Zhytomyr is a city in the north of the western half of Ukraine. It is the administrative center of Zhytomyr Oblast, as well as the administrative center of the surrounding Zhytomyr Raion; the city of Zhytomyr is not a part of Zhytomyr Raion: the city itself is designated as its own separate raion within the oblast. Zhytomyr occupies an area of 65 square kilometres, its population is 266,936. Zhytomyr is a major transportation hub; the city lies on a historic route linking the city of Kiev with the west through Brest. Today it links Warsaw with Kiev, Minsk with Izmail, several major cities of Ukraine. Zhytomyr was the location of Ozerne airbase, a key Cold War strategic aircraft base 11 kilometres southeast of the city. Important economic activities of Zhytomyr include lumber milling, food processing, granite quarrying and the manufacture of musical instruments. Zhytomyr Oblast is the main center of the Polish minority in Ukraine, in the city itself there is a Latin Catholic cathedral and large Roman Catholic Polish cemetery, founded in 1800.
It is regarded as the third biggest Polish cemetery outside Poland, after the Lychakivskiy Cemetery in Lviv and Rasos Cemetery in Vilnius. Legend holds that Zhytomyr was established about 884 by Zhytomyr, prince of a Slavic tribe of Drevlians; this date, 884, is cut in the large stone of the ice age times, standing on the hill where Zhytomyr was founded. Zhytomyr was one of the prominent cities of Kievan Rus'; the first records of the town date from 1240. In 1320 Zhytomyr was captured by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and received Magdeburg rights in 1444. After the Union of Lublin the city was incorporated into the Crown of the Polish Kingdom and in 1667, following the Treaty of Andrusovo, it became the capital of the Kiev Voivodeship. In the Second Partition of Poland in 1793 it passed to Imperial Russia and became the capital of the Volhynian Governorate. Following the Union of Lublin, Zhytomyr became an important center of local administration, seat of the starosta, capital of Żytomierz County.
Here, sejmiks of Kiev Voivodeship took place. In 1572, the town had a manor house of the starosta and a castle. Following the privilege of King Sigismund III Vasa, Zhytomyr had the right for two fairs a year; the town, which enjoyed royal protection of Polish kings, prospered until the Khmelnytsky Uprising, when it was captured by Zaporozhian Cossacks and their allies, Crimean Tatars. Its residents were murdered, Zhytomyr was burned to the ground, all government files were destroyed. In 1667, Zhytomyr became capital of Kiev Voivodeship, in 1724, a Jesuit school and monastery were opened here. By 1765, Zhytomyr had five churches, including 3 Roman Catholic and 2 Orthodox, 285 houses. In 1793 Zhytomyr was annexed by the Russian Empire, in 1804 was named capital of the Volhynian Governorate. In 1798, a Roman Catholic Diocese of Zhytomyr was established. During the January Uprising, the town was a stronghold of Polish rebels. During a brief period of Ukrainian independence in 1918 the city was for a few weeks the national capital.
Nicolas Werth claims that armed units of the Ukrainian People's Republic were responsible for rapes and massacres in Zhytomyr, in which 500–700 Jews lost their lives. From 1920 the city was under Soviet rule. Under Soviet rule a German National District was set up in the area for the German minority, according to Soviet minorities policy before World War II. During World War II Zhytomyr and the surrounding territory came for two and a half years under Nazi German occupation and was Heinrich Himmler's Ukrainian headquarters; the Nazi regime in what they called the "Zhytomyr General District" became what historian Wendy Lower describes asa laboratory for… Himmler's resettlement activists… the elimination of the Jews and German colonization of the East—transformed the landscape and devastated the population to an extent, not experienced in other parts of Nazi-occupied Europe besides Poland. … ltimately, the exigencies of the war effort and mounting partisan warfare behind the lines prevented Nazi leaders from developing and realizing their colonial aims in Ukraine… In addition to the immediate destruction of all Jewish communities, Himmler insisted that the Ukrainian civilian population be brought to a'minimum.'
