU product, the Radeon HD 4850 X2, with GDDR3 memory and lower clock speeds, is available. A minor update was introduced on April 2, 2009 with the launch of Radeon HD 4890 graphics cards based on the RV790 GPU. Featuring an improved design with decoupling capacitors to reduce signal noise, altered ASIC power distribution and re-timed the whole GPU chip, which resulted in a slight increase in die size but overall much better stability at high clock rates and a higher default clock. On August 18, 2009, AMD released a stripped down variant of the RV790 GPU called the RV790GT, used by the Radeon HD 4860, now available in all markets.
The Radeon HD 4700 series was announced on April 28, 2009. The Radeon HD 4770, is based on the RV740 GPU, packs 826 million transistors and being produced on the latest 40 nm process; the Radeon HD 4730 was introduced June 8, 2009, unlike the RV740 based Radeon HD 4770, the 4730 is a stripped down 55 nm RV770 GPU, named the RV770CE. The 4730 packs 956 million transistors, uses GDDR5 memory on a 128-bit bus. On September 9, 2009, the RV740PRO based Radeon HD 4750 was released to the Chinese market; the Radeon HD 4750 is based on the 40 nm RV740 of the Radeon HD 4770 but features a lower clock speed and the absence of a six-pin auxiliary power input. The Radeon HD 4600 series was announced on September 10, 2008. All variants are based on the RV730 GPU, packing 514 million transistors and being produced on a 55 nm process; the PCIe version 4600 series products do not require external power connectors. More an AGP version of the 4670 has been released; this does require an external power connector. As of March 2018, this elusive AGP card remains among the last cards using the aging bus.
The Radeon HD 4350 and Radeon HD 4550 were announced on September 30, 2008, both based on the RV710 GPU, packing 242 million transistors and being produced on a 55 nm process. Both products use either GDDR3, DDR3
Electronics comprises the physics, engineering and applications that deal with the emission and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. The identification of the electron in 1897, along with the invention of the vacuum tube, which could amplify and rectify small electrical signals, inaugurated the field of electronics and the electron age. Electronics deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, diodes, integrated circuits and sensors, associated passive electrical components, interconnection technologies. Electronic devices contain circuitry consisting or of active semiconductors supplemented with passive elements; the nonlinear behaviour of active components and their ability to control electron flows makes amplification of weak signals possible. Electronics is used in information processing, telecommunication, signal processing; the ability of electronic devices to act as switches makes digital information-processing possible. Interconnection technologies such as circuit boards, electronics packaging technology, other varied forms of communication infrastructure complete circuit functionality and transform the mixed electronic components into a regular working system, called an electronic system.
An electronic system may be a component of a standalone device. Electrical and electromechanical science and technology deals with the generation, switching and conversion of electrical energy to and from other energy forms; this distinction started around 1906 with the invention by Lee De Forest of the triode, which made electrical amplification of weak radio signals and audio signals possible with a non-mechanical device. Until 1950 this field was called "radio technology" because its principal application was the design and theory of radio transmitters and vacuum tubes; as of 2018 most electronic devices use semiconductor components to perform electron control. The study of semiconductor devices and related technology is considered a branch of solid-state physics, whereas the design and construction of electronic circuits to solve practical problems come under electronics engineering; this article focuses on engineering aspects of electronics. Digital electronics Analogue electronics Microelectronics Circuit design Integrated circuits Power electronics Optoelectronics Semiconductor devices Embedded systems An electronic component is any physical entity in an electronic system used to affect the electrons or their associated fields in a manner consistent with the intended function of the electronic system.
Components are intended to be connected together by being soldered to a printed circuit board, to create an electronic circuit with a particular function. Components may be packaged singly, or in more complex groups as integrated circuits; some common electronic components are capacitors, resistors, transistors, etc. Components are categorized as active or passive. Vacuum tubes were among the earliest electronic components, they were solely responsible for the electronics revolution of the first half of the twentieth century. They allowed for vastly more complicated systems and gave us radio, phonographs, long-distance telephony and much more, they played a leading role in the field of microwave and high power transmission as well as television receivers until the middle of the 1980s. Since that time, solid-state devices have all but taken over. Vacuum tubes are still used in some specialist applications such as high power RF amplifiers, cathode ray tubes, specialist audio equipment, guitar amplifiers and some microwave devices.
In April 1955, the IBM 608 was the first IBM product to use transistor circuits without any vacuum tubes and is believed to be the first all-transistorized calculator to be manufactured for the commercial market. The 608 contained more than 3,000 germanium transistors. Thomas J. Watson Jr. ordered all future IBM products to use transistors in their design. From that time on transistors were exclusively used for computer logic and peripherals. Circuits and components can be divided into two groups: digital. A particular device may consist of circuitry that has a mix of the two types. Most analog electronic appliances, such as radio receivers, are constructed from combinations of a few types of basic circuits. Analog circuits use a continuous range of voltage or current as opposed to discrete levels as in digital circuits; the number of different analog circuits so far devised is huge because a'circuit' can be defined as anything from a single component, to systems containing thousands of components.
Analog circuits are sometimes called linear circuits although many non-linear effects are used in analog circuits such as mixers, etc. Good examples of analog circuits include vacuum tube and transistor amplifiers, operational amplifiers and oscillators. One finds modern circuits that are analog; these days analog circuitry may use digital or microprocessor techniques to improve performance. This type of circuit is called "mixed signal" rather than analog or digital. Sometimes it may be difficult to differentiate between analog and digital circuits as they have elements of both linear and non-linear