From 1991, the city has been part of the independent Ukraine. Zhytomyr had been a Latin Catholic bishopric since 1321, until the see was suppressed in 1789 in favor of the Diocese of Lutsk and Zytomierz, until, split up again in 1925, when it was restored as the Roman Catholic Diocese of Zhytomyr; the Zhytomyr cemetery was opened in 1800. At first, it served Polish nobility such as the Czeczel and the Woronicz families. Other Catholics were buried here, including Germans and Russians. In 1840, the Chapel of St. Stanislaus was built, the cemetery was divided into nine districts, named after different saints. In the Soviet Union, the complex was devastated, now it is under th
Invasion of Poland
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign or the 1939 Defensive War, in Germany as the Poland Campaign, was an invasion of Poland by Germany that marked the beginning of World War II. The German invasion began on 1 September 1939, one week after the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact between Germany and the Soviet Union; the Soviets invaded Poland on 17 September following the Molotov–Tōgō agreement that terminated the Soviet and Japanese Battles of Khalkhin Gol in the east on 16 September. The campaign ended on 6 October with Germany and the Soviet Union dividing and annexing the whole of Poland under the terms of the German–Soviet Frontier Treaty. German forces invaded Poland from the north and west the morning after the Gleiwitz incident. Slovak military forces advanced alongside the Germans in northern Slovakia; as the Wehrmacht advanced, Polish forces withdrew from their forward bases of operation close to the Polish–German border to more established defense lines to the east.
After the mid-September Polish defeat in the Battle of the Bzura, the Germans gained an undisputed advantage. Polish forces withdrew to the southeast where they prepared for a long defence of the Romanian Bridgehead and awaited expected support and relief from France and the United Kingdom. While those two countries had pacts with Poland and had declared war on Germany on 3 September, in the end their aid to Poland was limited. On 17 September, the Soviet Red Army invaded Eastern Poland, the territory that fell into the Soviet "sphere of influence" according to the secret protocol of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. Facing a second front, the Polish government concluded the defence of the Romanian Bridgehead was no longer feasible and ordered an emergency evacuation of all troops to neutral Romania. On 6 October, following the Polish defeat at the Battle of Kock and Soviet forces gained full control over Poland; the success of the invasion marked the end of the Second Polish Republic, though Poland never formally surrendered.
On 8 October, after an initial period of military administration, Germany directly annexed western Poland and the former Free City of Danzig and placed the remaining block of territory under the administration of the newly established General Government. The Soviet Union incorporated its newly acquired areas into its constituent Belarusian and Ukrainian republics, started a campaign of Sovietization. In the aftermath of the invasion, a collective of underground resistance organizations formed the Polish Underground State within the territory of the former Polish state. Many of the military exiles that managed to escape Poland subsequently joined the Polish Armed Forces in the West, an armed force loyal to the Polish government-in-exile. On 30 January 1933, the National Socialist German Workers' Party, under its leader Adolf Hitler, came to power in Germany. While the Weimar Republic had long sought to annex territories belonging to Poland, it was Hitler's own idea and not a realization of Weimar plans to invade and partition Poland, annex Bohemia and Austria, create satellite or puppet states economically subordinate to Germany.
As part of this long-term policy, Hitler at first pursued a policy of rapprochement with Poland, trying to improve opinion in Germany, culminating in the German–Polish Non-Aggression Pact of 1934. Earlier, Hitler's foreign policy worked to weaken ties between Poland and France, attempted to manoeuvre Poland into the Anti-Comintern Pact, forming a cooperative front against the Soviet Union. Poland would be granted territory to its northeast in Ukraine and Belarus if it agreed to wage war against the Soviet Union, but the concessions the Poles were expected to make meant that their homeland would become dependent on Germany, functioning as little more than a client state; the Poles feared that their independence would be threatened altogether. How can they demand the rights of independent states?"The population of the Free City of Danzig was in favour of annexation by Germany, as were many of the ethnic German inhabitants of the Polish territory that separated the German exclave of East Prussia from the rest of the Reich.
The so-called Polish Corridor constituted land long disputed by Poland and Germany, inhabited by a Polish majority. The Corridor had become a part of Poland after the Treaty of Versailles. Many Germans wanted the urban port city of Danzig and its environs to be reincorporated into Germany. Danzig city had a German majority, had been separated from Germany after Versailles and made into the nominally independent Free City. Hitler sought to use this as casus belli, a reason for war, reverse the post-1918 territorial losses, on many occasions had appealed to German nationalism, promising to "liberate" the German minority still in the Corridor, as well as Danzig; the invasion was referred to by Germany as the 1939 Defensive War since Hitler proclaimed that Poland had attacked Germany and that "Germans in Poland are persecuted with a bloody terror and are driven from their homes. The series of border violations, which are unbearable to a great power, prove that the Poles no longer are willing to respect the German frontier."Poland participated with Germany in the partition of Czechoslovakia that followed the Munich Agreement, although they were not part of the agreement.
It coerced Czechoslovakia to surrender the region of Český Těšín by issuing an ultimatum to that effect
Hermann Balck was a decorated officer of the German Army who served in both World War I and World War II, rising to the rank of General der Panzertruppe. Balck was born in Danzig - Langfuhr, present-day Wrzeszcz in Poland, he was his wife Mathilde, née Jensen. His family had a long military tradition, his father was a senior officer in the Imperial German Army. On 10 April 1913 Balck entered the Hanoverian Rifle Battalion 10 in Goslar as a cadet. From 12 February 1914 he attended the Hanovarian Military College, where he remained until called up with the outbreak of the First World War in August. Balck served as a mountain infantry officer, his unit played a key role in the Schlieffen Plan, leading the crossing at Sedan, he fought on the western, eastern and Balkan fronts. He served three years as a company commander. At one point he led an extended patrol that operated independently behind Russian lines for several weeks. Over the course of the war he was awarded the Iron Cross First Class. Balck was nominated for Prussia's highest honor, the Pour le Mérite, in October 1918, but the war ended before his citation completed processing.
During the interwar period Balck was selected as one of the 4,000 officers to continue on in the military serving in the Reichswehr. He transferred to the 18th Cavalry Regiment in 1922, remained with that unit for 12 years. Balck twice turned down a post in the German General Staff, the normal path for advancing to high rank in the German army, preferring instead to remain a line officer. At the outbreak of World War II in 1939, Balck was serving in the Oberkommando des Heeres as a staff officer in the Inspectorate of Motorized Troops, in charge of refitting and reorganizing the growing panzer forces. In October he was placed in command of one of the mechanised regiments of the 1st Panzer Division, with which he served during the Battle of France; the 1st Panzer Division made up a part of Guderian's panzer corps. Balck's regiment spearheaded a crossing over the Meuse, established a bridgehead on the far side. During the winter of 1940 through the spring of 1941 he commanded a panzer regiment, led this unit during the Battle of Greece.
He commanded a panzer brigade in the same division. He returned to staff duties with the OKH in the Inspectorate of Armoured Forces in July 1941. In May 1942, Balck went to the Eastern Front in command of the 11th Panzer Division in Ukraine and southern Russia. Following the encirclement of the 6th Army at Stalingrad in the Soviet Operation Uranus, the German southern front faced a generalized collapse. Balck's division took part in the efforts to stop the Soviet advance. For this and other achievements Balck was made one of only twenty-seven officers in the entire war who received the Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves and Diamonds. Balck was given command of the Heer's elite unit, Großdeutschland Division which he led at Zhitomir in 1943. After a brief posting to Italy in which he commanded the XIV Panzer Corps, he returned to command the XLVIII Panzer Corps on the Eastern Front in December 1943, as well as the operations against the Soviet winter/spring offensive in western Ukraine in 1944. In July 1944 Balck commanded the Corps during the initial phase of the Soviet Lvov-Sandomierz Offensive.
He was involved in the failed relief attempt of the encircled XIII Army Corps in the Brody pocket, where it was destroyed. In August 1944 he assumed command of the 4th Panzer Army. In September 1944 Balck was transferred from 4th Panzer Army in Poland to the Western Front to command Army Group G in relief of General Johannes Blaskowitz in the Alsace region of France. Balck was unable to stop the Allied advance under General George S. Patton, in late December he was relieved of command of Army Group G and placed in the officer reserve pool. By the intervention of General Heinz Guderian he was transferred to command the reconstituted 6th Army in Hungary, which had operational control of two Hungarian armies. Balck's unit surrendered to the U. S. XX Corps in Austria on 8 May 1945. Balck was a POW and remained in captivity until 1947, he declined to participate in the US Army Historical Division's study on the war. After the war Balck found employment as a depot worker. In 1948 he was arrested for murder for the execution of artillery commander Lieutenant-Colonel Johann Schottke.
The incident in question occurred while Balck served as commander of Army Group G on the western front. On 28 November 1944 near Saarbrücken, Schottke's unit had failed to provide its supportive artillery fire upon its target area; when searched for he was found drunk on duty. Balck held a summary judgment, Schottke was executed by firing squad; the sentence and execution were conducted without the ordained military tribunal. Balck was sentenced to three years, he served half of this sentence before being granted early release. Hermann Balck was sentenced by a French military court in Colmar to 20 years of hard labour for his role in the scorched earth Operation Waldfest but never extradited. In the late 1970s and early 1980s Balck teamed with Friedrich von Mellenthin to participate in a number of seminars and panel discussions with senior NATO leaders at the US Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. According to the historian David T. Zabecki, Balck was considered a gifted commander of armored troops, exemplified by his handling of 11th Panzer Division and XLVIII Panzer Corps during 1942-43.
In reviewing Balck's command of the division during the Chir River crisis of December 1942, U. S. General William DePuy estimated Balck to have been "perhaps the best division commander in the German Army." A number of the battles
Fridolin von Senger und Etterlin
Fridolin von Senger und Etterlin was a general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II. Fridolin Rudolph von Senger und Etterlin was born on 4 September 1891, in Waldshut near the Swiss border. In 1912, he acquired fluency in French and English. World War I interrupted his education in August 1914, he was commissioned a lieutenant in the reserves. Senger remained in the postwar Reichswehr as a cavalry officer. Senger studied for two years at the Cavalry School in Hannover, spent four years with the cavalry inspectorate in Berlin, by 1938 was promoted Colonel. Senger took part in the Battle of France in 1940. In October 1942 he was given command of the 17th Panzer Division in Southern Russia. In June 1943, during the Battle of Sicily he was German Liaison Officer to the Italian 6th Army, commanded the German units on the island until 17 July 1943 when General Hans-Valentin Hube assumed control of all Axis troops on the island. In August 1943, Senger took command of the German forces on the islands of Corsica.
He conducted the evacuation. On 8 October 1943 he received the command of the XIV Panzer Corps in Italy. During the Battle of Monte Cassino, Senger fought at the Gustav Line; the German position was only broken by the Allies in May 1944. After the war he wrote his memoirs, entitled Neither Fear nor Hope, he continued to write on military matters and theory, he was invited to the Königswinter conferences by Lilo Milchsack. These annual conferences helped to heal the bad memories after the end of the Second World War. At the conference he worked with the politician Hans von Herwath, future German President Richard von Weizsäcker and other leading German decision makers as well as British politicians like Dennis Healey, Richard Crossman and the journalist Robin Day. In 1950, Senger was one of the authors of the Himmerod memorandum which addressed the issue of rearmament of the Federal Republic of Germany after World War II. Senger was introduced by B. H. Liddell Hart to the military historian Michael Howard.
Howard, who had fought in Italy during the war, recalls him saying, "May I give you a word of advice? Next time you invade Italy, do not start at the bottom." He was the father of Bundeswehr General and military author Ferdinand Maria von Senger und Etterlin. Von Senger und Etterlin, Fridolin. Neither fear nor hope: the wartime career of general Frido von Senger und Etterlin, defender of Cassino. Translated from the German by George Malcolm. London: Macdonald. German Cross in Gold on 11 October 1943 as Generalleutnant and commander of the German Wehrmacht on Corsica Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves Knight's Cross on 8 February 1943 as Generalmajor and commander of the 17. Panzer-Division Oak Leaves on 5 April 1944 as General der Panzertruppe and commanding general XIV. Panzerkorps
Panzer Corps Feldherrnhalle
The Panzerkorps Feldherrnhalle was a German panzer corps that fought on the Eastern Front during the Second World War. The Panzerkorps Feldherrnhalle was formed in 27 November 1944 by redesignating IV. Armeekorps, its corps units came from Storm Division Rhodos and Panzer-Grenadier-Brigade 17. The corps was first deployed in Hungary in February 1945; the Panzerkorps surrendered to the US Army at the end of the war, who handed them over to the Red Army. Battle of Debrecen, October 1944 60. Panzergrenadier-Division Feldherrnhalle Division Stab Füsilier-Regiment Feldherrnhalle Grenadier-Regiment Feldherrnhalle Panzer-Abteilung Feldherrnhalle Panzer-Aufklärungs-Abteilung Feldherrnhalle Artillerie Regiment Feldherrnhalle FlaK-Bataillon Feldherrnhalle Pionier-Bataillon Feldherrnhalle Nachrichten-Kompanie FeldherrnhalleBudapest, February 1945 Panzer-Division Feldherrnhalle 1 Division Stab Panzer-Regiment Feldherrnhalle Panzer-Battalion Panzergrenadier-Battalion schwere Panzer-Abteilung Feldherrnhalle Panzergrenadier-Regiment Feldherrnhalle Panzerjäger-Abteilung Feldherrnhalle Panzer-Aufklärungs-Abteilung Feldherrnhalle Pionier-Bataillon Feldherrnhalle Artillerie-Regiment Feldherrnhalle Nachrichten-Kompanie FeldherrnhalleOperation Spring Awakening, March 1945 Panzerkorps Feldherrnhalle Korps Stab Korps-Füsilier-Regiment Feldherrnhalle Schwere-Panzer-Abteilung Feldherrnhalle 404.
Artillerie-Regiment 404. Panzer-Pionier-Bataillon 44. Panzer-Nachrichten-Bataillon Panzer-Feldersatz-Regiment Feldherrnhalle Panzer-Division Feldherrnhalle 1 Panzer-Division Feldherrnhalle 2 Books Websites
Mius is a river in Eastern Europe that flows through Ukraine and Russia. Its total length is 258 kilometres; the headwaters of the Mius are in the Donets Mountains, a mountain range within Donetsk Oblast. It flows through Luhansk Oblast in eastern Ukraine; the river mouth of the Mius is on the Taganrog Bay coast of the Sea of Azov, west of the Russian city of Taganrog. In 1941, during the World War II, the German Nazi General Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist created a fortified defensive line known as the Mius-Front along the Mius river, it was an arena of fierce battles during the Rostov Defensive Operation in the 1941−1943 Battle of Rostov campaigns. During the 1943 Donbass Strategic Offensive Soviet troops broke through the Mius-Front near the village of Kuybyshevo. Drainage basins of the Sea of Azov
Lviv is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016. Lviv is one of the main cultural centres of Ukraine. Named in honour of Leo, the eldest son of Daniel, King of Ruthenia, it was the capital of the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia from 1272 to 1349, when it was conquered by King Casimir III the Great who became known as the King of Poland and Ruthenia. From 1434, it was the regional capital of the Ruthenian Voivodeship in the Kingdom of Poland. In 1772, after the First Partition of Poland, the city became the capital of the Habsburg Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. In 1918, for a short time, it was the capital of the West Ukrainian People's Republic. Between the wars, the city was the centre of the Lwów Voivodeship in the Second Polish Republic. After the German-Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939, Lviv became part of the Soviet Union, in 1944–46 there was a population exchange between Poland and Soviet Ukraine.
In 1991, it became part of the independent nation of Ukraine. Administratively, Lviv serves as the administrative centre of Lviv Oblast and has the status of city of oblast significance. Lviv was the centre of the historical regions of Red Galicia; the historical heart of the city, with its old buildings and cobblestone streets, survived Soviet and German occupations during World War II unscathed. The city has many industries and institutions of higher education such as Lviv University and Lviv Polytechnic. Lviv is the home of many cultural institutions, including a philharmonic orchestra and the Lviv Theatre of Opera and Ballet; the historic city centre is on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Besides its Ukrainian name, the city is known by several other names in different languages: Polish: Lwów. Lviv is located on the edge of the Roztochia Upland 70 kilometres from the Polish border and 160 kilometres from the eastern Carpathian Mountains; the average altitude of Lviv is 296 metres above sea level.
Its highest point is 409 meters above sea level. This castle has a commanding view of the historic city centre with its distinctive green-domed churches and intricate architecture; the old walled city was at the foothills of the High Castle on the banks of the River Poltva. In the 13th century, the river was used to transport goods. In the early 20th century, the Poltva was covered over in areas. Lviv's climate is humid continental with mild summers; the average temperatures are − 18.3 °C in July. The average annual rainfall is 745 mm with the maximum being in summer. Mean sunshine duration per year at Lviv is about 1,804 hours. Archaeologists have demonstrated; the area between the Castle Hill and the river Poltva was continuously settled since the 9th century. In 1977 it was discovered that the Orthodox church of St. Nicholas had been built on a functioning cemetery; the city of Lviv was founded by King Daniel of Galicia in the Principality of Halych of Kingdom of Rus` and named in honour of his son Lev as Lwihorod, consistent with name of other Ukrainian cities such as Myrhorod, Novhorod, Horodyshche and many others.
Lviv was invaded by the Tatars in 1261. Various sources relate the events which range from destruction of the castle through to a complete razing of the town. All the sources agree; the Shevchenko Scientific Society informs. The Galician-Volhynian chronicle states that in 1261 "Said Buronda to Vasylko:'Since you are at peace with me raze all your castles'". Basil Dmytryshyn states that the order was implied to be the fortifications as a whole "If you wish to have peace with me destroy your towns". According to the Universal-Lexicon der Gegenwart und Vergangenheit the town's founder was ordered to destroy the town himself. After King Daniel's death, King Lev rebuilt the town around the year 1270 at its present location, choosing Lviv as his residence, made Lviv the capital of Galicia-Volhynia; the city is first mentioned in the Halych-Volhynian Chronicle regarding the events that were dated 1256. The town grew due to an influx of Polish people from Kraków, after they had suffered a widespread famine there.
Around 1280 Armenians lived in Galicia and were based in Lviv where they had their own Archbishop. In the 13th and early 14th centuries, Lviv was a wooden city, except for its several stone churches; some of them, like the Church of Saint Nicholas, have survived to this day, although in a rebuilt form. The town was inherited by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1340 and ruled by voivode Dmytro Dedko, the favourite of the Lithuanian prince Lubart, until 1349. During the wars over the succession of Galicia-Volhynia Principality in 1339 King Casimir III of Poland undertook an expedition and conquered Lviv in 1340, burning down the old princely castle. Poland ultimate